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2TJ)e i&opl Historical anti arcfj&ologtcal Association 



Efje Ifcilfcernijj Srdjaeological Societg 








THE COUNCIL wish it to be distinctly understood that they do 
not hold themselves responsible for the statements and opinions 
contained in the Papers read at the Meetings of the Society, 
and here printed, except as far as No. 26 of the Greneral Rules 
of the Society extends. 


AS in many recent Volumes of the Society's Journal, 
most of the more important Papers published in 
1897 belong to the domain of Prehistoric Archaeology 
Mr. Coffey concludes the series of Papers in which he 
deduces the origin of the earliest designs in Irish 
Ornament from the East; by way of Scandinavia, at a 
period many centuries before our era (pp. 2852). He 
answers some objections to details of his argument at 
p. 248. Connected with this subject may be noted a 
recently found Inscribed-stone from Slieve-na-Caillighe 
(p. 427). 

Early Stone Weapons are ably dealt with in Mr. 
Knowles' Paper on " Survivals from the Palaeolithic 
Age among Irish Neolithic Implements," with which 
the Volume commences. 

A recently found Bronze Dagger, of exceptional 
interest from its retaining the original bone-handle, is 
shown at p. 423. A Bronze Pot, of unusual form, and 
very perfect, is figured on p. 437. 

Mr. Westropp's important survey of the strangely 
numerous Stone Forts of Northern Clare is completed 
(p. 116). A number of prehistoric fortified islands in 
lakes in Connemara are described by Mr. Layard 
(p. 373 J. In connexion with the June Excursion is 
a description of the prehistoric " City of Fahan " 


(page 300), which, though happily well studied by 
Du Noyer forty years ago, has attracted much less 
attention than it deserved, until it fell into the hands 
of those employed by the Superintendent of Ancient 
Monuments, with doubtful results for the value of the 
remains. At p. 316 is an account of the celebrated 
Staigue Fort. 

The kindred subject of Crannoges is well represented 
by a careful study, by Dr. D'Arcy, of one found at 
Killyvilla, near Clones (pp. 206 and 389). There is 
also a brief notice of a Crannoge found near Currin, 
Co. Tyrone (p. 254). Mr. Rotheram gives plan and 
elevation of a Souterrain (p. 428). 

Dr. Frazer's Papers on Gold Lunulce and other 
ornaments (pages 53 and 359) might naturally find a 
place here, did not the author's argument, that they 
have been formed from the gold of Roman coins, 
appear to remove them from the category of pre- 
historic objects. 

The subject of Ogham Inscriptions is represented 
by a report, by the Rev. E. Barry, on newly-found 
specimens in Co. Cork (p. 79); also by a contribution 
by Mr. Macalister (p. 223), in which he re- discusses 
the Kilkenny County Oghams, dissenting from some 
of the readings proposed by Father Barry in his learned 
Paper in a former Volume. 

The Papers on Ecclesiastical Antiquities are less 
numerous than usual. General Stubbs describes the 
church remains at Dromiskin (p. 101) ; Rev. S. Williams 
those of Durrow (p. 128); and Mr. Macnamara iden- 
tifies a forgotten Co. Clare church, Cill-mic-ui-Donain 
(p. 77). There is, however, no lack of descriptions of 
church remains in the accounts of the Society's Excur- 


sions, where there are notices or accounts of churches 
at Drogheda (p. 98) ; Scattery (p. 273); Canons' Island 
(p. 286) ; Kilmalkedar (p. 291) ; Gallerus (p. 298) ; 
Skellig (p. 307); Cloyne (p. 334); Lismore (p. 356); 
Finglas (p. 452); St. Doulough's (p. 457). 

Many Castles, too, are noticed in connexion with 
tiie Excursions, particularly : Rathbarry, Monkstown, 
Co. Cork ; Reginald's Tower, Waterford ; and Lismore 
Castle (pp. 324-349) ; Dunsoghly, Robs wall, and Mala- 
hide (pp. 448-456). 

In the province of Folk-lore, Mr. Macalister notes 
a Kerry legend of Siobhan-na-Geela (p. 177). Mr. 
Westropp sounds a warning note against the danger of 
false or newly-born legends, borrowed from modern 
sources, or coined for tourist use (p. 253) a warning 
which may well be a call to preserve what yet remains 
pure among the Folk-tales rapidly dying, or becoming 

Among Historical subjects, Miss Hickson traces the 
origin of the noble family of Fitzmaurice. The Very 
Rev. J. Fahey narrates the circumstances attending 
the migration of the O'Flahertys to lar-Connacht in 
the thirteenth century. 

Dr. Stokes has supplied an important contribution 
to Irish mediaeval history in the completion of his 
Synopsis of the " Black Book of Archbishop Alan" 
(pp. 164 and 404). 

Recent finds of Coins are reported on pages 80 
and 432. 

Mr. Knowles illustrates (p. 114) an interesting find 
of part of an ancient Harp obtained in connexion with 

crannoge remains. 

Mr. Kinahan (p. 184) offers suggestions as to the 


supposed u Otter-traps" of which so remarkable a find 
was recorded in the Volume for last year. 

Mr. Kelly describes the Islands of Lough Corrib. 

Colonel Vigors supplies a resume of the discussion 
carried on in reference to the similar inscriptions at 
Carew Castle, in South Wales, and at Fethard Castle 
and Baginbun, in Co. Wexford. Mr. Macalister and 
Miss Hickson (pp. 246247) add notes on points which 
arise in this connexion. 

Accounts of the Summer Excursions of the Society 
occupy a considerable part of the Volume. The Sea- 
trip in June included some of the most interesting 
places on the west and south coasts of Ireland (pp. 267- 
358). The places in the North County Dublin, visited 
in September, are described at pp. 445 seq. 

The section " Miscellanea " records several finds of 
interest, some of which are noticed above. Much room 
still remains for increasing the value of the Journal by 
a more, general practice of reporting new discoveries. 
At page 82 is printed a Circular to Local Secretaries, 
urging the importance of this course. When the 
recommendations of the Circular are fully carried out, 
the Volumes of the Journal will include, not only narra- 
tives of many minor antiquarian investigations, but a 
full record of the discoveries made during the year, 
and a lasting repository of those scraps of Tradition 
and Folk-lore which the conditions of modern life are 
rapidly leaving behind in a forgotten past. 







Survivals from the Palaeolithic Age among Irish Neolithic Implements. By 

W. J. Knowles, M.R.I.A., Vice- President (Illustrated), . . . . 1 

The Flight of the O'Flahertys, Lords of Moy Soela, to lar-Connaught. By the 

Very Rev. J. Fahey, P.P., V.G., Local Secretary, South Galway, .. 19 

Origins of Prehistoric Ornament in Ireland. By George CofFey, A.I.B., 

M. R.I. A., Fellow (Twenty-two Illustrations), .. .. ..28 

On Gold Lunulae, with "Descriptions of those contained in the Royal Irish 
Academy's Museum, and other Collections ; and on the Source of the 
Gold employed to make Irish Gold Ornaments. By William Frazer, 
F.R.C. S.I. , Vice- President (Four Illustrations), .. .. ..53 

Notices of Books, . . . . . . . . . , . . 67 

Miscellanea Monument at Clonkeen, Co. Galway Proposed Destruction of 
Kilmallock Castle Inismurray Notes on the Irish Monasticons Principal 
Gateway, Merrion- square Marhle Box Monumental Inscriptions from 
the Cathedral, Jamaica Old Latin Poem Identification of " The As- 
cetic's Church," Leana, Co. Clare (Two Illustrations) Ogham Inscription 
in Co. Cork Recent Find of Early Silver Coins, Co. Mayo Irish Church 
Plate The Finner Cairn Archaeology in Limerick, .. .. .. 71 


Annual General Meeting, Duhlin, 12th January, 1897, .. .. ..84 

Report of Council for 1896, . . . . . . . . . . 86 

Evening Meeting, . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 

Excursion to Drogheda, . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 





Early Monastic History of Dromiskin, in the County of Louth. By Major- 

General Francis William Stubbs, Fellow (Map and Five Illustrations), . . 101 

Portion of a Harp and other Objects found in the Crannoge of Carncroagh, Co. 

Antrim. By W. J. Knowles, M.R.I. A., Fellow (Three Illustrations), .. 114 

Prehistoric Stone Forts of Northern Clare. By Thomas J. Westropp, M.A., 

M.B.I. A., Fellow (Ten Illustrations), .. .. .. ..116 

The Old Graveyards in Durrow Parish. By Rev. Sterling de Courcy Williams, 

M.A. (Ten Illustrations), .. .. .. .. .. ..128 

Notes on Three Inscribed-stones. (1) At Baginbun Bay, Co. Wexford. (2) At 
Fethard Castle, Co. Wexford. (3) At Carew Castle, Pembrokeshire. By 
Colonel Philip D. Vigors (Five Illustrations), .. .. ..150 

Calendar of the " Liber Niger Alani." By the Rev. G. T. Stokes, D.D., 

M.R.I. A. Part II., .. .. 164 

Miscellanea Siobhan na " Geela" Cup-and-Rtng Sculptured Stones from the 
County Donegal Primitive Burial at Rylane, Co. Clare The Stolen 
Fountain and Rutland Monument of Merrion-square, Dublin The Foun- 
tain at Merrion- square Prussia- street, Dublin Mr. Samuel Guilbride 
Wooden Vessel found at "Doon," near Athlone The Duke of Tetuan 
Kenagh (Co. Longford) Old Church The Currans Ogham Ancient Otter- 
traps Inscribed Pillar-stones, Co. Mayo (Two Illustrations) Holed 
Stones found in France "The Kilkenny Museum" Celtic Crosses- 
Prehistoric Burial, Co. Wicklow Cams in Co. Tyrone" Spanish Armada 
Chests" Interesting Find in Moyntaghs, Co. Armagh An Old School in 
Galway St. Patrick's Bells Milk Adulteration An Irish Easter Legend, 177 

Notices of Books, 195 


Second General Meeting, Kilkenny, 19th April, 1897, .. .. ..198 

Auditors' Report for 1896, .. .. .. .. i .. .,200 

Evening Meeting, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 

Excursion to Kells, Co. Kilkenny, . . . . . . . . 204 





A Crannoge near Clones. By Dr. S. A. D'Arcy (Two Illustrations), . . 205 

Notes on some of the Kilkenny Oghams. By R. A. S. Macalister, M.A., . . 221 

Ardfert Friary and the Fitzmaurices, Lords of Kerry (concluded}. By Miss 

Hickson, Hon.. Local Secretary, Kerry, . . . . . . . . 232 

Miscellanea Observations on the History of Holed Stones in France and 
Ireland Monumental Inscriptions in Jamaica High Cross, Downpatrick 
The Baginbun Stone The Dolmens of Ireland Note on the Derivation 
of the New Grange Spirals Battle of Dysert O'Dea Gurrin Crannoge 
Baginbun Inscribed-stone Kilkenny Museum, Shee's Alms House, . . 243 

Notices of Books, . . 256 


Third General Meeting, Lismore,; 12th June, 1897, . . . . . . 261 

Account of Summer Excursion (Four Illustrations), . . . . . . 265 

Description of places visited : 

Clare Coast, Scattery and Canons' Island (Six Illustrations), . . . . 273 

Kerry Coast, Kilmalkedar, Gallerus, and Fahan (Ten Illustrations), . . 290 

Skellig Michael (Six Illustrations), . .... .. .. ..307 

Staigue Fort (Two Illustrations) .. .. .. .. ..316 

Co. Cork Coast, .. .. .. .. .. .. ..318 

Cork Harbour (Three Illustrations), . . . . . . . . 321 

Cloyne (Four Illustrations), . . . . . . . . . . 334 

Waterford Coast (Two Illustrations), .. .. .. ..343 

Lismore (Five Illustrations), . . . . . . . . . . 349 





On Irish Gold Ornaments Whence came the Gold and When ? Article No. 2. 

By William Frazer, F.R.C.S.L, Vice -President (Two Illustrations), .. 359 

The Rangers of the Curragh of Kildare. By Lord Walter Fitz Gerald, Fellow, 

Vice- President, . . .. .. .. .. .. ..371 

Fortified Stone Lake-Dwellings on Islands in Lough Skannive, Connemara. 

Communicated hy Edgar L. Layard, C. M. G. (Three Illustrations), . . 373 

The Islands of the Corrih. By Richard J. Kelly, B.L., Hon. Secretarij for 

North Galway, .. ".. ... .. .. .. .. 379 

A Crannoge near Clones (Part II.). By Dr. S. A. D'Arcy (Two Illustrations), 389 

Calendar of the " Liber .Niger Alani." Part III. By the Rev. G. T. Stokes, 

D.D., M.R.I.A., .. .. .. .. .. ..404 

Miscellanea Bronze Dagger, with Original Handle, found near Castleisland, 
Co. Kerry (One Plate) Ironstone Chopper ,(0ne Illustration) Find of 
Scrapers Slieve-na-Caillighe (Two Illustrations) On a Cave recently 
discovered near Oldcastle (Two Illustrations) Irish Harvestmen in 
England The Fountain in Merrion- square Note on the Dolmen at 
Ballina, in the County of Mayo Canoe Find, Co. Cork Canoe Find, 
Co. Roscommon Colpoys of Ballycarr Find of Coins in Co. Longford 
Prioiy, Kilcolman, Co. Kerry The Rocking-stone, Dalkey Island The 
Abbey of Shrule, Co. Longford A Refutation Fethard Castle, in Wex- 
ford Interesting " Find" in the Montiaghs, Co. Armagh (One Illustration) 
Stone Crannog in Lough Bola, . . . . . . . . . . 423 

Notices of Books, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 


Fourth Quarterly Meeting, Dublin, 28th September, 1897, . . . . 443 

Excursions in connexion with September Meeting, . . . . . . 445 

Descriptive Sketch of places visited : 

Finglas Wood (Two Illustrations), . . . . . . . . , . 446 

Mulhuddart, ...... . . 447 

Dunsoghly (Two Illustrations), . . . . . . . . 448 

Finglas (One Illustration), . . . . . . . . . . 451 

Kilbarrack, .. .. .. // t> , t mm 455 

Malahide (One Illustration), . . . . . . . . . . 456 

St. Doulough's (Two Illustrations), . . . . . . . . 458 

Evening Meetings, . . . . 460 


An asterisk prefixed indicates a Plate. 

" Survivals from Palaeolithic Age among Irish Neolithic Implements" : 


1- 6. Irish Neolithic Implements compared with those of Palaeolithic Age 

(Scale, one-half linear), .. .. .. .. 3 

714. Irish Neolithic Implements of Moustier type (Scale, half linear), . . 5 

15-25. ..7 

26-32. ,, ,, Solutrien ..9 

33-40. ,, (Scale, f linear), .. 11 

41-49. Arrow-heads from Co. Antrim, ,, ,, .. 13 

50. Irish Spear-head, partly polished (full size), . . . . . . 15 

" Origins of Prehistoric Ornament" : 


87. Stone on King's Mountain, Meath, . . . . . . 34 

88. Scribings from Mevagh, Donegal, . . . . . . 36 

89 90. Inscribed-stone near Loughcrew, .. .. .. 38,39 

91- 93. Examples of Double Spirals, .. .. .. ..41 

94. Map showing Distribution of the Spiral Ornament in Great Britain 

and Ireland, . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 

95. Details of Carvings from Sweden, . . . . . . 46 

96. ,, Fiinen, .. .. .. . . ib. 

97-101. .. ..48 

102-105. Ornamented Celts, . . . . . . . . . . ib. 

106. Sun Symbols, .. .. .. .. .. ..49 

107,108. Loughcrew, .. .. .. ..50 

Portion of Gold Lunula belonging to Sir M. Chapman, . . . . . . 54 

Gold Lunula, Royal Irish Academy Collection, . . . . . . 55 

Denarii of Julia Mammsea and Marcia Otacilia Severa, . . . . . . ib. 

Facsimile of Monumental Inscription of Bishop Edmond Kelly, . . . . 71 

Jamb of Door, Church of Cill-mic-Ui-Donain, .. .. .. ..78 

Double Bullaun, ,, ,, .. .. .. ..79 

St. Mary's Church and Millmount, Drogheda, .. .. .. ..99 

St. Mochta's Oratory at Louth, .. .. .. .. ..104 



Map of Parish of Dromiskin and places adjoining, . . . . ... 106 

Round Tower, Dromiskin, Co. Louth, . . . . . , . . . . 107 

Doorway, .. .. ..108 

Cross at Dromiskin, Front and Back Views, . . . . . . . . 109 

Portion of Harp found in Crannoge of Carncoagh, . . . . L14 

Handle of Spear, with Bronze Butt, *.,'' : .. .. .. .. 115 

" Prehistoric Stone Forts of Northern Clare " : 

1. Plan of Noughaval and Ballyganner, .. .. .. ..116 

2. Cahercuttine, .. .. .. .. .. ..117 

3. ,, Plan of Entrance, .. .. .. .. ib. 

4. Steps and Gate, .. .. .. .. ..118 

5. Plans of Forts near Noughaval, .. .. .. .. ..119 

6. Caheraneden, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 120 

7. Plans of Cahermacnaughten, Ballykinvarga, &c., . . . . . . 122 

8. Ballykinvarga Caher, .. .. .. .. .. ..123 

91 ,',' ,Y Gateway, .. .. .. .. ..124 

10. Pillar-stone and chewux-de-frise, .. .. ..125 

" Old Graveyard of Durrow Parish " : 


1. Cross at Tihilly, .. .. .. .. .. ..131 

2- ,, .. .. .. .. .. ..132 

2. Tombstones at Tihilly, . . . . . . . . ib. 

3. Cross on gable, Durrow Church, . . . . . . . . 134 

4. De Renci Arms, .. .. .. .. .. .. 137 

5. Tombstone, Durrow Church, . . . . . . . . 138 

6. Aigide's Tombstone, . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 

7. Cathalan's . ; .. .. .. .. ..141 

8-9. High Cross of Durrow and Details, .. .. .. 144-5 

10. Interlaced Work, .. .. .. .. .. ..146 

Baginbun Inscription, .. .. .. .. .. ..151 

,, Inscribed-stone, .. .. .. .. .. .. 154 

Fethard Castle Inscription, .. .. .. .. , . ..156 

from Drawing by Du Noyer, .. .. .. 158 

Carew Castle Inscription, .. .. .. .. .. ..161 

Inscribed Pillar-stones, Co. Mayo, .. ;; .. .. ..186 

Plan of Killy villa Crannoge, near Clones, . . . . . . . . 207 

Objects found in Killyvilla Crannoge, near Clones, . . . . . . 214 

Shaft of Killeany Cross, Aranmore Island, Co. Galway, . . . . 267 

Crosses and Windows, Skellig Rock, Co. Kerry : 
1, 2. Crosses at Larger Oratory, 

3. High Cross near do.' 

4. East Window of Smaller Oratory, 

6 - ,, St. Michael's Church,; 

Plan of Souterrain, Cluttahina, Co. Waterford, .. .. ..271 



Lismore Fort, Co. Waterford (Plan), . . . . 272 

Plan of Hums, Scattery Island, Co. Clare, . . . . . . . . 277 

Silver Brooches, .. .. .. ..281 

Bound Tower, Oratory, and Cathedral, Scattery Island, Co. Clare, . . 283 
Tombstone near. Temple Senan (Celtic), op bo TTloenach, &c., Scattery 

Island, Co. Clare, .. .. .. .. .. .,285 

Plan of Canons' Jsland Abbey, Co. Clare, .. .. .. .. 287 

Canons' Island Abbey from North, . . . . . . . . . . 288 

Arcade Column, Kilmalkedar, Co. Kerry, . . . . . . . . 292 

Chancel Arch aj\d Plan, ,, .. .. .. ..293 

Arcade and Window, ,, ,, .. . . .. .. 295 

Alphabet Stone, ,, .. .. .. ..296 

Oratory, Gallerus, Co. Kerry, . . . . . . 298, 299 

General Plan of Forts, Fahan, Co. Kerry, .. .. .. ..301 

Plans of Forts at Fahan and Ballyheabought, Co. Kerry, . . . . 303 

Plans of Cloghauns, Fahan, . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 

St. Michael's Church and Monastic Cells, Skellig Rock, Co. Kerry, . . 307 

Plan, Skellig Rock, Co. Kerry, ,, ,, .. ..310 

The Smaller and Greater Oratories, ,, ,, .. .. 312 

General View of Monastic Cells from East, Skellig Rock (by T. J. Westropp), 314 

Gateway, Staigue Fort, Co. Kerry, .. .. .. .. .. 315 

General View ,, ,, .. ., .. .. ..316 

Rathbarry Castle, Co. Cork (Four Views), .. .. .. ..324 

Monkstown Castle, Co. Cork, . . . . . . . . . . 330 

Old Lighthouse, Kinsale (taken down in 1848), . . . . . . . . 333 

Plan of Cathedral, Cloyne, Co. Cork (after A. Hill), . . . . . . 336 

Cathedral and Round Tower from N.E., Cloyne, Co. Cork, . . . . 337 

Round Tower from Street, Cloyne, Co. Cork (by W. F. Wakeman), . . 340 

,, Details of Door and Windows, ,, ,, .. .. 342 

Dunbrody Abbey, Co. Wexford, from S.E., .. .. .. ..3-16 

Reginald's Tower, Waterford, . . . . . . . . . . 347 

Lismore Castle and Bridge, Co. Waterford, .. .. .. .. 349 

,, the Gateway, .. .. .. .. .. 352 

the Banqueting Hall, . . . . . . . . . . 353 

Plan, .. .. .. .. .. ..354 

Lismore Cathedral, Tombstones (Celtic), .. .. .. .. 357 

Gold Rings, .. .. .. .. .. .. ..362 

Ornamental Penannular Ring of Gold, . . . . . . . . 366 

Lake-Dwellings, Lough Skannive, . . . . . . . . . . 374 


, 376 

Crannoge of Killyvilla, near Clones : 

Fragments of Pottery found, .. .. . .. .. 391 


*Bronze Daggers, with Original Handles, .. .. .. to face 423 



Chopper made from Fragment of Polished Celt, . . . . . . ... 425 

Chopper and Disc from Slieve-na-Caillighe, .. .. .. .. 426 

Inscribed-stone from Slieve-na-Caillighe, .. .. ,""* 4 4>27 

Cave near Oldcastle, Plan, .. ..' .. .. .. ..428 

,, Vertical Section, .. .. .. .. ..429 

Bronze Pot found in the Montiaghs, Co. Armagh, . . . . . . 437 

Finglas Wood House, Doorway, .. .. .. . . .. 447 

,, Plan of Entrance, .. .. .. ib. 

Dunsoghly Castle, Co. Dublin, .. .. .. .. ..449 

St. Margaret's Church, Dunsoghly, .. .. .. .. ..450 

Finglas, Church of St. Canice, . . . . . . . . . . 453 

Malahide Castle, .. .. .. .. .. .. ..457 

St. Doulough's Church, . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 

Well, .. .. 459 


Pages 3, 5, 7, and 9, in description of Plates I., II., III., and IV., for " one-fourth 
size/' read " half linear." 

Pages 11 and 13, in Plates V. and VI., for "two-fifths natural size," read "three- 
fourths linear." 

Page 15, for " one-fourth size," under figure 50, read " natural size." 

Page 192, for " Trellan's Dublin Journal," fourth line from foot, read "Faulkner's 
Dublin Journal" 










THIS Society, instituted to preserve, examine, and illustrate all 
Ancient Monuments of the History, Language, Arts, Manners, and 
Customs of the past, as connected with Ireland, was founded as 
Queen, on December 27th, 1869, was graciously pleased to order 
CIATION OF IRELAND, and was further pleased to sanction the adoption 
25th March, 1890. 

The Society holds four General Meetings in each year, in Dublin 
and in the several Provinces of Ireland, when Papers on Historical 
and Archaeological subjects are read, Fellows and Members elected, 
Objects of Antiquity exhibited, and Excursions made to places of 
Antiquarian interest. The Council meets monthly, except in August, 
at 7, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin. Evening Meetings of the Society 
are also held monthly in Dublin during the Winter. Honorary 
Provincial and Local Secretaries are appointed, whose duty it is to 
inform the Hon. Secretary of all Antiquarian Eemains discovered in 
their Districts, to investigate Local History and Traditions, and to 
give notice of all injury likely to be inflicted on Monuments of 
Antiquity, and Ancient Memorials of the Dead, in order that the 
influence of the Society may be exerted to preserve them. 

The PUBLICATIONS of the Society comprise the Journal and the 
" Extra Volume " Series. The "Antiquarian Handbook" Series was 
commenced in 1895. 

The Journal, now issued Quarterly, from the year 1849 to 1897, 
inclusive, forming twenty-seven Volumes (royal 8vo), with more than 
2000 Illustrations, contains a great mass of information on the 
History and Antiquities of Ireland. 

( 3 .) 

The following Volumes are now out of print: First Series, Vols. I. 
(1849-51) and III. (1854-55); New Series, Vols. I. (1856-57) and 
III. (1860-61) ; Fourth Series, Vols. IV. (1876-78), VIII. (1887-88), 
and IX. (1889). Of the remaining Volumes, those for 1870-1885 
can be supplied to Members at the average rate of 10s. each. Odd 
Parts, including some for the Volumes out of print, can be supplied 
at an average of 2s. Qd. each. Part I. of the Fifth Series (1890) is 
out of print ; the other Parts of this, the present Series, can be had 
for 3s. each. 

The Extra Volumes are supplied to all Fellows, on the roll at date 
of issue, free, and may be obtained by Members, at the prices fixed 
by the Council. 

The Extra Volume Series consists of the following Works : 

1853. " Vita S. Kannechi, a codice in bibliotheca Burgundiana extante Bruxellis 
transcripta, et cum codice in bibliotheca Marsiana Dublinii adservato collata." Edited 
by the Most Hon. John, second Mai-quis of Ormonde. 100 copies presented by him 
to the Members of the Society. (Out of print.} 

1855 and 1858. Parts I. and II. of " Social State of S.E. Counties" as below. 

1865-7. " Observations in a Voyage through the Kingdom of Ireland: being a 
collection of several Monuments, Inscriptions, Draughts of Towns, Castles, &c. By 
Thomas Dineley (or Dingley), Gent., in the Year 1681." From the original MS. in 
the possession of Sir T. E. Winnington, Bart., Stanford Court. Profusely illustrated 
by fac-simile engravings of the original drawings of Castles, Churches, Abbeys, 
Monuments, &c. Price of issue, 1 10s. (Out of print.) 

1868-9." Social State of the Southern and Eastern Counties of Ireland in the 
Sixteenth Century : being the Presentments of the Gentlemen, Commonalty, and 
Citizens of Carlow, Cork, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Waterford, and Wexford, made in the 
Reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth." From the originals in the Public Record 
Office, London. Edited by Herbert F. Hore and Rev. James Graves, M.R.I. A. Price 
of issue, 1. (Part I. out of print.) A few copies of Parts II. and III. still in stock. 
Reduced price to Members, 3s. each Part. 

18707. "Christian Inscriptions in the Iiish Language." From the earliest 
known to the end of the twelfth century. Chiefly collected and drawn by George 
Petrie, Esq. With Topographical, Historical, and Descriptive Letterpress. Illus- 
trated by 107 plates and numerous woodcuts. Edited, with an Introductory Essay, by 
M. Stokes ; revised by the Rev. "William Reeves, D.D. 7 Parts in 2 Vols. Price of 
issue, 3. (Out of print) except Part IV., containing 13 Illustrations and 23 Plates. 
Reduced price to Members, 5s. 

1888-9. " Rude Stone Monuments of the County Sligo and the Island of Achill." 
With 209 Illustrations. By Colonel Wood-Martin. Reduced price to Members, 7s. Qd. 

1890-1. "Account Roll of the Priory of the Holy Trinity, Dublin, 1337-46, 
with the Middle English Moral Play, The Pride of Life." From the original in the 
Christ Church Collection in the Public Record Office, Dublin. With fac-simile of 
the MS. Edited, with Translation, Notes, and Introduction, by James Mills, M.R.I. A. 
Reduced price to Members, 7s. 6d. 

1892. " Survey of the Antiquarian Remains on the Island of Inismurray." By 
W. F. Wakeman, Hon. Fellow of the Society; Author of "A Handbook of Irish 
Antiquities," &c. With a Preface by James Mills, M.K.I.A. 84 Illustrations. Price 
7s. 6d. 

18935. " The Annals of Clonmacnoise" : being Annals of Ireland from the ear- 
liest period to A.D. 1408, translated into English A.D. 1627, by Connell Mageoghagan, 
and now for the first time printed. Edited by the Rev. Denis Murphy, s.j., LL.D., 
M.R.I. A., Vice-President of the Society. Price 10s. 

1896-7. "The Register of the Diocese of Dublin in the times of Archbishops Tre 
gury and Walton, 1467-1483." Edited by Henry F. Berry, M.A. (In the Press.) 10s. 

( 4 ) 

The following are in course of preparation as Extra Volumes : 

"The Journal and Accounts of Peter Lewys, 1564, Proctor of Christ Church 
Cathedral, A.D. 1564." Edited by James Mills, M.R.I. A. 

"A Collection of Original Irish Music." By P. W. Joyce, LL.D., M.R.I. A. 

The foregoing may be had from the Publishers, Messrs. HODGES, 
FIGGIS, & Co. (Ltd.), 104, Grafton-street, Dublin, or Messrs. WILLIAMS 
& NOBGATE, London and Edinburgh, including the "Antiquarian 
Handbook Series," of which No. 1, " Tara and Glendalough," price 
6d., has been issued ; and No. 2, "The Western Islands" (Illustrated). 

All who are interested in antiquarian research are invited to join 
the Society; and may notify their intentions either to the Hon. 
Secretary, 7, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin, to the Hon. Provincial and 
Local Secretaries, or any Member of the Society. 

Subscriptions to be paid to the Honorary General Secretary and 
Treasurer, 7, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin, by Crossed Cheque or 
Postal Order. 

Annual Subscription of Fellows, . .100 

Entrance Fee of Fellows, . . . /- 2 

Annual Subscription of Members, , . .* 10 

Entrance Fee of Members, . . 10 
Life Composition Fellows, including 

Entrance Fee, . ... 14 

Life Composition Fellows of Ten 

years' standing, . . , V, . 8 
Life Composition Members, including 

Entrance Fee, . ... . 700 
Life Composition Members of Ten 

years' standing, .. -/ . , , . 500 

FELLOWS wishing to designate their connexion with the Society 
may use the initials F.R. S.A.I. 

(By order of Council), 

31st December, 1897. 


Hon. Gen. Secretary and Treasurer. 





f ainw in CJief* 







fmcrmg fmitet f0* 1897* 

ittsitetti, 1897-4899, 



















WILLIAM FRAZER, F.R.C.S.I., M.R.I.A., Hon. F.S.A. (Scot.). 

( 6 ) 

JKW. taeral Stetarg aidr 
















j|0+ famxttw auto Jiteriaw, SwWm. 









THOMAS J. WESTROPP, M.A., M.R.I.A., Dublin. 


THE REV. H. W. LETT, M.A., M.R.I.A., Loughbrickland. 


P. J. LYNCH, C.E., M.R.I.A. I., Architect, Limerick. 
THE REV. CANON C. MOORE, M.A., Mitchelstown. 


RBV. C. LAWRENCE, M.A., Lawrencetown, Co. Galway. 
EDWARD MARTYN, D.L., Tillyra Castle, Ardrahan. 

Antrim, Middle, 


,, South, 



Belfast, City, 



Clare, South, 


Cork, South, 

,, North, 

,, East, 


,, City, 


Down, North, 

,, South, 

Dublin, South, 




Galway, North, 


,, Town, 

Kerry, South, .. 

,, North, . . 

Kildare, South, . . 

,, North, . . 


,, City, .. 
King's County, . . 

Limerick, East, . . 
West, .. 
City, .. 
Londonderry, North, 
,, South; 


Mayo, South, 
,, North, 
Meath, South, . . 
North, . . 
Monaghan, , , 

Queen's Co., 

Tipper ary, South, 
, , North, 

Tyrone, West, .. 
East, . . 

IFaterford, East, 

City, . . 

Westmeath, North, 
,, South, 

Wexford, North, 
, , South, 

Wicklow, South, . . 
,, North,.. 






R. M. YOUNG, J.P., B.A., M.R.I.A. 








W. H. HILL, F.R.I. B.A. 




W. F. WAKEMAN (Hon. Fellow}. 

WILLIAM C. STUBBS } M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 



RICHARD J. KELLY, Barrister-at-Law, J.P. 







M. M. MURPHY, M.R.I.A., Solicitor. 

P. M. EGAN, J.P. 


H. J. B. CLEMENTS, J.P., D.L. 







J. M. WILSON, M.A., J.P. 

J. R. GARSTIN, M.A., F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 

W. E. KELLY, C.E., J.P. 


J. H. MOORE, M.A., M.INST. C.E.I. 


D. CAROLAN RUSHE, B.A., Solicitor. 
B. P. J. MAHONY, M.R.C.V.S. 

GEORGE A. P. KELLY, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 






DR. G. E. J. GREENE, M.R.I.A., F.L.S., J.P. 





31st December, 1897.) 

The Names of those who have paid the Life Composition, and are Life Fellows, are 
printed in heavy-faced type. (See Rules 3 and 7, page 40.) 

























Ahercorn, His Grace the Duke of, M.A. (Oxon.), K.G., C.B. 

Earonscourt, Newtownstewart. (Honorary President, 1896.) 
Agnew, Hon. Sir James Wilson, K.C.M.G. Hobart, Tasmania. 
Allen, J. Eomilly, F.S.A. 28, Great Ormond-street, London, 

ARMSTRONG, Robert Bruce, F.S.A. (Scot.), 6, Randolph Cliff, 


Bagnall-Oakeley, Rev. William, M.A. (Oxon.). Newland, Cole- 
ford, Gloucestershire. 
BARTER, Rev. John Berkeley, M.R.I. A., F. R. G.S.I., 

F.R.Z.S.I. 23, Corso Oporto, Turin, Italy. 
Barry, Rev. Edmond, P.P., M.R.I.A. Rathcormac, Co. 


Beattie, Rev. A. Hamilton. Portglenone, Co. Antrim. 
Bigger, Francis Joseph, M.R.I.A. Ardrie, Belfast. 
Browne, Most Rev. James, D.D., Bishop of Ferns. St. Peter's 

College, Wexford. 

Browne, John Blair. Brownstown House, Kilkenny. 
Browne, William James, M.A. (Lond.), M.R.I.A., Inspector of 

Schools. 5, Crawford-square, Londonderry. 
Brownrigg, Most Rev. Abraham, D.D., Bishop of Ossory. 

St. Kieran's, Kilkenny. (Vice-President, 1896.) 
Buiek, Rev. Geo. Raphael, M.A., LL.D., M.R.I.A. The 

Manse, CuUyhackey. (Vice President, 1892-98.) 
BURTCHAELL, Geo. Dames, M.A., LL.B. (Dubl.), M.R.I.A., 

Barrister-at-Law. 7, St. Stephen' s-green, Dublin. 

Carlingford, Right Hon. Lord, K.P., M.R.I.A., peril. C. Tisdnll, 
J.P. Ravensdale, Co. Louth. (Vice-president, 1888- 

Castletown, Right Hon. Lord, J.P., D.L. Grantston Manor, 
Abbeyleix. (Vice-President, 1885-89.) 

Cane, Major R. Claude, J.P. St. Wolstan's, Celbridge. 

Clark, Stewart, J.P. Kilnside, Paisley. 

Clarke, William Usher, Bridge House, Teddington, Middlesex. 

CLOSE, Rev. Maxwell H., M.A.', M.R.I.A., F.G.S. 38, Lower 
Baggot-strect, Dublin. 

Cochrane, Sir Henry, J.P., D.L. Nassau-place, Dublin. 

COCHRANE, Robert, F.S.A., F.R.I. B.A., M.R.I.A., Fellow 
Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord. 17, Highneld- 
road, Dublin. (Hon, Gen. Secretary, 1888.) 































Coffey, George, B.A.I., M.R.I.A., Barrister-at-Law. 5, Har- 

court-terrace, Dublin. 

Colles, Ramsay, M.R.I.A., J.P. 1, Wilton-terrace, Dublin. 
COLLES, Richard, B.A., J.P. Millmount, Kilkenny. 
Colvill, Robert Frederick Stewart, J. P. Killester Abbey, 


Cooke, John, M.A. 66, Morehampton-road, Dublin. 
Cooper, Lieut. -Colonel Edward Henry, M.R.I.A., H.M.L., 

Co. Sligo. Markree Castle, Co. Sligo ; and 42, Portman- 

square, London. (Vice-President, 1896.) 
Copinger, Walter Arthur, LL.D., F.S.A. The Priory, 


Costly, Thomas. 300, Lower Broughton, Manchester. 
Corn-town, Right Hon. the Earl of, J.P., D.L. Courtown 

House, Gorey, (Vice-President, 1886-87.) 
COWAN, Samuel Wm. Percy, M.A., M.R.I.A. Craigavad, 

Co. Down. 
Crawley, W. J. Chetwode, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., 

F.R. Hist. S. 3, Ely-place, Dublin. 
Crozier, Rigbt Rev. John Baptist, D.D., Bishop of Ossory, Ferns, 

and Leighlin. The Palace, Kilkenny. 
Cullinan, Henry Cooke, LL.B., Barrister-at-Law. 7, St. 

Stephen' s-green, Dublin. 

Dagg, Geo. A. de M. E., M.A., LL.B., D.I.R.I.C. Raphoe. 
Dames, Robert Staples Longworth, B.A. (Dubl.), M.R.I.A., J.P., 

Barrister-at-Law. 21, Herbert-street, Dublin. 
Day, Robert, F.S.A., M.R.I.A., J.P. Myrtle Hill House, Cork. 

(Vice-President, 1887-97.) 
Dease, Edmund, M.A., J.P., D.L. Rath, Ballybrittas, Queen's 

Desart, Rt. Hon. the Earl of, J.P., D.L. 75, South Audley-st., 

Devonshire, His Grace the Duke of, M.A. (Cantab.), D.C.L., 

K.G. Devonshire House, Piccadilly, London, W. (Hon. 

President, 1897). 
Dixon, Sir Daniel, J.P., D.L. Ballymenoch House, Holywood, 

Co. Down. 
Donnelly, Most Rev. Nicholas, D.D., M.R.I.A., Bishop of 

Canea. St. Cronans, Bray. 
DONNELLY, Patrick J. 136, Capel-street. 
Doyle, Charles F., M.A., F.R. U.I. 19, Kildare- street. 
Drew, Thomas, R.H.A., F.R.I.B.A., P.R.I. A.I. Gortnadrew, 

Alma-road, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. (Vice-President, 

1889-94,1897; President, 1894-97.) 
Duignan, William Henry. Gorway, Walsall. 

Eden, Rev. Arthur, M.A. (Oxon.) Ticehurst, Hawkhurst, 


Egan, Patrick M., J.P. High-street, Kilkenny. 
EVANS, Sir John, K.C.B., D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Dublin), 

D.Sc., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. M.R.I.A. Nash Mills, Hemel 

EWART, Lavens Mathewson, M.R.I.A., J.P. Glenbank 

House, Belfast. (Vice- President, 1892-97.) 
EWABT, Sir William Quartus, Bart., M.A., J.P. Schomberg, 

Strandtown, Belfast. 






FFRENCH, Rev. James F. M., M.R.I. A. Ballyredmond House, 

Clonegal. (Vice -President, 1897). 

1894 Finlay, Ven. George, D.D., Archdeacon of Clogher. The 

Rectory, Clones. 

1889 FITZGERALD, Lord Frederick. Carton, Maynooth. 


FITZGERALD, Lord Walter, M.R.I. A., J.P. Kilkea Castle, 



Mageney. (Vice- President, 1895.) 
Frazer, William, F.R.C.S.I., M.R.I.A., Hon. F.S.A. (Scot.), 

F.R.G.S.I. 20, Harcourt-street, Dublin. (Vice- President, 




Frost, James, M.R.I. A., J.P. 54, George -street, Limerick. 



GARSTIN, JohnRibton, LL.B., M.A., B.D.,F.S.A., M.R.I.A., 
F.R.H.S., J.P., D.L. Bragganstown, Castlebellingham. 

(Vice- President, 1885-95,) 



Geoghegan, Charles, Assoc. INST. C.E.I. 89, Pembroke-road, 



Gillman, Herbert Webb, B.A., Barrister-at-Law, J.P. Clon- 

teadmore, Coachford, Co. Cork. 


Goff, William G. D., J.P. Glenville, Waterford. 


Gordon, John W. Mullingar. 



Graves, Right Rev. Charles, D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., M.R.I. A., 

Lord Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert, and Aghadoe. The 

Palace, Limerick. ( Vice-President, 1894-98.) 



Gray, William, M.R.I. A. Auburn Villa, Glenburn Park, Belfast. 

(Vice-President, 1889-96.) 



Greene, George E. J., M.A. D.Sc. M.R.I.A., F.L.S., J P. 



Greer, Thomas, M.R.I. A., F.R.G.S., J.P. Sea Park, Belfast, 

and Grove House, Regent's Park, London, N.W. 



Handcock, Gustavus F. Public Record Office, Chancery-lane, 

London, W.C. -. 



Hasse, Rev. Leonard. Fairfield College, Manchester. 



Healy, Most Rev. John, D.D., LL.D., M.R.I. A., Coadjutor 

Bishop of Clonfert. Mount St. Bernard, Ballymacward, 

Ballinasloe. (Vice-President, 1890-98.) 



HEWSON, George James, M.A. Hollywood, Adare. 



Hickey, Rev. Michael P., M.R.I. A., Professor of Gaelic and 

Lecturer on Irish Archseology. St. Patrick's College, 




Hill, Right Hon. Lord Arthur Wm., M.P. 22, Chester- street, 

London, S.W. ; and Bigshotte, Rayles, Wokingham, Berks. 

(Vice- President, 1888-95.) 



Holmes, Emra, F.R.H.S. Bon Accord Crescent, Aberdeen. 


Houston, Thomas G., M.A. Academical Institution, Cole- 



HOWDEN, Charles. Invermore, Larue. 



Humphreys, Very Rev. Robert, M.A., Dean of Killaloe. The 

Glebe, Ballinaclough, Nenagh. 



Hurley, M. J. Abbeylands, Waterford. 


Johnson, Edmond, M.R.I. A., J.P. Nullamore, Milltown, Co. 




































KANE, His Honor Robert Romney, LL.D., M.E.I. A., County 

Court Judge. 4, Fitzwilliam-plaee, Dublin. 
KELLY, Edward Festus. 15, Palace-court, London, "W. 
Kelly, George A. P., M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 129, Lower 

Baggot- street, Dublin ; and Cloonglasnymore, Strokestown. 
Kelly, William Edward, C.E., J.P. St. Helen's, Westport. 
Kelly, William P., Solicitor. Shannonview Park, Athlone. 
Kinahan, George Henry, M.R.I.A. Woodlands, Fairview. 
Kirker, Samuel Kerr, C.E. Board of Works, Belfast. 
KNILL, Sir Stuart, Bart, LL.D. The Crosslets in the Grove, 

Blackheath, London. 
Knowles, William James, M.R.I.A. Flixton-place, Ballymena. 

(Vice- President, 1897). 
Knox, Hubert Thomas, M.R.I.A. Beechen, Lyndhurst, 


Langrishe, Richard, F.R. I.A.I., J.P. Noremount, Kilkenny. 

(Vice-president, 1879-95.) 
Latimer, Rev. William Thomas, B.A. The Manse, Eglish, 

La Touche, J. J. Digges, M.A., LL.D., M.R.I.A. Public 

' Record Office, Dublin. 
Lawrence, Rev. Charles, M.A. Lisreaghan, Lawrencetown, Co. 

LEWIS CROSBY, Rev. Ernest H. C., B.D. 36, Rutland-square, 


Lillis, T. Barry. Janeville, Ballintemple, Cork. 
Linn, Richard. 229, Hereford- st., Christchurch, New Zealand. 
LOWRY, Robert William, B.A. (Oxon.), M.R.I.A., J.P., D.L. 

Pomeroy House, Pomeroy, Co. Tyrone. 
Lynch, Patrick J., C.E., M.R.I. A.I. 8, Upper Mallow-street, 


Mac Ritchie, David, F.S.A. (Scot.) 4, Archibald-place, Edin- 

Mains, John, J.P. Eastbourne, Coleraine. 

Malone, Yery Rev. Sylvester, P.P., V.G., M.R.I.A. Kilrush. 

Marsh, Frank S., LL.B. 35, Holies-street, Dublin. 

Martyn, Edward, J.P., D.L. Tillyra Castle, Ardrahan. ( Vice- 
President, 1897). 

Mayhew, Rev. Samuel Martin, F.S.A. (Scot.). St. Paul's 
Vicarage, 83, New Kent-road, London. V.-P. Archceological 
Assoc. of Great Britain, &c. 

Mayler, James Ennis. Harristown, Ballymitty, Co. Wexford. 

M'Cahan, Robert. Ballycastle, Co. Antrim. 

McChesney, Joseph, Holy wood, Co. Down. 

McCREA, Rev. Daniel F., M.R.I.A. Maghera, Co. Derry. 

M'DONNELL, Daniel, M.A., M.D. 17, Cherrymount, Crumlin- 
road, Belfast. 

McGeeney, Very Rev. Patrick, Canon, P.P. Crossmaglen. 

Mellon, Thomas J. Rydal Mount, Milltown, Co. Dublin. 

Milligan, Seaton Forrest, M.R.I.A. 1, Malone-road, Belfast. 
(Vice- President, 1895.) 

Mills, James, M.R.I.A. Public Record Office, Dublin. 

MOLLOY, William Robert, J.P., M.R.I.A. 17, Brookfield- 
terrace, Donnybrook. T^t. 

Moran, His Eminence Cardinal, D.D., M.R.I.A. Archbishop 
of Sydney, New South Wales. ( Vice- President, 1888-96. ) 

Moran, John, M.A., LL.D. Imperial Hotel, Belfast. 


























Mullen, Ben. H., M.A., Curator, &c., Royal Museum. Peel 

Park, Salford. 
Murphy, J. H. Burke. The Agency, Cultra, Holywood, Co. 

MUBPHY, Michael M., M.E.I.A. Troyes Wood, Kilkenny. 

Norman, George, M.D., F.R.M.S. 12, Brock-street. Bath. 

O'Brien, William, M.A., LL.D. 4, Kildare- street, Dublin. 
O'Connell, John Robert, M.A., LL.D. 10, Mountjoy-square, 


O'Connor, Very Rev. Daniel, P.P., Canon. Newtown Butler. 
O'Conor Don, The Right Hon. The, LL.D., M.R.I.A., J.P., 

D.L. Clonalis, Castlerea. (Vice- President, 1886-97; 

President, 1897-99.) 

O'Donoghue, Charles, J.P. Ballynahown Court, Athlone. 
O'Donovan, The, M.A. (Oxon.), J.P. Liss Ard, Skibbereen. 

(Vice- President, 1890-94.) 
O'Laverty, Rev. James, P.P., M.R.I.A. Holywood, Co. Down. 

(Vice- President, 1896.) 
O'Loughlin, Rev. Robert Stuart, M.A., D.D. Rectory, 

O'Meagher, Joseph Casimir, M.R.I.A. 17, Wellington-road, 

O'Neill, Jorge (Grand Officier de la maison du Roi). Pair du 

Royaume, Lisbon. 
O'NEILL, Hon. Robert Torrens, M.A. (Oxon.), J.P., D.L. 

M.P. Tullymore Lodge, Ballymena, Co. Antrim. 
O'EEILLY, The Rev. Hugh, M.R.I.A. St. Colman's Seminary, 


O'Rorke, Very Rev. Terence, D.D., M.R.I.A., .P.P., Arch- 
deacon of Achonry. Church of the Assumption, Collooney. 
OBMSBY, Charles C., A.I.C.E.I. Ballinamore House, Kil- 

timagb, Co. Mayo. 
0' Shaughnessy, Richard, B.A., Barrister-at-Law, Commissioner 

of Public Works. 3, Wilton-place, Dublin. 
OWEN, Edward. India Office, Whitehall, London, S.W. 

Palmer, Charles Colley, J.P., D.L. Rahan, Edenderry. 

Perceval, John James. Slaney View, Wexford. 

Perceval -Max well, Robert, J.P., D.L Finnebrogue, Down- 

Phene, John S., LL.D., F.S.A., F.G.S. 5, Carlton- terrace, 

Oakley-street, London, S.W. 
Plunkett, George Noble, Count, M.R.I.A., Barrister -at -Law. 

26, Upper Fitzwilliam-street, Dublin. 

Plunkett, the Countess. 26, Upper Fitzwilliam-street, Dublin. 
Poison, Thomas R. J., M.R.I.A . Wellington-place, Enniskillen. 
Pope, Peter A. New Ross. 

Power, Rev. Patrick. St. John's College, Waterford. 
Prichard, Rev. Hugh, M.A., F.S.A. (Scot.) Dinam, Gaerwen, 


Robinson, Andrew, C.E., Board of Works. 116, St. Laurence- 
road, Clontarf. 

Robinson, Rev. Stanford F. H., M.A. 2, Trevelyan-terrace. 
Bath gar. 






























Rushe, Denis Carolan, B.A., Solicitor. Church-square, 

RYLANDS, Thomas Glazebrook, F.S.A., F.R.A.S., F.C.S., 
M.R.I. A. Highfields, Thelwall, Warrington. 

Scott, William Robert, M.A. (Dubl.). 25, Charleville-road, 
Rath gar. 

Shaw, Sir Frederick W., Bart., J.P., D.L. Bushy Park, 

Sheehan, Most Rev. Richard Alphonsus, D.D., Bishop of Water- 
ford and Lismore. Bishop's House, John's Hill, Waterford. 
(Vice-President, 1896.) 

Smiley, Hugh Houston, J.P. Drumalis, Larne. 

SMITH-BARRY, the Right Hon. Arthur H,, J.P., D.L., M.P. 
Fota Island, Cork, and Carlton Club, London. ( Vice- 
President, 1897.) 

Smith, Joseph, M.B.I. A. Rose Villa, Latchford, near War- 

Smith, Worthington G., F.L.S., M.A.I. 121, High-street, 
Dunstable, Beds. 

Stevenson, George A., Commissioner of Public Works, Dublin. 

Stoney, Rev. Robert Baker, M. A., D.D., Canon. St. Matthew's, 

Stubbs, Major- General Francis William, J.P. 2, Clarence- 
terrace, St. Luke's, Cork. 

Stubbs, Henry, M.A., J.P., D.L. Danby, Ballyshannon. 

Swan, Joseph Percival. 22, Charleville-road, N.C.R., Dublin. 

Taylor, Rev. John Wallace, LL.D. Errigal Glebe, Emyvale. 
Tenison, Charles Mac Carthy, M.R.I.A. Barrister-at-Law, 

J.P. Hobart, Tasmania. 
Tighe, Edward Kenrick Bunbury, J.P., D.L. Woodstock, 


Trench, Thomas F. Cooke, J.P., D.L. MiUicent, Naas. 
Thynne, Henry, M.A., LL.D., C.B., Deputy Inspector-General 

R.I.C., Dublin. 

Uniacke, R. G. Fitz Gerald, B.A. (Oxon.). Chelsham Lodge, 

Whyteleafe, Surrey. 
Upton, William H., M.A., LL.M. Walla Walla, Washington, 


Vigors, Colonel Philip Doyne, J.P. Holloden, Bagenalstown. 
(Vice-President, 1895.) 

Vinycomb, John, M.R.I.A. Riverside, Holywood, Co. Down. 

WALES, H.R. H. the Prince of, K.G., K.P., &c. Sand- 

Walsh, Right Rev. William Pakenham, P.D., Bishop (Vice- 

President, 1889-97.) Montebello, Killiney. 
WARD, Francis Davis, M.R.I.A., J.P. Wyncroft, Adelaide 

Park, Belfast. 

Ward, John, F.S.A., J.P. Lenox Vale, Belfast. 
Ward, Robert Edward, J.P., D.L. Bangor Cattle, Bangor, 
















Warren, the Rev. Thomas. Belmont, 29, Gipsey Hill, London, 


Watson, Thomas. Ship Quay Gate, Londonderry. 
WESTROPP, Thomas Johnson, M.A., M.R.I. A. 77, Lower 

Leeson-street, Dublin. 

Wigham, John R., M.R.I. A., J.P. Albany House, Monks- 
WILSON, William W., M.R.I.A., M. INST. C.E. St. James's- 

gate, Dublin. 
Windle, Bertram C. A., M.A., M.D., D.Sc. (Dubl.). Dean of 

the Medical Faculty, Mason College, Birmingham. 
Wools, Cecil Crawford. 7, Dyke-parade, Cork. 
WOOLLCOMBE, Robert Lloyd, M.A., LL.D. (Dubl.) ; LL.D. 

(Royal Univ.); F.I.Inst., F.S.S., M.R.I. A., Barrister- 

at-Law. 14, Waterloo -road, Dublin. 
WRIGHT, Edward Perceval, M.D., M.A. (Dubl.) ; M.A. 

(Oxon.) ; M.R.I.A., F.L.S., F.R.C.S.I., J.P., Professor 

of Botany. 5, Trinity College, Dublin. 

Young, Robert Magill, B.A., C.E., M.R.I.A., J.P. Rathvaraa 
















D'Arbois de Jubainville, EL, Editor of Revue Celtique. 84, 
Boulevard Mont Parnasse, Paris. 

Gilbert, Sir John T., LL.D., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., R.H.A. Villa 
Nova, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 

Hoffman, William J., M.D., Consulate of the United States, 
Mannheim, Germany. 

Lubbock, Right Hon. Sir John, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S., M.P. High Elms, Farnborough, Kent. 

Meade, Right Hon. Joseph M., LL.D., J.P. St. Michael's, 
AUesbury-road, Dublin.. 

Munro, Robert, M.A., M.D. (Hon. M.R.I. A.), Secretary of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 48, Manor-place, 

Pigorini, Professor Luigi, Director of the Museo Preistorico- 
Etnografico Kircheriano, Rome. 

Rhys, John, M.A., Professor of Celtic, Principal of Jesus 
College, Oxford. 

Roberts, S. Ussher, C.B. 6, Clyde-road, Dublin. 

Robertson, James George, Architect. 36, Sandford-road, Dublin. 

Soderberg, Professor Sven, Ph. D., Director of the Museum of 
Antiquities, University of Lund, Sweden. 

Stokes, Miss Margaret, Hon. M.R.I. A. Carrigbreac, Howth, 
Co. Dublin. 

Wakeman, William Frederick. Knightsville, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Total number of Fellows : 

Life, 38 \ 

Honorary (under old Rules, 3 ; new Rules, 10), .. 13 V 200 

Annual, .. .... 149 / 


(Revised 31st December, 1897.) 

The Names of those who have paid the Life Composition, and are Life Members, are 
printed in heavy-faced type. (See Rules 4, 8, and 9, pages 40, 41.) 























Abbott, Rev. Canon, M.A. The Rectory, Tullow, Co. Carlow. 

Acheson, John, J.P. Dunavon, Portadown. 

Agnew, Alexander. Queen's Bridge Saw Mills, Belfast. 

Agnew, Rev. J. Tweedie. The Manse, Tullamore. 

Alcorn, James Gunning, Barrister-at-La\v, J.P. 2, Kildare- place, Dublin. 

Alexander, Major Henry G-eo. Samuel, J.P. Gosford-place, Armagh. 

Alexander, Thomas John, M.A. 1, Bellevue Park, Military- road, Cork. 

Allen, James A. Cathedral Hill, Armagh. 

Ailing-ham, Hugh, M.R.I.A. The Mall, Ballyshannon. 

Airworthy, Edward. 117, Royal-avenue, Belfast. 

Alment, Rev. William F., B.D. Castletown Rectory, Navan. 

Alton, J. Poe (Felloiv, Inst. of Bankers}. Elim, Grosvenor-road, Dublin. 

Anderson, Very Rev. James A., O.S.A. Limerick. 

Anderson, Robert Hall, J.P. Sixmile- Cross, Co. Tyrone. 

Anderson, William, J.P. Glenarvon, Merrion, Co. Dublin. 

Andrews, James Thomas, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 36, St. Stephen's-green, 


Annaly, The Lady. Sion, Navan. 
Archdall, Right Rev. Mervyn, D.D., Bishop of Killaloe, &c. Claresford, 

Archer, Rev. James Edward, B.D. 2, Gyrene Villas, Clifton Park-avenue, 


Archer, Mrs. St. Mary's Vicarage, Drogheda. 
Ardagh, Rev. Arthur W., M.A. The Vicarage, Finglas. 
Ardilaun, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.A., M.R.I.A. St. Anne's, Clontarf. 
Ashbourne, Right Hon. Lord, LL.D. 12, Merrion-square, Dublin. 
Ashby, Newton B., United States Consul. 6, Sandycove, Kingstown. 
Atkins, W. Ringrose. 39 South Mall, Cork. 

Atkinson, Rev. E. Dupre, LL.B. (Cantab.) Donaghcloney, Waringstown. 
Atkinson, George Mounsey, M.R.I.A. 28, St. Oswald's-road, West 

Brompton, London, S.W. 
Atkinson, Miss. Meadowbrook, Dundrum, Co. Dublin. 

Babington, Rev. Richard, M.A. Omagh, Co. Tyrone. 
Badham, Miss. St. Margaret's Hall, Mespil-road, Dublin. 
Bagwell, Richard, M.A. (Oxon.), J.P., D.L. Marlfield, Clonmel. 
Baile, Robert, M.A. Ranelagh School, Athlone. 

Bailey, William F., M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 62, Harcourt-street, Dublin. 
Baillie, Captain John R. St. Patrick's, Dunfanaghy. 
Baillie, Ven.. Richard JE., M.A., Archdeacon of Raphoe. Glendooen, 



1897 Bain, Andrew, D.I., R.I.C. Newcastle West, Co. Limerick. 

1885 Baker, Henry F. Hillview, Dalkey. 

1897 Baker, Samuel. The Knowle, Howth. 

1885 Balfour, Blayney ReyneU Townley, M.A. (Cantab.), M.R.I.A., J.P., D.L. 

Townley Hall, Drogheda. 

1896 BALL, Francis Elrington, M.R.I.A., J.P. Taney House, Dundrum. 

1885 Ballard, Rev. John Woods. Kilbrogan Hill, Bandon. 

1888 Ballintine, Joseph, J.P. Strand, Londonderry. 
1890 Banim, Miss Mary. Greenfield, Dalkey. 

1896 Bannan, E. J., B.A., District Inspector of Schools. Education Office, 

Marlborough-street, Dublin. 
1890 Bardan, Patrick. Coralstown, Killucan. 

Barnewall, Thomas. Bloomsberry, Kells, Co. Meath. 
1896 Barr, John, Tyrone Constitution. Omagh. 

1893 Barrett, John, B.A. Mount Massey House, Macroom. 

1889 Barrington, Sir Charles Burton, Bart., M.A. (Dubl.), J.P., D.L. Glenstal 

Castle, Co. Limerick. 

1889 Barrington, William, C.E. Riverside, Limerick. 

1868 Barrington- Ward, Mark James, M.A., S.C.L. (Oxon.), F.R.G.S., F.L.S. 
Thorneloe Lodge, Worcester. 

1890 Barry, Rev. Michael, P.P. Ballylanders, Knocklong, Co. Limerick. 
1877 Barry, James Grene, J.P. 90, George- street, Limerick. 

1894 Battley, Colonel D'Oyly, J.P. Belvedere Hall, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 

1891 Beard wood, Right Rev. J. Camillus, Abbot of Mount St. Joseph, Roscrea. 
1894 Beattie, Rev. Michael. 6, Belvoir- terrace, University-street, Belfast. 

1883 BEATTY, Samuel, MA., M.B., M.Ch. Craigatin, Pitlochrie, N.B 

1888 Beaumont, Thos., M.D., Dep. Surg.-Gen. Palmerston House, Palmerston 

Park, Upper Rathmines. 

1892 Beazley, Rev. James, P.P. Tuosist, Kenmare. 

1892 Beckley, F. J., B.A. (Cantab.). Secretary's Office, G. P. 0., London. 
1891 Beere, D. M., M. INST. C.E. Auckland, New Zealand. 

1893 Begley, Rev. John, C.C. Tournafulla, Newcastle West, Co. Limerick. 
1891 Bence-Jones, Reginald, J.P. Liselan, Clonakilty. 

1896 Bennet, Mrs. Northern Bank, Kilrea. 

1890 Bennett, Joseph Henry. Blair Castle, Cork. 

1889 Beresford, Denis R. Pack, J.P., D.L. Fenagh House, Bagenalstown. 

1884 Beresford, George De La Poer, J.P., D.L. Ovenden, Sundridge, Seven- 

1895 Beresford, Rev. Canon, M.A. Inistioge Rectory, Co. Kilkenny. 

1895 Bergin, William, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy. Queen's College, 


1897 Bermingham, Patrick Thomas. Glengariff House, Adelaide-road, 


1889 Bernal, John, T.C. Albert Lodge, Limerick. 

1888 Bernard, Walter, F.R.C.P. 14, Queen-street, Deny. 

1889 Berry, Henry F., M.A., Barrister-at-Law. Public Record Office, Dublin. 
1897 Berry, Rev. Hugh F., B.D. Fermoy. 

1896 Berry, R. G. J. J., Army Service Corps. Stanhope Lines, Aldershot. 

1897 Bestick, Robert. 5, Frankfort-avenue, Rathgar. 

1890 Bewley, Joseph. 8, Anglesea- street, Dublin. 

1897 Biddulph, Colonel Middleton W., J.P. Aunaghmore, Tullamore. 

1896 Bigger, Frederic Charles. Ardrie, Antrim-road, Belfast. 

1896 Blake, Mrs. Temple Hill, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 

1891 Boland, Charles James. 6, Ely-place, Dublin. 
1896 Bolger, Rev. David, C.C. The Manse, Wexford. 

1893 Bellinger, Jacob, M.A., LL.D. Wexford School, Wexford. 

1893 Bolton, Charles Perceval, J.P. Brook Lodge, Halfway House, Water- 


1894 Bourchier, Henry James, R.M. Eversleigh, Bandon. 
1889 Bourke, Rev. John Hamilton, M.A. Elm Ville, Kilkenny. 
1896 Bowen, Chetwood H. Bangor, Co. Down. 

1894 Bowen, Miss A. M. Cole. Bowen's Court, Mallow. 

1889 Bowen, Henry Cole, M.A., J.P., Barrister-at-Law. Bowen's Court, Mallow. 











Bowers, Thomas. Cloncunny House, Piltown. 

Bowman, Davys. 14, Chichester-street, Belfast. 

Boyd, J. St. Clair, M.D. 27, Victoria-place, Belfast. 

Boyle, Kev. Joseph, C.C. Rossnakill, Letterkenny. 

Braddell, Octavius H. Sarnia, Eglinton-road, Donnybrook. 

Brady, Rev. John Westropp, M.A. Rectory, Slane, Co. Meath. 

Bray, John B. Cassin. 72, Eccles- street, Dublin. 

Brenan, James, R.H.A., M.R.I.A., School of Art. Leinster House, Kildare- 

street, Dublin. 

Brenan, Rev. Samuel Arthur, B.A. Knocknacarry, Co. Antrim. 
Brereton, Fleet- Surgeon R. W. St. Nicholas' Rectory, Carrickfergus. 
Brett, Henry Charles, B.E. Rosemary- square, Roscrea. 
Brew, Thomas Foley, F.R.C.S.I. The Cottage, Ennistymon. 
Bridge, William, M.A. Solicitor, Roscrea. 
Brien, Mrs. C. H. 4, Palmerston Park, Upper Rathmines. 
Briscoe, Algernon Fetherstonhaugh, J.P. Curristown, Killucan. 
BRODIGAN, Mrs. Piltown House, Drogheda. 
Brophy, Michael M. 48, Gordon-square, London, "W.C. 
Brophy, Nicholas A. 6, Alphonsus-terrace, Limerick. 
Bros, W. Law. Camera Club, Charing Cross-road, London, "W.C. 
Brougham, Very Rev. Henry, D.D., Dean of Lismore. Lismore. 
Brown, Charles, J.P. The Folly, Chester. 
Brown, Miss. 5, Connaught-place, Kingstown. 

Browne, Daniel F., B.A., Bavrister-at-Law. 28, CTpper Mount-st., Dublin. 
Browne, Geo. Burrowes. Beechville, Knockbreda Park, Belfast. 
Browne, James J. F., C.E., Architect. 23, Glentworth- street, Limerick. 
Browne, Very Rev. R. L., O.S.F. Franciscan Convent, Liberty -street, 


Brownlow, Rev. Duncan John, M.A. Donoghpatrick Rectory, Navan. 
Brunskill, Rev. K. C., M.A. Carrickrnore, Co. Tyrone. 
Brunskill, Rev. North Richardson, M.A. Kenure Vicarage, Rush. 
Buckley, James. Primrose Club, St. James', London, S.W. 
Buckley, Michael J. C. 10, St. John's-quay, Kilkenny. 
Budds, William Frederick, J.P. Courtstown, Tullaroan, Freshford. 
Buggy, Michael, Solicitor. Parliament-street, Kilkenny. 
Burden, Alexander Mitchell, C.E., County Surveyor. Kilkenny. 
Burgess, Rev. Henry W., M.A., LL.D. 16, Prince Edward-terrace, 


Burgess, John, J.P. Oldcourt, Athlone. 
Burke, John, J.P., Consul for Mexico and Uruguay. Corporation -street, 


Burke, Very Rev. Edward W., P.P., V.F. Bagenalstown. 
Burke, E. W. Heathview, Abbeyleix. 

Burke, Rev. Thomas, P.P. Ballindereen, Kilcolgan, Co. Galway. 
Burke, Rev. W. P. Catherine- street, Waterford. 
Burnell, William. Dean's Grange, Monkstown. 

Burnett, Rev. Richard A., M.A. Rectory, Graignamanagh, Co. Kilkenny. 
Butler, Cecil, M.A., Barrister -at-Law. Milestown, Castle Bellingham. 
Byrne, Edmund Alen, J.P. Rosemount, New Ross. 
Byrne, Edward A. 21, Lower Water- street, Newry. 
Byrne, James. Wallstown Castle, Castletownroche, Co. Cork. 
Byrne, Miss. 19, Main-street, Blackrock. 

Cadic de la Champignonnerie, M. Edward, F.R.U.I. 765, Upper Leeson- 

street, Dublin. 

Caffrey, James. 146, Rathgar-road, Dublin. 
Caldwell, Charles Sproule, Solicitor. Castle-street, Londonderry. 
Caldwell, William Hamilton, M.D. Coleraine. 
Callary, Very Rev. Philip, P.P., V.F. Trim, Co. Meath. 
Cameron, Sir Charles A., M.D., Hon. R.H.A. 51, Pembroke-road, Dublin. 
Campbell, A. Albert, Solicitor. 6, Lawrence -street, Belfast. 
Campbell, Frederick Ogle. Main-street, Bangor, Co. Down. 



1891 Campbell, Eev. Joseph W. R., M.A. 14, Prince Edward-terrace, 


1890 Campbell, Eev Richard S. D., M.A., D.D. The Rectory, Athlone. 

1890 Campbell, Rev. William W., M.A., R.N. Maplebmy, Monkstown. 

1895 Campbell, William Marshall. 12, Bedford- street, Belfast. 

1893 Carey, William, Solicitor. 47, Grosvenor-square, Dublin. 

1895 Carlisle, David. Home Avenue, Passaie, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

1893 Carmody, Rev. William P., B.A. Cushendall, Co. Antrim. 
1895 Carney, Thomas. Hibernian Bank, Cork. 

1894 Carolan, John, J.P. 77, North King-street, Dublin. 
1893 Carre, Fenwick, F.R.C.S.I. Letterkenny. 

1888 Carrigan, Rev. William, C.C. Durrow, Queen's County. 
1893 Carrigan, William, Solicitor. Thurles. 

1889 Carroll, Anthony R., Solicitor. 47, North Great George' s-street, Dublin. 

1893 Carroll, Rev. James, C.C. Howth. 

1890 Carroll, William, C.E., M.R.I.A.I. Orchardleigh, West Wickham, Kent. 

1894 Carter, Frederick. 44, Dame-street, Dublin. 

1897 Caruth, Norman C M Solicitor. Flixton-place, Ballymena. 

1895 Casson, George W., J.P. 25, Clyde-road, Dublin. 

1893 Castle Stuart, Right Hon. the Earl of, J.P., D.L. Drum Manor, Cookstown. 

1894 Chambers, Sir R. Newman. 15, Queen-street, Londonderry. 
1893 Chapman, Maria, Lady. Carrig Brae, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 
1890 Chapman, Wellesley Pole. 7, Mountjoy- square, Dublin. 

1890 Charles, James, M.I.J. 42, Dawson-street, Dublin. 

1891 Chatterton, Abraham T. 10, Clyde-road, Dublin. 

1890 Chaytor, Joshua David, B.A. Marino, Killiney. 

1893 Chearnley, Miss Mary. Cappoquin, Co. Waterford. 

1891 Chestnutt, John, B.A., L.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (Edin.) Derwent House, 

Howden, East "Yorks. 

1895 Christie, Robert William, F.I.B. 21, Elgin-road, Dublin. 

1894 Clark, George W. O'Flaherty-, L.R.C.S.E. Down Asylum, Down- 


1896 Clark, Miss Jane. The Villas, Kilrea, Co. Londonderry. 

1889 Clarke, Mrs. Athgoe Park, Hazelhatch. 

1896 Cleary, Rev. Robert, M.A. Galbally Rectory, Tipperary. 

1890 Clements. Henry John Beresford, J.P., D.L. Lough Rynn, Leitrim. 

1892 Clements^ William T., Asst. D.I.N.S. 1, Agincourt-terrace, Rugby-road, 


1859 Clifden, Right Hon. Viscount, J.P., D.L. 19, Wilton-street, London. 

1874 Clonbrock, Right Hon. Lord, B.A. (Oxon.), H.M.L. (Vice- President, 1885- 

1896.) Clonbrock, Aghascragh. 

1892 Coates, William Trelford, J.P. 7, Fountain- street, Belfast. 

1893 Coddington, Lieut. -Colonel John N., J.P., D.L. Oldbridge, Drogheda. 

1892 Coffey, Denis J., B.A., M.B., M.Ch. (R.U.I.), Assistant Professor of Physi- 

ology, School of Medicine, Cecilia-street, Dublin. 

1885 Coffey, Most Rev. John, D.D., Bishop of Kerry. The Palace, Killarney. 

1888 Coleman, James. Custom-house, Southampton. 

1893 Colgan, Nathaniel, M.R.I.A. 1, Belgrave-road, Rathmines. 

1895 Colgan, Rev. P., P.P. St. Endas, Aran Islands, Galway. 

1888 Colhoun, Joseph. 62, Strand-road, Londonderry. 

1894 Colles, Alexander. 3, Elgin-road, Dublin. 

1891 Collins, E. Tenison, Barrister -at -Law. 35, Palmer ston-road, Dublin. 

1897 Commins, John. Desart N. S., Cuffe's Grange, Kilkenny. 
1897 CONAN, Alexander. Mount Alverno, Dalkey. 

1876 Condon, Very Kev. C. H., Provincial, O.P. St. Saviour's, Dublin. 

1893 Condon, Frederick William, L.R.C.P. I., &c. Ballyshannon. 

1894 Condon, James E. S., LL.D., Barrister -at -Law. 21, Royal Canal Bank 


1896 Condon, Very Rev. John, O.S.A. New Ross. 

1892 Conlan, Very Rev. Robert F., P.P., Canon. St. Michan's, Dublin. 

1893 Connell, Rev. John, M.A. 3, Palace-terrace, Drumcondra. 

1889 Connellan, Major James H., J.P., D.L. Coolmore, Thomastown. 
1896 Connolly, Rev. Richard, O.S.A. New Ross. 











Conway, M. Edward. Knightville, Seafi eld -avenue, Monkstown. 

Cookman, William, M.D., J.P. Kiltrea House, Enniscorthy. 

Cooper, Anderson, J.P. Weston, Queenstown. 

Cooper, Austin Darner, J.P. Drumnigh, Baldoyle, Co. Dublin. 

Coote, Rev. Maxwell H., M.A. Ross, Tullamore. 

CORBALLIS, Richard J., M.A., J.P. Rosemount, Roebuck, Clonskeagh. 

Corcoran, P. Abbey Gate-street, Gaiway. 

Corish, Rev. John, C.C. Kilmyshall, Newtownbarry. 

Corker, William Henning, Solicitor. 52, Grand-parade, Cork. 

Cosgrave, E. Mac Dowel, M.D. 5, Gardiner' s-row, Dublin. 

Cosgrave, Henry Alexander, M.A. 100, Pembroke-road, Dublin. 

Costigan, William. Great Victoria-street, Belfast. 

Coulter, Mrs. G. B. 21, University-square, Belfast. 

Coulter, Rev. George W. S., M.A. 9, Upper Garville-avenue, Rathgar. 

Courtenay, Henry. Hughenden, Grosvenor-road, Rathmines. 

Courtney, Charles Marshall. Mount Minnitt, Ballybrood, Pallasgrean. 

Cowan, P. Chalmers, B.Sc., M.!NST. C.E. 9, College Gardens, Belfast. 

Cowell, Very Rev. George Young, M.A., Dean of Kildare. Kildare. 

Cox, Michael Francis, B.A., F.R.C.P.I., M.R.I.A. 45, Stephen's-green, 


Coyne, James Aloysius, B. A. , District Inspector of National Schools. Tralee. 
Craig, Rev. Graham, M.A. St. Catherine's, Tullamore. 
Crawford, James W. Chlorine House, Malone-road, Belfast. 
Crawford, Robert T. Estate Office, Ballinrobe. 
Creagh, Arthur Gethin, J.P. Carrahane, Quin, Co. Clare. 
Creaghe, Philip Crampton, M.R.I.A. Hugomont, Ballymena. 
Cromie, Edward Stuart, District Inspector of Schools. Killarney. 
Crone, John S., L.R.C.P.I. Kensal Lodge, Kensal Rise, London, N.W. 
Crossley, Frederick W. 24, Nassau-street, Dublin. 
Crosthwait, Thomas P. Sherard, B.A., M.!NST. C.E. 38, Pembroke -road, 


Cuffe, Major Otway Wheeler. Woodlands, Waterford. 
Cullen, T. W., Manager, National Bank. Dingle. 
Cullin, John. Templeshannnn, Enniscorthy. 
Culverwell, Edward Parnall, M.A., F.T.C.D. The Hut, Howth. 
Cummins, Rev. Martin, P.P. Clare Gaiway. 
Cunningham, Miss Mary E. Glencairn, Belfast. 
Cunningham, Miss S. C. Glencairn, Belfast. 
Cunningham, Rev. Robert, B.A. Ballyrashane, Coleraine. 
Cunningham, Samuel. Glencairn, Belfast. 

Curran, James P., Manager, Munster and Leinster Bank. Maryborough. 
Cussen, J. S., B.A., D.I.N.S. BaUymena. 

Dallow, Rev. Wilfred. Upton Hall, Upton, Birkenhead. 

Dalton, John P., M.A., D.I.N.S. 4, Roseberry Villas, Chichester Park, 

Daniell, Robert G., J.P. Newforest, Co. Westmeath. 

D'Arcy, S. A., L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. Rosslea, Co. Fermanagh. 

Dargan, Thomas. 9, Clifton Park-avenue, Belfast. 

Davidson, Rev. John Henry, M.A. Rathregan Rectory, Batterstown, Co. 

DAVIDSON, Rev. Henry W., B.A. Templemichael Glebe, Youghal. 

Davidson-Houston, Rev. B. C., M.A. St. John's Vicarage, Sydney-parade. 

Davies, D. Griffith, B.A. 200, High-street, Bangor, N. Wales. 

Davis, Thomas. St. Margaret's, Foxrock, Co. Dublin. 

Davy, Rev. Humphry, M.A. Kimmage Lodge, Terenure. 

Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd-, F.S.A., F.K.S., F.G.S., &c. Woodhurst, 
Fallowfield, Manchester. 

Dawson, Joseph Francis, Inspector. Munster and Leinster Bank, Dame- 
street, Dublin. 

Dawson, Very Rev. Abraham, M.A., Dean of Dromore. Seagoe Rectory, 










Deady, James P. Hibernian Bank, Navan. 

Deane, Mrs. J. William. Longraigue, Foulksmill, Co. Wexford. 

Delany, Eight Rev. John Carthage, Lord Abbot of Mount Melleray, 


DE LA POEB, Edmond, J.P., D.L. Gurteen, Glensheelan, Clonmel. 
De Moleyns, The Hon. Edward A., J.P. Dingle, Co. Kerry. 
Denny, Francis Mac Gilly cuddy. Denny-street, Tralee. 
Denvir, Patrick J. National Bank, Limerick. 
D'Evelyn, Alexander, M.D. (Dubl.). Ballymena. 
Devenish-Meares, Major-General W. L., J.P., D.L. Meares Court, 

Ballinacargy, Co. Westmeath. 

Diamond, Rev. Patrick J. Port Stanley, Falkland Islands. 
Dickinson, James A. 8, Crosthwaite Park, Kingstown. 
Dickson, Rev. William A. Fahan Rectory, Londonderry. 
Digges, Rev. J. Garven, M.A. (Dubl.). Clooncahir, Loughrynn, Dromod. 

Dillon, Edward Maxwell, M.A., LL.D., Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. 

19, Albert -square, Clapham, London, S.W. 
Dillon, Sir John Fox, Bart., J.P., D.L. Lismullen, Navan. 
Dix, E. Reginald M'Clintock, Solicitor. 61, Upper Sackville-st., Dublin. 
Dixon, Henry, Jun. 5, Cabra-terrace, Dublin. 

Dodge, Mrs. Saddle Rock, Great Neck, Long Island, New York, U.S. 
Doherty, George, J.P. Dromore, Co. Tyrone. 

Donegan, Lieutenant- Colonel James H., J.P. Alexandra-place, Cork. 
Donovan, St. John Henry, J.P. Seafield, The Spa, Tralee. 
Dorey, Matthew. 8, St. Anne's-terrace, Berkeley-road, Dublin. 
Dougherty, James B., M.A., Assistant Under- Secretary, Dublin Castle. 
Douglas, M. C. Burren-street, Carlo w. 
Dowd, Rev. James, M.A. 7, Swansea-terrace, Limerick. 
Dowling, Jeremiah, Sen., M.D. Nelson-street, Tipperary. 
Downes, Thomas. Norton, Skibbereen. 

Doyle, Laurence, Barrister-at-Law. 4, Upper Pembroke -street, Dublin. 
Doyle, Rev. Luke, P.P. St. Mary's, Tagoat, Wexford. 
Doyle, M. J. N. S., Windgap, Co. Kilkenny. 
Doyne, Charles Mervyn, M.A. (Cantab.), J.P., D.L. Wells, Gorey. 
Drew, Mrs. Gortnadrew, Alma-road, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
Drought, Rev. Anthony, M.A. Kilrnessan Rectory, Navan. 
Dudgeon, Robert R. Ballynahatty, Omagh. 
Dugan, Charles Winston, M.A. Florence-ville, Lurgan. 
Duke, Robert Alexander, J.P., D.L. Newpark, Ballymote. 
Duncan, George. 1, Cope-street, Dublin. 

Dunn, Michael J., B.A., Barrister-at-Law. 42, Upper Mount-st., Dublin. 
Dunn, Valentine. 30, Clarinda Park, E., Kingstown. 
Dunne, Francis Plunkett, J.P. Balivor, Banagher. 

Dunne, Very Rev. Martin K., P.P., Canon. Blackwater, Enniscorthy. 
1893 Dunne, Robert H. Plunkett, J.P. Brittas, Clonaslie, Queen's Co. 

Dunsany, Right Hon. Lord, M.A. (Cantab.), J.P., D.L. Dunsany Castle, 


Durham, Dean and Chapter of, per C. Rowlandson. The College, Durham, 
Dwan, Rev. John J., C.C. The Presbytery, Thurles. 

Egan, Michael. 3, Pery-square, Limerick. 

Elcock, Charles. Curator, Museum, Royal-avenue, Belfast. 

.Elliott, Rev. Andrew. The Bar, Trillick. 

Elliott, Rev. Anthony L., M.A. Killiney Glebe, Co. Dublin. 

Elliott, Charles. 223, Amhurst-road, Stoke-Newington, London, N. E. 

Elliott, Rev. John. Seven Houses, Armagh. 

Ennis, Edward H., Barrister-at-Law. 42, Rutland-square, Dublin. 

Ennis, Michael Andrew, J.P. Ardruadh, Wexford. 

Entwistle, Peter. Free Public Museums, Liverpool. 

Erne, Right Hon. the Countess of, care of Rev. J. H. Steele, Crom,Newtown 

Esmonde, Sir Thomas Henry Grattan, Bart., M.P. Ballynastragh, Gorey. 











Eustace, Captain Henry Montague, 1st Battalion Middlesex Regiment. 

Sampford Grange, Braintree, Essex. 

Evans, Kev. Henry, D.D., M.R.I. A. Howth, Co. Dublin. 
Evatt, George Foster, J.P. Mount Louise, Smithborough, Co. Monaghan. 
Everard, Rev. John, C.C. SS. Peter and Paul, Clonmel. 
Everard, Major Nugent Talbot, J.P., D.L. Randlestown, Navan. 

Fahey, Very Rev. Jerome, P.P., V.G. St. Colman's, Gort. 

Fahy, Rev. "John G. Rectory, Waterville, Co. Kerry. 

Fair, Richard B. Rosetta House, Rosetta Park, Belfast. 

Fairholme, Mrs. Comragh, Kilmacthomas. 

Falkiner, C. Litton, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 9, Upper Merrion-street, 

Falkiner, Hon. Sir Frederick R., M.A., Recorder of Dublin. Inveruisk, 


Falkiner, Rev. T. Doran. 4, Marine -terrace, Bray. 
Falkiner, Rev. William F. T., M.A., M.R.I.A. Killucan Rectory, Co. 


Fallen, Owen, D.I.R.I.C. Ardara, Co. Donegal. 
Faren, William. Mount Charles, Belfast. 
Fawcett, George. Montevideo, Roscrea. 
Feeney, P. J. C. Hibernian Bank, Kilkenny. 
Fegan, William John, Solicitor. Market Square, Cavan. 
Fennell, William J., M.R.I.A.I. 11, Chichester-street, Belfast. 
Fennessy, Edward. Ardscradawn House, Kilkenny. 
Fenton, Mrs. St. Peter's Vicarage, 90, Westbourne-road, Birkenhead. 
Field, William, M.P. Blackroek, Co. Dublin. 
Field, Miss. Blackroek, Co. Dublin. 

Fielding, Patrick J., M.P. S.I. 8, St. Joseph' s-place, Cork. 
Fisher, Rev. John Whyte, M.A., Canon. The Rectory, Mountrath. 
Fitz Gerald, William J., Clerk of the Crown and Peace, Co. Cork. Bank-place, 


Fitz Gibbon, Gerald, M. INST. C.E. The White House, Heysham, Lancaster. 
Fitz Patrick, P., D.I.N.S. Rathkeale. 
Fitzsimons, John Bingham, M.D. Owen-street, Hereford. 
Flanagan, James. Central Model Schools, Marlborough-street, Dublin. 
Fleming, Hervey de Montmorency, J.P. Barraghcore, Goresbridge. 
Fleming, James, Jun. Kilmory, Skelmorlie, Scotland. 
Fleming, Very Rev. Horace Townsend, M.A. The Deanery, Cloyne. 
Fletcher, Rev. Victor J., M.A. Malahide. 

Flood, Rev. James. 52, Stirling-place, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 
Flynn, Very Rev. Patrick F., P.P. St. Anne's Presbytery, Waterford. 
Fogerty, Robert, C.E., Architect. Limerick. 
Fogerty, William A., M.A., M.D. 61, George- street, Limerick. 
Foley, John E., M.D. Frances-street, Kilrush. 
Foley, J. M. Galwey, C.I., R.I.C. Ennis. 

Forster, Sir Robert, Bart., D.L. 63, Fitzwilliam-square, Dublin. 
Fortescue, Hon. Dudley F., J.P., D.L. Summerville, Dunmore East, 


Foster, Rev. Frederick, M.A. Ballymacelligott Glebe, Tralee. 
Fox, Captain Maxwell, R.N., J.P., D L. 14, Brock-street, Bath. 
Franklin, Frederick, F.R.I. A. I. Westbourne House, Terenure. 
Frazer, Henry. Lambeg N. S., Lisburn. 
Frazer, Mrs. Finvoy Rectory, Ballymoney. 
Frewen, William, Solicitor. Nelson-street, Tipperary. 
Frizelle, Joseph. S%o. 
Furlong, Nicholas, L.R. C.P.I., L.R. C.S.I., M.R.I.A. Lymington, Ennis- 


Gallagher, Edward, J.P. Strabane. 

Gallagher, William, Solicitor. English-street, Armagh. 

Gamble, Major G. F. Mount Jerome, Harold's -cross. 









Garvey, Toler R., J.P. Thorn vale, Moneygall. 
Gault-Gamble, T. E., D.I., R.I.C. Adare, Co. Limerick. 
Geoghegan, Michael. P. W. Hotel, Athlone. 
Geoghegan, Thomas F. 6, Lower Sackville-street, Dublin. 

Geoghegan, William P. Rockfield, Blackrock. 

George, William E. Downside, Stoke Bishop, Clifton. 

Gerish, W. Blythe. Ivy Lodge, Hoddesdon, Herts. 

Gerrard, Rev. William J. The Rectory, Rathangan, Co. Kildare. 

Gibson, Rev. Thomas B., M.A. Ferns. 

Gilfoyle, Anthony Thomas, M.A., J.P. 23, Ailesbury-road, Dublin; and 
Carrowellen House, Skreen, Co. Sligo. 

Gill, Michael J., B.A. Roebuck House, Clonskeagh. 

Gillespie, James, Surgeon. The Diamond, Clones. 

GILLESPIE, William, M.R.I. A. Racefield House, Kingstown. 

Gillman, Herbert Webb, B.A. (Dubl.), Barrister-at-Law (Lincoln's Inn), 
J.P. Clonteadmore, Coachford, Co. Cork. 

Gleeson, Gerald W. M. Athlone. 

Gleeson, Paul. Kilcolman, Kingstown. 

Gleeson, Michael, Crown Solicitor. Nenagh. 

Glenny, James Swanzy, J.P. Glenville, Ardaragh, Newry. 

Glynn, Patrick J. O'Connor. 10, Ulverton- place, Dalkey. 

Glynn, Thomas. Meelick Villa, 87, Aden Grove, Clissold Park, London, N. 

Glynn, William, J.P. Kilrush. 

Godden, George. Phoenix Park, Dublin. 

Goff, Rev. Edward, B.A. Kentstown Rectory, Navan. 

Goldsmith, Rev. E. J., M.A. 1, De Vesci-place, Monkstown. 

Goodbody, Henry P. Obelisk Park, Blackrock. 

Goodbody, Miss. Obelisk Park, Blackrock. 

Goodman, Peter. 44, Rutland -square, Dublin. 

Goodwin, Singleton, B.A., M.IxsT.C.E. Tralee. 

Goold, Graham Augustus, Solicitor. 42, Grand Parade, Cork. 

Gordon, Samuel, M.D. 13, Hume-street, Dublin. 

Gorman, Venerable VVm. Chas., M.A., Archdeacon of Ossory. Rectory, 
Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny. 

Gosselin, Rev. J. H. Prescott, B.A. Muff Parsonage, Londonderry. 

Gough, Joseph. 88, Grosvenor- square, Rathmines. 

Grant, Colonel George Fox, J.P. Hilton, Callan, Co. Kilkenny. 

Gray, Robert, M.R.C.P.I., J.P. 4, Charlemont-place, Armagh. 
GRAYDON, Thomas W., M.D. La Fayette Circle, Clifton, Cincinnati, 

Ohio, U.S.A. 

Greaves, Miss. 12, Rathgar-road, Dublin. 

Griffin, J. J., M.D. Waterloo Villa, Greengate, Plaistow, London, E. 
Greene, Herbert Wilson, M.A. Pembroke College, Oxford. 
Greene, Mrs. J. Monte Vista, Ferns. 
Greene, Mrs. T. Millbrook, Mageney. 

Greene, Surgeon-Lieut. -Col. John J., M.B. 23, Herbert-place, Dublin. 
Greene, Thomas, LL.B., J.P. Millbrook, Mageney. 
Greer, Thomas MacGregor, Solicitor. Ballymoney. 
Gribbon, Rev. John, C.C. Waterside, Derry. 

Grierson, Rev. Frederick J., B.A. St. Bride's, Oldcastle, Co. Meath. 
Grubb, J. Ernest. Carrick-on-Suir. 
Guilbride, Francis, J.P. Newtownbarry. 
Guinness, Howard. Chesterfield, Blackrock. 

HADDON, Alfred Cort, M.A., F.Z.S. Inisfail, Hill's-road, Cambridge. 

Hade, Arthur, C.E. Carlow. 

Hales, Mrs. A. Belvedere, Crystal Palace Park, Sydenham, S.E. 

Hall, Rev. Alexander, B.A. Drogheda. 

Hall, Thomas. Derrynure House, Baillieborough. 

Hallinan, Rev. D., D.D., P.P. St. Mary's, Limerick. 

Hamill, Robert H. Bessbrooke House, Analore, Clones. 

Hamilton, Everard, B.A. 30, South Frederick- street, Dublin. 









Hamilton, "Eev. John G., B.A. Dromore, Co. Tyrone. 

Hamilton S., M.B. 4, Ehondda-road, Ferndale," Glamorgan. 

Hanan, Eev. Denis, D.D. The Eectory, Tipperary. 

Handy, Eev. Leslie Alexander, M.A. Skryne Eectory, Tara, Co. Meath. 

Hanna, John A. Paradise- street, Liverpool. 

Hannay, Eev. James 0., M.A. Westport. 

Hannon, P. J. Clifton House, Loughrea. 

Hardy, William J., LL.B., Barrister-at-Law, D.I.E.I.C. Dunfanaghy. 

Hare, Very Eev. Thomas, D.D., Dean of Ossory. Deanery, Kilkenny. 

Harman, Miss Marion. Barrowmount, Goresbridge. 

Harrington, Edward. 46, Nelson-street, Tralee. 

Harris, Henry B., J.P. Mill view, Ennis. 

Harrison, Charles William. 178, Great Brunswick-street, Dublin. 

Hart, Henry Chichester, B.A., M.E.I.A., F.L.S., J.P. Carrabeagh, Port- 
salon, Letterkenny. 

Hartford, John P., Sessional Crown Solicitor, Kilkenny. 55, Lr. Dominick- 
street, Dublin. 

Hartigan, P. Castleconnell, Limerick. 

Hartley, Eev. Frederic J., B.A., B.A.I. 2, Wellington-square, Kilkenny. 

Harty, Spencer, M. INST. C.E.I. City Hall, Dublin. 

Harvey, Eev. Alfred Thomas, M.A. Eectory, Athboy. 

Hastings, Samuel. Church- street, Downpatrick. 

Hayes, Eev. Francis Carlile, M.A. Eectory, Eaheny. 

Hayes, Eev. William A., M.A. 2, Carlisle-terrace, Omagh. 

Hayes, Thomas, C.I., E.I.C. 2, Eden-terrace, Limerick. 

Headen, W. P., B.A. (Lond.), D.I.N.S. 32, Cabra-parade, Phibsborough. 

Healy, George, J.P. Glaslyn, Clontarf. 

Healy, Eev. John, LL.D., Canon. St. Columba's, Kells, Co. Meath. 

Healy, Eev. William, P.P. Johnstown, Co. Kilkenny. 

Healy, William, J.P. Donard View, Downpatrick. 

Hearne, J. B. Chilcomb, New Eoss. 

HEMPHILL, Rev. Samuel, D.D. Birr Eectory, Parsonstown. 

Henderson, William A. Belclare, Leinster-road, West, Dublin. 

Hennessy, Bryan. 21, South-street, New Eoss. 

Henry, James, M.D. Swanpark, Monaghan. 

Heron, James, B.E., J.P. Tullyvery House, Killyleagh, Co. Down. 

Heron, James Mathers, M.D. Downpatrick. 

Hewat, S. M. F., M.A. (Cantab). Abbeylands, Ballybrack, Co. Dublin. 

Hewson, Eev. Edward F., B.A., Canon. Eectory, Gowran, Co. Kilkenny. 

Hibbert, Eobert Fiennes, J.P. Woodpark, Scariff. 

Hickey, Garrett A., M.D. Priory-street, New Eoss. 

Hickson, Miss. Mitchelstown. 

Higgins, Eev. Michael, C.C. Queenstown. 

Higgins, Patrick. Town Clerk's Office, Waterford. 

Higinbotham, Granby. 46, Wellington Park, Belfast. 

Hill, William H., B.E., F.E.I.B.A. Audley House, Cork. 

Hinch, William A. 77, Long Acre, London, W.C. 

Hinkspn, Henry A., M.A. 107, Blenheim Crescent, London, W. 

Hitchins, Henry. 144, Leinster-road, Dublin. 

Hoare, Most Eev. Joseph, D.D., Bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnois. St. 
Mel's, Longford. 

Hobson, C. J. Benbury, Moy, Co. Armagh. 

Hodges, Professor John F., M.D., F.C.S., F.I.C., J.P. Sandringham, 
Malone-road, Belfast. 

Hodges, Eev. John G. Tesaran Eectory, Banagher. 

Hodgson, Eev. William, M.A. 32, Holford-square, London, W.C. 

Hogan, Eev. Henry, B.D., Canon. All Saints' Vicarage, Phibsborough- 

road, Dublin. 

Hogg, Jonathan, D.L. 12, Cope-street, Dublin. 
Hogg, Thomas P. Craigmore, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 
Hoguet, Mrs. Henry L. 48, West 28th Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Holding, T. H. 7, Maddox-street, London, W. 
Holland, Joseph. Holland House, Knock, Co. Down. 













Holmes, George, C.I., E.I.C. Cromwell's Fort, Wexford. 
Hopkins, Rev. John W., B.A. Agherin Vicarage, Conna. 
Horan, John, M.E., M. INST. C.E., County Surveyor. 8, Victoria-terrace, 


Hore, Philip Herbert. Imperial Institute, London, S.W. 
Houston, Eev. J. D. Craig, B.D. Hydepark Manse, Belfast. 
Huband, Eev. Hugo E., M.A. (Cantab.). Killiskey Eectory, Ashford, Co. 


Hudson, Eobert, M.D. Bridge House, Dingle. 
Huggard, Stephen. Clonmore, Tralee. 
Hughes, Benjamin. Independent Office, Wexford. 
Hughes, Miss Helen. 185, Eathgar-road, Dublin. 
Hughes, Eev. John. St. Augustine's, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Humphreys, Eev. John, B.A. The Manse, Tullamore. 
Hunt, Edmund Langley. 67, Pembroke-road, Dublin ; and 64, George-st., 


Hunter, Thomas. Post Office, Glenarm. 
Hurley, Eev. Patrick, P.P. Inchigeela, Co. Cork. 
Hyde, Henry Barry, F.S.S. 5, Eaton Eise, Ealing, London, W. 

Ireland, William. 46, Arthur-street, Belfast, 
Irvine, Charles E. E. A. Lisgoole Abbey, Enniskillen. 
Irwin, Eev. Alexander, M.A. 2, Beresford-place, Armagh. 
Irwin, William. Annagh House, Aughnacloy. 

Isaac, Very Eev. Abraham, B.A., Dean of Ardfert. Kilgobbin Eectory, 
Camp, E.S.O., Co. Kerry. 

Jackman, Eichard H. Alverno, Thurles. 

Jackson, J. F. Clifden Lodge, Strand-road, Merrion. 

James, Charles Edward, M.B. Butler House, Kilkenny. 

Jameson, Ven. Archdeacon, M.A. Killeshin Parsonage, Carlow. 

Jeffares, Eev. Danby, M.A. Lusk, Co. Dublin. 

Jefferson, Wood Gibson, M.A., LL.B., Barrister- at-Law. 3, Mount-street 

Crescent, Dublin. 
Jellett, Very Eev. Henry, D.D., Dean of St. Patrick's. The Deanery, 

St. Patrick's, Dublin. 

Jellie, Eev. William, B.A. 44, Burlington-road, Ipswich. 
Jennings, Ignatius E. B., C.I. E.I.C. Ballytruckle, Waterford. 
Jephson-Norreys, Mrs. Atherton. The Castle, Mallow. 
Johnston, James W., J.P. Newtownbutler. 
Johnston, John W. Eossmore Agency Office, Monaghan. 
Jones, Bryan John. 1st Leinster Eegiment, Lisnawilly, Dundalk. 
Jones, Eev. David, M.A., Canon of Bangor Cathedral. Llandegai, N. Wales. 
Jordan, Eev. William, M.A. St. Augustine's Moreland, Melbourne, 

Joyce, Patrick Weston, LL.D., M.E.I. A. Lyre-na-Grena, Leinster-road, 


Kane, Eev. Eichard E., LL.D. Christ Church Eectory, Belfast. 

Kavanagh, Very Eev. Michael, D.D., P.P. New Eoss. 

Keane, Lady. Cappoquin House, Cappoquin. $ 

Keane, Miss Frances. Glenshelane, Cappoquin. 

Keane, Marcus, J.P. Beech Park, Ennis. 

Keatinge, Eev. P. A., O.S.F. Franciscan Convent, Waterford. 

Keene, Charles Haines, M.A. 19, Stephen's-green, and University Club> 


Keene, Most Eev. James Bennett, D.D., Bishop of Meath. Navan. 
Keith, James, Inspector of Schools. The Mall, Westport. 
Kelly, Edmund Walshe. Summerhill, Tramore. 
Kelly, Francis James, J.P. Weston, Duleek. 













Kelly, Ignatius S. Provincial Bank House, Cork. 

Kelly, Very Rev. James J"., P.P., Canon. St. Peter's, Athlone. 

Kelly, Rev. John, C.C. Dalkey. 

Kelly, Richard J., Barrister-at-Law, J.P. 21, Great Charles- street, 


Kelly, Thomas Aliaga. 64, Upper Leeson-street, Dublin. 
Kennan, Williams R. Villa Fragonaid, Arcachon, France. 
Kennedy, John. Ardbana House, Coleraine. 
Kenny, Patrick. Grace Dieu, Clontarf . 
Kenny, Thomas Hugh. 55, George-street, Limerick. 
Kenny, William F., M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 10, Upper Pembroke-street, 


Kermode, P. M. C., F.S.A. (Scot.). Hillside, Ramsey, Isle of Man. 
Kernan, George. 56, Northumberland-road, Dublin. 
Kernan, Rev. Richard Arthurs, B.D. The Rectory, Hillsborough. 
Kerr, Rev. Win. Jobn B. 70, Wharf-road, Grantham, Lincolnshire. 
Kiernan, Mrs. Leitrim Lodge, Dalkey. 
Kiernan, Thomas. Leitrim Lodge, Dalkey. 
Kilbride, Rev. William, M.A. Aran Island, Galway. 
Killeen, John W., Solicitor. 32, Waterloo-road, Dublin. 
KIMBERLEY, Kt. Hon. the Earl of, K.G. Kimberley House, Wymond- 

ham, Norfolk. 

King, Miss Kathleen L. 52, Lansdowne-road, Dublin. 
King, Lucas White, LL.D., F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 52, Lansdowne-road, 


King-Edwards, William, J.P. Dartans House, Castlederg. 
Kinnear, Ernest A. Ballyheigue Castle, Co. Kerry. 
Kirkpatrick, Robert. 1, Queen' s-square, Strathbungo, Glasgow. 
Kirker, Gilbert, M.D., c/o S. K. Kirker. Board of Works, Belfast. 
Knox, Miss K. Ennis, Co. Clare. 

Latfan, P. M., L.R. C.P.I. Belper Hill, Tara, Co. Meath. 

Laffan, Thomas, M.D. Cashel. 

Lalor, M. W. Kilkenny Moderator Office, Kilkenny. 

Langan, Rev. Thomas, D.D. St. Mary's, Athlone. 

Langrishe, Mrs. Knocktopher Abbey, Co. Kilkenny. 

Latimer, John. 11, Denny-street, Tralee. 

Lavell, Rev. Edward, C.C. Tully, Letterfrack, Co. Galway. 

Lawlor, Rev. Hugh Jackson, M.A., D.D. 50, Palmerston-place, Edin- 

Lawson, Thomas Dillon. Bank of Ireland, Galway. 

Lecky, Rev. Alexander Gourley, B.A. Feddyglass, Raphoe. 

Ledger, Rev. William Cripps, M.A. The Rectory, Lisnaskea. 

Ledger, Z. J. 27, George -street, Limerick. 

Lee, Rev. Timothy, C.C. St. John's, Limerick. 

Leech, Henry Brougham, LL.D., Regius Professor of Laws, Dublin. Yew 
Park, Castle-avenue, Clontarf. 

Leeson-Marshall, M. R., Barrister-at-Law. 6, King's Bench Walk, Temple, 
London, E.G. 

LeFanu, Thomas Philip, B.A. (Cantab.). Chief Secretary's Office, Dublin 

Leonard, John. Lisahally, Londonderry. 

Leonard, Mrs. T. Warrenstown, Dunsany, Co. Meath. 

Lepper, Francis Robert, Director, Ulster Banking Co., Belfast. 

L' Estrange, Rev. A. G. Gonna, Co. Cork. 

Lett, B. A. W., J.P. Ballyvergan, Adamstown, Co. Wexford. 

Lett, Rev. Henry Wm., M.A., M.R.I.A. Aghaderg Glebe, Lough- 

Lewis, Professor Bunnell, M.A., F.S.A. Queen's College, Cork. 

Lewis, Thomas White, M.D. Kingscliffe, Wansford, Northamptonshire. 

Librarian. Public Library, Armagh. 

Librarian. Belfast Library, Linen Hall, Belfast. 


















Librarian. Belfast Free Public Library, Belfast. 

Librarian. Free Public Library, Liverpool. 

Librarian. Public Library, Boston, U. S. 

Librarian. Detroit Public Library, Micbigan, U. S., per B. F. Stevens, 

4, Trafalgar-square, London. 
Librarian. Astor Library, New York, U.S., per B. F. Stevens, 4, Trafalgar- 

square, London. 

Librarian. King's Inns Library, Henrietta-street, Dublin. 
Librarian. Library of Advocates, Edinburgh. 
Librarian, Limerick Institution. 99, George -street, limerick. 
Librarian, Limerick Protestant Young Men's Association. 97, George-street, 

Librarian. Public Library, Melbourne, per Agent-General for Victoria. 

15, Victoria-street, Westminster, S.W. 
Librarian. Queen's College, Belfast. 
Librarian. Queen's College, Cork. 
Librarian. Queen's College, Galway. 
Librarian. Berlin Koyal Library, per Messrs. Asher & Co., 13, Bedford-st., 

Covent Garden, London. 

Librarian. Science and Art Department, London, S.W. 
Lindesay, Rev. William O'Neill, M.A. Baronscourt Rectory, Newtown- 

Lindsay, Dr. David Moore, L.R. C.P.I., &c. 373, Main-street, Salt Lake 

City; Utah, U.S.A. 

Lindsay, James A., M.D., M.Ch. 37, Victoria-place, Belfast. 
Lindsay, Rev. Jobn Woodley, D.D. Athnowen Rectory, Ovens, Co. 


Lindsay, Rev. Samuel, B.A. Prospect House, Dungarmon. 
Lipscombe, W. H. Church-road, Malahide. 
Listen, George, Solicitor. Kilmallock. 

Little, Philip Francis, jun. 6, JS'ew Brighton, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
Livingstone, Rev. Robert George, M.A. Brinkworth Rectory, Chippenham, 


Lloyd, Mrs. Bloomfield, Mullingar. 
Lloyd, William. 1, Pery-square, Limerick. 
Lockwood, F. W., C.E., Architect. 16, Waring- street, Belfast. 
Long, Mrs. 16, Appian-way, Dublin. 
Longfield, Mrs. R. Curraglass Rectory, Tallow, Co. Cork. 
Longfield, Thomas H., F.S. A., M.R.I. A. Science and Art Museum, Leinster 

House, Dublin. 

Longford, Right Hon. the Countess of. Pakenham Hall, Castlepollard. 
Lopdell, John. Stamer Park, Ennis. 

Lough, Thomas, M.P. 5, Newton Grove, Bedford Park, Chiswick. 
Loughnan, Henry James, Barrister-at-Law. 39, Belvidere-place, Dublin. 
Love, Hugh Thomas. Charleville-square, Tullamore. 
Lovegrove, E. W., M.A., M.R.I. A. Friar's Cottage, Bangor, North Wales. 
Lowe, William Ross Lewin. Middlewych, St. Alban's, Herts. 
Lowndes, Thomas F., D. I.R.I. C. Woodford, Co. Galway. 
Lowry, S. C. W., Manager, Ulster Bank, Downpatrick. 
Lucas, Rev. Frederick John, D.D. 5, Breffni-terrace, Kingstown. 
Lunham, Colonel Thomas Ainslie, M.A., J.P. Ardfallen, Douglas, Cork. 
Lyle, Rev. Thomas, M.A. 89, St. Laurence -road, Clontarf . 
Lynam, F. J., County Surveyor. Omagh. 

Lynch, Rev. J. Fetherston, B.A. Cahirconlish Rectory, Pallasgrean. 
LYNCH, J. J. Towanda, Pa., U.S.A. 
Lynch, Patrick. Inland Revenue Office, Ballyshannon. 
Lynch, Rev. Patrick. St. Wilfrid's, Hulme, Manchester. 
Lyster, Rev. H. Cameron, B.D. Rectory, Enniscorthy. 
Lyster, Thomas W., M.A. 10, Harcourt-terrace, Dublin. 

Macalister, R. Alexander Stewart, M.A. 2, Gordon -street, London, W.C. 
Macaulay, John, J.P., D.L. Red Hall, Ballycary, Belfast. 
























Macauley, Joseph, Solicitor, Donegall Chambers, Royal-avenue, Belfast. 

MacCartan, Eev. Owen, P.P. Larne. 

Mac Dermott, Miss Margaret, B.A. College Buildings, Dungannon. 

MacDonnell, Charles R. A., J.P., D.L. Liscrona, Kilkee, Co. Clare. 

Mac Gillycuddy, Daniel de Courcy, Solicitor. Day-place, Tralee. 

Mac Gillycuddy, John, J. P. Aghadoe House, Killarney. 

Mack, Rev. A. "William Bradshaw, B.A. St. Finian's, Swords. 

Mackenzie, John, C.E. 7, Donegall-square, E., Belfast. 

Mac Laughlin, Daniel, Solicitor. Coleraine. 

MacMahon-Creagh, Mrs. Dangan, Kilkishen, Co. Clare. 

Macmillan, Rev. John, M.A. 76, South Parade, Belfast. 

Mac Mullan, Very Rev. Alexander, P.P., V.G. Ballymena. 

Macnamara, George Unthank, L.R. C.S.I. Bankyle House, Corofin. 

MacNeill, John Gordon Swift, M.A. (Oxon.), Q.C., M.P. 14, Blackhall- 

street, Dublin. 
Maconachie, Rev. James H., B.A. Erindale, Cliftonville- avenue, 


Macray, Rev. Wm. Dunn, M.A., F.S.A. Ducklington, Witney, Oxon. 
Mac Sheehy, Brian, LL.D. 35, Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 
Mac William, Rev. John W. A. Belcoo, Blacklion, Co. Cavan. 
M'Aleer, H. K. Beragh, Co. Tyrone. 

M'Alister, James, B.A., D.I.N.S. Scoby House, Enniscorthy. 
M'Arthur, Alexander, J.P. Knox's- street, Sligo. 
M'Bride, Francis. 39, Grovesnor-square, Rathmines. 
M'Bride, John. Granville House, Belfast. 
M'Bride, Joseph M. Harbour Office, Westport. 
M'Burney, James. Loughconnolly, N.S., Broughshane. 
M'Call, Patrick J., T.C. 25, Patrick-street, Dublin. 
M'Cann, David. National Bank, Kilkenny. 
M'Carte, James. 51, St. George's Hill, Everton, Liverpool. 
McCarthy, Alexander, Solicitor. Town Clerk, Cork. 
McCarthy, Samuel Trant, J.P. Srugrena, Cahirciveen. 
McCarthy, William P. Trant, Solicitor. Inch House, Killarney. 
M'Clelland, William John, M.A. Collegiate School, Portarlington. 
M'Clintock, Rev. Francis G. Le Poer, M.A. (Cantab.), Canon. Drumcar 

Rectory, Dunleer. 

M'Comiskey, Arthur W. S., M.B. Killough, Co. Down. 
M'Connell, James. Annadale Hall, Belfast. 
M'Connell, James. 48, Lower Sackville-street, Dublin. 
M'Cormick, William, M.A. Ardnaree, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
M'Cormick, H. M'Neile, Clerk of the Crown, Co. Antrim. Oramnore, 

Craigavad, Belfast. 

M'Creery, Alexander John. John-street, Kilkenny. 
M'Crum, Robert G., J.P. Milford, Armagh. 
M'Cully, Rev. William J., B.A. The Manse, Carlingford. 
M'Cutchan, Rev. George, M.A. Rectory, Kenmare. 
M'Donnell, Mrs. 68, Rathgar-road, Dublin. 
M'Donnell, Rev. Patrick, P.P. Graignamanagh, Co. Kilkenny. 
M'Elhatton, Rev. John, C.C. Strabane. 
M'Enery, D. T., M.A., D.I.N.S. Salisbury House, Athy. 
M'Enery, M. J., B.A. Public Record Office, Dublin. 
M'Entire, Alexander Knox, Barrister-at-Law., J.P. 75, Merrion-square, 

M'Fadden, Right Rev. Monsignor Hugh, P.P., V.G. Parochial House, 


M'Farlane, James, J.P. Strabane. 
M'Gee, Rev. Samuel Russell, M.A. The Rectory, Dunlavin, Co. 


M'Gee, William, J.P. 18, Nassau-street, Dublin. 
M'Glone, Rev. Michael, P.P. Rosslea. 

M'llwaine, Robert. Grand Jury Secretary's Office, Downpatrick. 
M'Inerney, Rev. John, P.P. Shinrone, King's Co. 
M'Intosh, Robert. Drogheda Brewery, Drogheda. 














M'Keefry, Rev. Joseph, C.C., M.R.I. A. Waterside, Deny. 
M'Kenna, Rev. James E., C.C. St. Michael's Presbytery, Enniskillen. 
M'Kenna, Very Rev. Edward Win., P.P., V.F. Cumber Claudy, Co. 


M'Kenna, Very Rev. James, P.P., Canon. Brookeborough, Co. Fermanagh. 
M 'Knight, John P. Nevara, Chichester Park, Belfast. 
M'Larney, Rev. Robert, B.A., Canon. Banagher, King's Co. 
M'Laughlin, John. Cart Hall, Coleraine. 

M'Manus, Very Rev. Canon, P.P. St. Catherine's, Meath-street, Dublin. 
M'Nally, Charles F., J.P. Grange, Tullow, Co. Carlow. 
M'Neill, Charles. Hazelbrook, Malahide. 
M'jSeill, John. Chancery Accounting Office, Dublin. 
M'Nulty, Robert. Raphoe. 
M'Quaid, Surgeon-Lieut-Colonel P. J., M.D., M.Ch. Garrison Station 

Hospital, Hilsea, near Portsmouth. 
M'Redmond, Most Rev. Thomas J., D.D., Bishop of Killaloe. Bishop's 

House, Ashline, Ennis. 
Madden, Right Rev. James, P.P., V.G. St. Lawrence, Tynagh, Co. 

Gal way. 

Madden, Rev. John, C.C. Cashel. 

Maffett, William Hamilton, Barrister-at-Law. St. Helena, Finglas. 
Magrath, Redmond. 53, Clanbrassil- street, Dundalk. 
Mahaffy, William Irwin, Solicitor. Ward Villa West, Bangor, Co. Down. 
Mahon, George Arthur, LL.B. Local Government Board, Dublin. 
Mahon, Thomas George Stacpoole, B.A. (Oxon.), J.P., D.L. Corbally, 

Quin, Co. Clare. 

Mahony, Bernard P. J., M.R.C.V.S. Annefield, Maryborough. 
Mahony, Daniel, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 8, Mount-street, Crescent, 

Mahony, Denis M'Carthy, B.A., Barrister-at-Law. 1, Herbert-street. 


Mahony, J. J. Fort Villas, Queenstown. 
Mahony, Thomas Henry. Clonard, Blackrock-road, Cork. 
Malcomson, John. 47, Pembroke-road, Dublin. 
Manders, Miss H. G. 17, Waterloo-road, Dublin. 
Mangan, Richard. 5, Brighton Villas, Cork. 
Manning, Rev. James, P.P. Roundwood, Co. Wicklow. 
Mannion, Rev. Patrick, P.P., Canon. The Presbytery, Elphin, Co. Ros- 


Mara, Bernard S. Tullamore, King's County. 

March, Henry Colley, M.D. (Lond)., F.S.A. Portesham, Dorchester. 
Martin, R. T. Rosemount, Artane. 
Mason, Thomas. 5, Dame-street, Dublin. 
Mathews, Thomas. 2, Windsor Gardens, Belfast. 
Mathewson, Lavens. Helen's Bay, Co. Down. 
Matthews, George. Holly mount, Maguire's-bridge, Co. Fermanagh. 
Maturin, Rev. Albert Henry, M.A. The Rectory, Maghera, Co. Deny. 
Maunsell, William Pryce, B.A., Barrister-at-Law. 3, Neptune-terrace, 

Sandy cove. 

Mayne, Thomas, F.R.G.S.I. 9, Lord Edward-street, Dublin. 
Mayo, Right Hon. the Earl of, J.P., D.L. Palmerstown House, 

Straff an. 
Meade, Right Rev. William Edward, D.D., Bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and 

Ross. The Palace, Cork. 

Meagher, Jeremiah J. 116, Lower Baggot- street, Dublin. 
Meagher, Very Rev. William, P.P., Canon. Templemore. 
Meegan, Right Rev. Monsignor Peter, P.P. Lisnaskea. 
Meehan, Rev. Joseph, C.C. Belhavel, Dromahaire. 
Meehan, Patrick A. Maryborough. 

Melville, Alexander G., M.D. Knockane House, Portlaw. 
Metcalfe, George. Johnstown Cottage, Rathdowney, Queen's County. 
Middleton, Shireff. 11, Lower Dominick-street, Dublin. 
Micks, WiUiam L., M.A. 23, Rutland-square, Dublin. 









MILLNER, Capt. Joshua Kearney. 4, Cross-avenue, Blackrock, Co. 


Mitchell, William M., E.H.A., F.R.I. A.I. 5, Leinster- street, Dublin. 
Moffatt, Rev. John E., M.D. 1, Palmerston Villas, Rathmines. 
Molloy, Joseph, J.P. Main-street, Thurles. 
Molony, Alfred. 24, Grey Coat Gardens, Westminster, S.W. 
Molony, Henry G., M.D. Odelville, Ballingarry, Limerick. 
Molony, James Barry. Bindon- street, Ennis. 
Monahan, Rev. Daniel, P.P. Tubber, Moate, Co. Westmeath. 
Monks, Thomas F., LL.D., Solicitor. 1(3, Bachelor's- walk, Dublin. 
Montgomery, Archibald V., Solicitor. 12, Molesworth-street, Dublin. 
Montgomery, James. 5, Carlisle -road, Londonderry. 
Montgomery, John Wilson, Downpatrick. 
Mooney, Morgan. 118, Pembroke -road, Dublin. 
Moony, George M. S. Enraght. J.P. The Doon, Athlone. 
Moore, Rev. Courtenay, M.A., Canon. Rectory, Mitchelstown. 
Moore, Rev. H. Kingsmill, M.A., Principal, Training College, Kildare- 

street, Dublin. 

Moore, Hugh Stuart, M.A. 7, Fitzwilliam- square, Dublin. 
Moore, John Gibson, J.P. Llandaff Hall, Merrion. 
Moore, Joseph H., M.A., M. INST. C.E.I. 63, Eccles-street, Dublin. 
Moore, William, Castle Mahon, Blackrock, Co. Cork. 
Moorhead, Rev. Joseph, B.A. Broughshane, Co. Antrim. 
Morgan, Arthur P., B.A. (Dubl.), D.I.N.S. Springvale, Tipperary. 
Morgan, Very Rev. John, D.D., The Deanery, Waterford. 
Morris, Rev. Wm. Bullen. The Oratory, South Kensington, London, S.W. 
Morrison, Alexander Kerr. Maghera, Co. Derry. 
Morton, John. Manager, Provincial Bank, Limerick. 
Mulholland, Miss M.F. Eglantine, Hillsborough. 
Mullan, Rev. David, M.A. Christian Union Buildings, Lower Abbey-street, 


Mullan, Robert A., B.A. 9, Trevor-hill, Newry. 
Mullen, Frank. 44 Room, Custom House, Thames- street, London. 
Mullin, Charles, Solicitor. Omagh. 

Mulqueen, John T., Inspector of Inland Revenue. Nairn, N.B. 
Murdock, James. 10, Ponsonby-avenue, Belfast. 
Murphy, Rev. Arthur William, P.P. Kilemlagh, Cahirciveen. 
Murphy, Rev. James E. H., M.A., Professor of Irish, Dublin University. 

Rathcore Rectory, Enfield, Co. Meath. 
Murphy, Very Rev. Jeremiah, D.D., P.P. Macroom. 
Murphy, Henry. Diamond, Clones. 
Murphy, John J. Belvedere, Tramore, Co. Waterford. 
Murphy, John J., H.M. Customs. Culgreine, Ballintemple, Cork. 
Murphy, Rev. Joseph, P.P. St. Martin's, Ballycullane, Wexford. 
Murphy, M. L. Ballyboy, Ferns. 
Murphy, Miss. 77, Ulverton-road, Dalkey. 
Murray, Archibald. Portland, Limerick. 

Murray, J. W. Brady, LL'.B., J.P. Northampton House, Kinvara. 
Murtagh, Mrs. 9, Raglan-road, Dublin. 
Murtagh, Miss. 9, Raglan-road, Dublin. 

Musgrave, Sir James, Bart., J.P., D.L. Drumglass House, Belfast. 
Myles, Rev. Edward A., M.A. Solitude House, Banbridge. 

Nash, Lieut. -Colonel Edward, J.P. 56, Sloane-street, London, S.W. 

Nash, Richard G., J.P. Finnstown. House, Lucan. 

Nason, William H., M.A. 42, Dawson- street, Dublin. 

Neeson, Rev. Arthur J., C.C. Killyleagh, Co. Down, 

Neill, Sharman D. 12, Donegall-place, Belfast. 

Neligan, Major William John, J.P. Churchill, Tralee. 

Nelis, John. Londonderry. 

Newell, P., B.A., D.I.N.S. Ballaghadereen. 

Nicolls, Rev. George A., B.A. The Rectory, Ballycumber, King's Co. 



1893 Nixon, James H. F., F.R.G.S., J.P. Mount Brandon, Graignamanagh. 

1889 Nolan, MichaelJ., M.D. Down District Asylum, Downpatrick. 

1890 Nolan, Pierce L., B.A., Barrister-at-Law. 6, St. Stephen's-green, 


1896 Nolan, "William R., B.A. Brookville, Simmonscourt-avenue, Donnybrook. 

1894 Norman, Alfred, LL.D., SoHcitor. 68, Dame-street, Dublin. 

1891 Norman, Conolly, F. E.G. P.I. Richmond Asylum, Dublin. 
1896 Nowlan, Rev. J. A., O.S.A. St. John-street, West, Dublin. 
1893 Nugent, Yen. Garrett, M.A., Archdeacon of Meath. Trim. 

1893 O'Brien, James J. 1, Charlemont-terrace, Cork. 

1889 O'Brien, Rev. Lucius H., M.A. The Rectory, Adare, Co. Limerick. 
1871 ' O'Brien, Robert Vere, B.A. (Oxon.), J.P. New Hall, Ennis. 

1896 O'Byrne, Count Edward A. Corville, Roscrea. 

1890 O'Callaghan, Mrs. Maryfort, Tulla. 

1894 O'Callaghan, Rev. Joseph. 59, Eccles-street, Dublin. 

1890 O'Callaghan-Westropp, Captain George, J.P. Coolreagh, Bodyke. 

1897 O'Connell, Rev. Daniel, B.D. 81, Quay, Waterford. 

1893 O'Connor, Charles A., M.A., Q.C. 50, Upper Mount-street, Duhlin. 
1897 O'Connor, M. J., Solicitor. 2, George-street, Wexford. 

1895 O'Connor-Morris, Miss L. Gartnamona, Tullamore. 

1890 O'Connor, Rev. T. C., M.A., Canon. Donaghmore, Baltinglass. 

1892 O'Connor, Thomas P., B.A., D.I.N.S. Longford. 

1896 O'Dea, Rev. Denis, C.C. Kilkee. 

1890 O'Doherty, Rev. Philip, C.C., M.R.I. A. St. Columb's Presbytery, 


1890 O'Donnell, Rev. Patrick, P.P. Doon, Pallasgrean. 

1892 O'Donoghue, David J. 3, Bedford-row, Dublin. 

1874 O'Donoghue, Rev. Denis, P.P., M.R.I.A. Ardfert, Tralee. 

1894 O'Donoghue, The. 10, Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 

1894 O'Donoghue, Thomas Griffin. 3, Bedford-row, Dublin. 

1897 O'Duffy, John, Dental Surgeon. 54, Rutland-square, Duhlin. 
1892 O'Farrell, Edward P., L.R.C.S.E. 21, Rutland-square, Dublin. 

1895 O'Halloran, Patrick M. Corofin, Co. Clare. 

1866 O'Hanlon, Very Rev. John, P.P., M.R.I.A., Canon. 3, Leahy-terrace, 
Irishtown, Dublin. 

1889 O'Hanrahan, Timothy Wm., J.P. Parliament-street, Kilkenny. 

1890 O'Hara, Rigbt Rev. John M., Monsignor, P.P., V.F. Crossmolina. 

1896 O'Hennessy, Bartholomew. Kilkee. 

1889 O'Keefe, Stephen M., B.A. , Barrister-at-Law, J.P. Delville, Glasnevin. 

1889 Olden, Rev. Thomas, M.A., M.R.I.A. Ballyclough, Mallow. 

1891 O'LEARY, Kev. Edward, P.P. Balyna, Moyvalley. 

1888 O'Leary, John. Lonsdale, St. Lawrence-road, Clontarf. 

1892 O'LEARY, Eev. John, P.P. Kilmalchedor, Ballyferriter, Dingle. 
1884 O'Leary, Patrick. Main-street, Graig-na-Managh, Co. Kilkenny. 
1870 O'Loghlen, John. 59, Bromley -street, Commercial-road, London, E. 

1896 O'Mahony, Florence M'Carthy. Munster and Leinster Bank, Cork. 

1897 O'Malley, Joseph, B.E. 10, Glentworth-street, Limerick. 
1894 O'Malley, Middleton Moore, J.P. Ross, Westport. 

1891 O'Malley, Thomas, Secretary, Waterford, Dungarvan, and Lismore Railway 

Company. Tramore, Waterford. 

1897 O'Meara, Rev. Eugene H., M.A. The Vicarage, Tallaght. 

1891 O'Meara, John J., Solicitor, T.C. 211, Great Brunswick- street, Dublin. 

1894 O'Morchoe, The. Kerrymount, Foxrock. 

1891 O'Morchoe, Rev. Thomas A., M.A. Kiltermm Rectory, Golden Ball. 

1890 O'Mulremn, Richard J., M.A. 6, Carlisle-street, S. C. Road, Dublin. 
1896 O'Neill, Charles. 37, Great James's-street, Londonderry. 

1892 O'Neill, Rev. James, M.A. 5, College-square, E., Belfast. 

1889 O'Neill, Michael. Imperial Hotel, Kilkenny. 

1863 O'Neill, Very Rev. Patrick, P.P., Canon. Clontarf, Dublin. 

1891 O'Neill, William P., M.R.I.A. 58, Great Charles-street, Dublin. 
1896 O'Reilly, James. Dromore, Co. Tyrone. 







1897 Penny, Eev. James. Wispington Vicarage, Horncastle, Lincolnshire. 
Pentland, Augustus Tichborne, M.A. 2, Tower Hill, Dalkey. 







O'Reilly, Patrick J. 7, North Earl-street, Dublin. 

Oldham, Miss Edith. 33, Upper Leeson-street, Dublin. 

O'Riordan, Rev. John, C.C. Cloyne. 

OEMONDE, Most Hon. the Marquis of, K.P. The Castle, Kilkenny. 

Orpen, Ve*n. Raymond d'A., M.A., Archdeacon of Ardfert. Rectory, 

Orpen, Goddard H., B.A., Barrister-at-Law. Erpingham, Bedford Park, 

Chiswick, London. 

Orpin, John. 47, St. Stephen's -green, Dublin. 
Orr, Jacob, J.P. Cranagill, Loughgall. 

O'Shee, N. Power, J.P., D.L. Garden Morris, Kilmacthomas. 
0' Sullivan, Very Rev. Archdeacon, P.P., V.G. Holy Cross, Kenmare. 
Oulton, Rev. Richard C., M.A., D.D., Glynn Rectory, Glynn, Belfast. 
Overend, Trevor T. L., LL.B. 12, Ely-place, Dublin. 

Palmer, J. E. Roselawn, Ballybrack. 

Palmer, Mrs. Carrig House* Lower Road, Cork. 

Panton, John. 45, St. Andrew- street, Dublin. 

Parke, Robert H., LL.B., Solicitor. Monaghan. . . 

Parker, J. A. Post Office, Wexford. 

Parkinson, Miss. Westbourne, Ennis. 

Patterson, Mervyn S. Tullyard, Dungannon. 

Patterson, William Hugh, M.R.I. A. Garranard, Strandtown, Belfast. 

Patton, Alexander, M.D. Farnham House, Finglas, Co. Dublin. 

Pentland, George Henry, B.A., J.P. Black Hall, Drogheda. 

Perry, James, M.E., M. INST. C.E., County Surveyor. Well Park, 

Gal way. 

Persse, Mrs. Ormonde View, Ballycrissane, Ballinasloe. 
Peter, Miss. Cron Bryn, The Hill, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
Phelps, Ernest James. Water Park, Castleconnell. 
Phibbs, Owen, J.P., D.L. Seafield, Sligo. 
Phillips, James J., C.E., Archt. 61, Royal-avenue, Belfast. 
Piatt, Arthur Donn, Vice-Consul, U.S.A. 204, Great Brunswick-street 


Pirn, Miss Gertrude. Glenageragh House, Kingstown. 
Pirn, Miss Mary E. Greenbank, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
Pirn, Miss Miriam. 2, Belgrave-square, S., Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
Pitt- Rivers, General A. H. Lane-Fox, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 4, Grosvenor 

Gardens, London, S.W., and Rushmoro, Salisbury. 
Plummer, Rev. Richard, D.D. Ashfield Glebe, Cootehill. 
Plunkett, Ambrose, B.A., Solicitor. 29, Lower Leeson-street, Dublin. 
Plunkett, Thomas, M.R.I. A. Enniskillen. 
Poe, Lieut. -Colonel Wm. Hutcheson, C.B., J.P., D.L. Heywood, Bal- 


Pounder, Festus Kelly, B.A. Slaney-place, Enniscorthy. 
Powell, Frederick York, M.A. Professor, Christ Church, Oxford. 
Powell, Rev. William H., D.D. Rathclarin Rectory, Kilbrittain. 
Power, Ambrose William Bushe. Glencairn Abbey, Lismore. 
Power, Rev. George Beresford, B.A. Kilfane Glebe, Thomastown. 
Power, Rev. John, P.P. Kilteely, Pallasgrean, Co. Limerick. 
Power, Laurence John, J.P. Parade, Kilkenny. 
Pratt, Rev. John, M.A. (Dubl.). Rectory, Durrus, Co. Cork. 
Pratt, Rev. Philip C., R.N. Woodview Cottage, St. Anne's Hill, Co. 


Prendergast, Rev. John, C.C. Windgap, Kilkenny. 
Preston, Captain John, R.M. The Moorings, Athlone. 
Price, J. Spencer. Waterhead House, Ambleside, Westmoreland. 
Purdon, Henry Samuel, M.D. 60, Pakenham-place, Belfast. 
Purefoy, Rev. Amyrald D., M.A. 3, Park-place, Island Bridge. 



1891 Quail, Rowland, J. Downpatrick. 

1890 Quan- Smith, Samuel A. Bullick Castle, Dalkey, Co. Dublin. 

1889 Quin, James, J.P. 70, George -street, Limerick. 
1896 Quinn, John A., Solicitor. Dungannon. 

1891 Quinn, J. Monsarrat. 25, Lower Beechwood-avenue, Ranelagh. 
1893 Quinn, Rev. Bartholomew, Adm. Tourlistrane, Tubbercurry. 

1890 Quinn, Very Rev. Edward T., Canon, P.P. Ballybrack. 

1896 Rankin, Rev. R. B., B.A. All Saints, Newtown- Cunningham. 

1880 Raphael, George. Galgorm House, Ballymena. 

1891. Rapmund, Rev. Joseph, C.C. Sallymount, Clogher, Co. Tyrone. 

1891 Revelle, Samuel J. 37, Chelmsford-road, Dublin. 

1891 Reynell, Miss. 22, Eccles-street, Dublin. 

1893 Riall, Commander Arthur G., R.N. Chantilly, Shankill. 
1890 Rice, Mrs. Grange Erin, Douglas, Cork. 

1881 Rice, Lieut. -Colonel Richard Justice, J.P. Bushmount, Lixnaw, Co. 


1897 Rice, Thomas. 5, Carlisle-street, Dublin. 

1895 Richardson, Miss Anna H. Craigentemple, Portrush-. 

1892 Ridgeway, William, M.A. Fen Ditton, Cambridge. 

1893 Ringwood, William, J.P. Tullyvolty, Johnstown, Co. Kilkenny. 

1897 Roberts, Edward, M.A., H.M. Inspector of Schools. Plas Maesinda, 

1890 Roberts, George C., J.P. Summer Hill, Enniscorthy. 

1896 Robertson, John. 1, Rostrevor-terrace, Rathgar. 

1894 Robinson, John 0' Carroll. United States Hotel, Beach-street, Boston, 

Mass., U.S.A. 

1891 Robinson, Thomas. Drogheda. 

1897 Roche, H. J. The Mailings, Enniscorthy. 
1871 Roche, Patrick J. The Makings, New Ross. 

1892 Rock, Thomas Dennis. 62, Leadenhall-street, London, E.G. 
1890 Roe, Rev. John, C.C. Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny. 

1892 Rogers, William E. Belfast Banking Company, Portaferry. 

1896 Roice, Bernard Herron. Churchtown House, Tagoat. 

1892 Rolleston, Thomas WiUiam, B.A. 104, Pembroke-road, Dublin. 

1889 Rooke, Rev. George W., M.A. Precentor, St. Canice's Library, Kilkenny. 
1896 Rooney, Rev. Thomas J., C.C. Banbridge. 

1894 ROTHEKAM, Edward Crofton. Belview, Crossakiel, Co. Meath. 

1896 Russell, John, C.E. 16, Waring- street, Belfast. 

1897 Russell, William, c/o Forster Green & Co., Ltd., High-street, Belfast. 

1890 Ryan, Very Rev. Arthur, President, St. Patrick's College, Thurles. 

1889 Ryan, Rev. James J., V.-P. St. Patrick's College, Thurles. 

1890 Ryan, Rev. Martin, C.C. Cullen, Tipperary. 

1897 Ryan, Thomas V., Solicitor. 46, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin. 

1893 Ryder, Arthur Gore, M. INST. C.E. 2, St. John's-terrace, Dolphin's Barn. 

1895 Ryder, Mrs. A. G. 2, St. John's-terrace, Dolphin's-barn. 

1891 Ryland, Richard H., B.A. 26, Herbert-place, Dublin. 

1895 Salazar, The Cavaliere Lorenzo. Director of the Bibliotheca S. Martino, 

1891 Salmon, John. 122, Ellenborough-terraoe, Belfast. 

1897 Sandford, Rev. Herbert M., M.A. St. Peter's Rectory, Drogheda. 

1889 Sankey, Lieut. -General Sir Richard H., K.C.B.,, 6, Lowndes- 
square, London, S.W. 

1894 Sayers, Rev. George, Canon. The Glebe, Upper Ballinderry, Lurgan. 
1889 Sceales, A. E., F.F.A. 48, Castle-street, Liverpool. 

1894 Scott, Anthony, Archt. 16, William-street, Drogheda. 

1879 Scott, Rev. Charles, M.A. St. Paul's Parsonage, Belfast. 

1892 Scott, Conway, C.E. 15, Wellington Park, Belfast. 

1891 Scott, John William, J.P. Roslevan, Ennis. 

1892 Scott, Samuel. Inland Revenue Office, Elgin, N.B. 




1894 Scott, "William A., Archt. 16, William- street, Drogheda 

1891 Scriven, Eev. Rowland, M.A. (Cantab.), M.R.I. A. 33, StephenVgreen, 

1891 Scully, Very Rev. Alex. F., Canon, P.P., V.F. Hospital, Co. Limerick. 

1890 Seale, Mrs. Ardenza, Foxrock, Co. Dublin. 

1892 Semple, Rev. R. H., M.A. 26, Barrington-street, Limerick. 

1891 Sexton, Sir Robert, J.P., D.L. 70, Harcourt-street, Dublin. 
1897 Shackleton, Abraham. 23, Garville-road, Rathgar. 

1896 Sbackleton, George. Anna Liffey House, Lucan. 

1892 Shackleton, Mrs. J. F. Anna Liffey House, Lucan. 

1891 Shannon, Patrick, D.I.N.S. 10, Patrick-street, Kilkenny. 

1897 Shaw, Rev. George Bell. Claggan Manse, Cookstown. 

1895 Shaw, His Honor Judge, M.A. 69, Pembroke-road, Dublin. 

1896 Sheridan, Mrs. 26, North Earl-street, Dublin. 

1896 Sheridan, Rev. N. T., President. St. Peter's College, "Wexford. 

1895 Sherlock, David, J.P., D.L. Rahan Lodge, Tullamore. 

1896 Shore, Colonel the Hon. Frederick, R.A. Ballyduff, Thomastown, Co. 


1896 Shore, The Hon. Mrs. Ballyduff, Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny. 

1894 Simmons, John, Solicitor. Dungannon. 
1890 Simms, James. Abercorn Arms, Strabane. 

1895 Simms, Robert A. Lisdoron, Ballymena. 

1895 Simpson, Mrs. "West Church Manse, Ballymena. 

1892 Simpson, William J. 10, Cornmarket, Belfast. 

1887 Simpson, William M. 15, Hughenden-terrace, Belfast. 

1893 Skeffington, Joseph Bartholomew, M.A., LL.D., D.I.N.S. Waterford. 

1888 Sloane, Mrs. Moy Hill, Co. Tyrone. 

1893 Small, John F., Solicitor. 3 7, 'Hill- street, Newry. 
1895 Small, Miss M. J. Hill-street, Newry. 

1892 Smith, Christopher, D.I.N.S. Woolahara, Cork. 

1892 Smith, Frederick William. 13, College Gardens, Belfast. 

1894 Smith, Rev. George Nuttall, B.A. Abbeyleix. 
1887 Smith, Owen. Nobber, Co. Meath. 

1890 Smith, Rev. Canon, D.D. St. Bartholomew's, Clyde-road, Dublin. 

1895 Smith, Thomas J., D.I., R.I.C. Ballinrobe. 

1893 Smith, William Joseph, J.P. 9, George-street, Waterford. 

1889 Smithwick, Edmund, J.P. Kilcrene House, Kilkenny. 

1893 Smyth, Edward Weber, J.P. 6, St. Stephen's -green, Dublin. 

1895 Smyth, Mrs. E. Weber. 73, St. Stephen's -green, Dublin. 

1894 Smyth, John, B.A. The Crescent, Galway. 

1896 Smyth, Rev. Thomas A. Clogherney Manse, Beragh, Co. Tyrone. 

1894 Smyth, Richard O'Brien, C.E., Archt. 2, Ken il worth-square, Dublin. 

1895 Smyth, Robert Wolfe, J.P. Portlick Castle, Athlone. 

1897 Smyth, Thomas. 2, Lower Ormond-quay, Dublin. 

1894 Smyth, Victor E. 7, Uxbridge-terrace, Dublin. 
1892 Somerville, Bellingham Arthur. Clermont, Rathnew. 

1891 Somerville-Large, Rev. William S., M.A. Carnalway Rectory, Kilcullen. 
1897 Spaight, Colonel William F. Union Hall, Leap, Co. Cork. 

1892 Sparrow, Robert, D.I. R.I.C. Gort. 

1897 Speth, George William, F. R. Hist. S. La Tuya, Edward-road, Bromley, 

1890 Stack,Rev. C. Maurice, M.A. Derryvullan Rectory, Tamlaght, Enniskillen. 

1892 Stacpoole, Mrs. Edenvale, Ennis. 

1895 Stacpoole, Miss. Edenvale, Ennis. 

1889 Stanford, Rev. Bedell, B.A. (Dubl.). 19, Stamer- street, Dublin. 

1893 Stanley, Rev. William Francis, C.C. St. Mary's, Latchford, Warrington. 
1879 Stawell, Jonas W. Alcock, J.P. Kilbrittain Castle, Bandon. 

1890 Steede, John, LL.D., D.I.N.S. Dundalk. 

1894 Steele, Charles W. 18, Crosthwaite Park, Kingstown. 

1895 Steele, Rev. William B., B.A. Levally Rectory, Enniskillen. 
1892 Stephen, Miss Rosamond. Godmanchester, Huntingdon. 

1891 Stephens, Pembroke Scott, Q.C. 18, Parliament- street, Westminster, 



Stephens, Samuel. Martello-terrace, Holywood, Co. Down. 

Stewart, Eev. Harvey, M.A. 17, Warrington-place, Dublin. 

Stirling, William, F.E.I. A. I., C.E. 7, Grafton-street, Dublin. 

Stirrup, Mark, F.G.S.L. High Thorn, Bowden, Cheshire. 

Stoker, Mrs. 72, Eathgar-road, Dublin. 

Stokes, Michael B. The Square, Tralee. 

Stokes, Miss. Victoria-place, Athlone. 

Stokes, Eev. George Thomas, D.D., M.E.I. A., Professor of Ecclesiastical 

History. All Saints' Eectory, Blackrock ; and 28, Trinity College, 


Stoney, Colonel Francis (late E.A.), J.P. The Downs, Delgany. 
Stoney, Sadleir, J.P., Barrister- at-Law. 42, Dawson-street, Dublin. 
Stonham, Eev. Frank, M.A. (Oxon.), Fermoy College, Co. Cork. 
Stoyte, William James, J.P. Glendoneen, Ballinhassig, Co. Cork. 
Strangeways, William N. Breffni Villa, Eglinton-road, Donnybrook. 
Stubbs, William Cotter, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 28, Hatch-street, Dublin. 
Sullivan, Sir Edward, Bart., B.A. 32, Fitzwilliam-place, Dublin. 
Swan, Percy S. Manager, Bank of Ireland, Tipperary. 
Swanston, William. 4A, Cliftonville-avenue, Belfast. 
Sweeny, Eev. Patrick, M.A. Ballinacourty Eectory, Annascaul K.S.O., 

Co. Kerry. 
Synnott, Nicholas J., B.A. (Lond.), Barrister-at-Law. 1, Garden-Court, 

Temple, London, E.C. 

Tallon, Thomas, T.C. Drogheda. 

Tarleton, Mrs. The Abbey, Killeigh, Tullamore. 

Tate, Alexander, M. INST. C.E.I. Eantalard, Belfast. 

Taylor, Edward. The Clothing Factory, Limerick. 

Teague, Bernard. St. Michael's Schools, Enniskillen. 

Telford, Eev. William H. Eeston Manse, Berwickshire. 

Tempest, William, J.P. Douglas-place, Dundalk. 

Ternan, Obadiah, M.D. Enniskillen. 

Thomas, W. J. Mullingar. 

Thompson, Mrs. Lismalin, Ballingarry, Thurles. 

Thunder, Francis P. Municipal Buildings, Cork-hill, Dublin. 

Tivy, Henry L. Barnstead, Blackrock, Cork. 

Tobias, Matthew, Solicitor. Cozy Lodge, Sandymount. 

Tohill, Eev. John, Adm. Holy Family Presbytery, Newington, Belfast. 

Toler-Aylward, Hector J. C., J.P., D.L. Shankill Castle, Whitehall, Co. 


Toler, Hector E. G., J.P., D.L. Durrow Abbey, Tullamore. 
Toner, Eev. Joseph. St. John's, Monaca, Beaver Co., Pa., U.S.A. 
TOREENS, Thomas Hughes, J.P. Edenmore, Whiteabbey, Co. Antrim. 
Townsend, George C. Cordangan Manor, Tipperary. 
Townsend, Very Eev. William C., D.D., Dean of Tuam. Tuam. 
Townshend, Thomas Courtney, B.A. (Dubl.). 23, South Frederick-street, 


Traill, William A., M.A., C.E. Giant's Causeway, Bushmills. 
Trelford, William J. 23, Lin coin -avenue, Belfast. 
Trench, John Townsend, J.P. Lansdowne Lodge, Kenmare. 
Tresilian, Eichard S. 9, Upper Sackville- street, Dublin. 
Trouton, Edmund. Eversham, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 
Truell, Henry Pomeroy, M.B., J.P., D.L. Clonmannon, Ashford, Co. 


Tuite, James, M.P. 14, Greville-street, Mullingar. 
Turner, Eobert. English -street, Armagh. 
Turtle, Frederick Locke. The Villa, Aghalee, Lurgan. 
Twigg, Eev. Thomas, D.D., Canon. Vicarage, Swords, Co. Dublin. 

Upton, Henry A. S., J.P. Coolatore, Moate, Co. Westmeath. 

Ussher, Eichard John, J.P. Cappagh House, Cappagh E.S.O., Lismore. 












Vanston, George T. B., LL.D., Barrister-at-Law. Hildon Park, Terenure- 

road, Rathgar. 

Vaughan, Joseph, J.P. Mount View, Athlone. 
Venables, "William J. Gortalowry House, Cookstown. 
Vincent, Rev. Marshall Clarke, M.A. South Hill, Nenagh. 

Wade, William Richard. Tullamore. 

Wakely, John, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 6, Harcourt- street, Dublin. 

Walby, James, Engineer. Post Office Telegraph Department, Belfast. 

Waldron, Laurence A., M.R.I. A. 24, Anglesea- street, Dublin. 

Walker, Charles Francis. Kilmore-quay, Wexford. 

Wallungton, Miss, M.A., LL.D. Edenvale, Strandtown, Co. Down. 

Wall, Walter Saunders, J.P. Errislanan, Clifden, Co. Galway. 

Wallace, Charles John, M.A., J.P. Belfield, Booterstown. 

Wallace, Major Robert H. Downpatrick. 

Walpole, Thomas, C.E., M. INST. N.A. Windsor Lodge, Monkstown, Co. 

Walsh, John Edward, M.A. (Dubl.), Barrister-at-Law, J.P. Greenoge, 

Fahan, Londonderry. 
Walsh, John Francis. Wexford. 

Walsh, Rev. James H., D.D., Canon. 44, Upper Mount-street, Dublin. 
Walsh, Rev. Robert, D.D. St. Mary's Rectory, Donnybrook. 
Walsh, Thomas Arnold, Kilmallock. 
Walsh, Rev. Tobias R., P.P. Freshford, Co. Kilkenny. 
Ward, Alexander. 35, Upper Mount-street, Dublin. 
Ward, C. H., B.A. (Cantab.). 51, Belgrave-square, Dublin. 
Ward, H. Somerset. 6, Carlisle-terrace, Malahide. 
Wardell, John. Old Abbey, Shanagolden. 
Warren, Sir Augustus R., Bart., J.P., D.L. Warrenscourt, Lisardagh, 

Co. Cork. 

WEBB, Alfred. Shelmalier, Orwell Park, Rathgar. 
Webb, Thomas Henry. Ardfallen, Dalkey. 
Webber, William Downes, J.P. Mitchelstown Castle, Co. Cork. 
Webster, Henry, M. INST. C.E., Co. Surveyor. Belvidere House, Wexford. 
Wedgwood, Rev. George R. 4, Crosthwaite Park, Kingstown. 
Weir, Henry Crichton, LL.B. (Dubl.), Solicitor. Downpatrick. 
Weir, John S., J.P. Carrickbrack, Convoy, Co. Donegal. 
Welch, Robert. 49, Lonsdale-street, Belfast. 

Weldon, Sir Anthony Crosdill, Bart., J.P., D.L. Kilmoroney, Athy. 
Weldrick, George. University Press, Trinity College, Dublin. 
Welply, W. H., Inspector of National Schools. 1, Devon-place, Galway. 
Westmeath, Right Hon. the Earl of, J.P., D.L. Pallas, Tynagh, Co. Galway. 
Westropp, Miss. Deer Park, Clonlara, Limerick. 
Westropp, Miss F. 1, Raglan-road, Dublin. 
Westropp, Ralph H., B.A. Springfort, Patrick's Well, Limerick. 
Westropp, Lieut. -Colonel William Keily, M.R.I. A. 6, Shorncliffe-road, 


Wheeler, Francis P. C. 64, Hatton Garden, London, E.G. 
Wheeler, Mrs. G. H. 22, Calender-street, Belfast. 
Whelan, Rev. Percy Scott, M.A., Warden, St. Columba's College, Rath- 


White, Very Rev. George Purcell, M.A., B.D., Dean of Cashel. Cashel. 
White, Rev. Hill Wilson, D.D., LL.D., M.R.I.A. Wilson's Hospital, 

Multifarnham, Co. Westmeath. 

White, James, L.R.C.P.S.E., J.P. Walkin- street, Kilkenny. 
White, Major J. Grove, J.P. Kilbyrne, Doneraile, Co. Cork. 
White, John, M.A. (Oxon.), Q.C. 3, Paper Buildings, Temple, London. 
White, John Newsom, M.R.I.A., J.P. Rocklands, Waterford. 
White, Very Rev. P., P.P., V.G., Dean of Killaloe. Nenagh. 
WHITE, Eev. Patrick W., B.A. Stonebridge Manse, Clones, 
WHITE, Richard Blair. Ashton Park, Monkstown. 
White, Robert. Scotch Rath, Dalkey, Co. Dublin. 















White, Eev. T. S. Joyner. Atlantic Lodge, Galway. 

"White, W. Grove, LL.B., Crown Solicitor for Co. Kildare. St. Helen's, 

Lucan, Co. Dublin. 

Whitty, Eev. Thomas J., C.C. Glenbrook, Arklow. 
Whyte, Chas. Cecil Beresford, J.P., D.L. Hatley Manor, Carrick-on- 


Wigham, Mrs. J. R. Albany House, Monkstown. 
"Wilkinson, Arthur B. Berkeley, B.E. Drombroe, Bantry, Co. Cork. 
Willcocks, Rev. Wm. Smyth, M.A., Canon. Dunleckney Glebe, Bagenals- 


Williams, Alexander, R.H.A. 4, Hatch-street, Dublin. 
Williams, Edward Wilrnot, J.P., D.L. Herringston, Dorchester. 
Williams, Rev. Sterling de Courcy, M. A. Durrow Rectory, Tullamore. 
Williams, W. D., C.E. 4, Bellevue-terrace, Waterford. 
Williams, Mrs. W. Parkside, Wimbledon. 
Willis, Rev. J. R., B.A. Moyne Rectory, Rathdrum. 
Willoughby, John, High- street, Kilkenny. 
Wills, Rev. Percival B., B.D. Durrow, Queen's County. 
Willson, Frederick, M. INST. C.E.I., County Surveyor. Prospect Hill, 


Wilmot, Henry, C.E. 22, Waltham -terrace, Blackrock. 
Wilson, James Mackay, M.A., J.P. Currygrane, Edgeworthstown. 
Wilson, John Killen. Inch Mario, Marlborough Park, Belfast. 
Wilson, Robert C. Tops, Raphoe. 
Wilson, R. H. 23, Cromwell Crescent, London, S.W. 
Wilson, Walter H., C.E. Cranmore, Malone-road, Belfast. 
Windisch, Professor Dr. Ernst, Hon. M.R.I. A. Universitats Strasse, 15, 


Woodburn, Rev. George, M.A., F.R.U.I. 2, College-avenue, Londonderry. 
Woodside, William J. 104, Corporation- street, Belfast. 
Woodward, Rev. Alfred Sadleir, M.A. St. Mark's Vicarage, Ballysillan, 


Woodward, Rev. George Otway, B.A. St. John's Vicarage, Hillsborough. 
Woollright, Capt. Henry H., 1st Battalion Middlesex Regiment. North 

Camp, Aldersbot. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, B.D. Newtownbreda Manse, Belfast. 
Wray, Thomas. Hanover-place, Coleraine. 

Wright, Rev. Wm. Ball, M.A. East Acklam, Malton, Yorkshire. 
Wybrants, W. Geale, M.A., J.P. 45, Raglan-road, Dublin. 
Wynne, Ven. George R., D.D., Archdeacon of Aghadoe. Killarney. 
Wynne, Owen, J.P., D.L. Hazelwood, Sligo. 
Wyse, Captain L. W. Bonaparte, J.P. Manor of St. John, Waterford. 

Younge, Miss Katherine E. Oldtown House, Rathdowney. 

Total number of Fellows, ... 200 
,, Members, . . . 1160 

Total, 1360 

(Life and Hon. Fellows, 51. 
(Life Members, 22.) 

N.B. The Fellows and Members of the Society are earnestly requested to 
communicate to the Secretaries, 7, St. Stephen's -green, Dublin, changes of address, 
or other corrections in the foregoing lists which may be needed. 


Names removed from the Roll in 1897 : 

Deceased (28). 

FELLOWS (6). R. W. Cochran-Patrick, LL.D., 1889; The Earl of Dartrey, K.P., 
1873, Vice- President, 1886-88 ; Rev. John Hammond, D.D., LL.D., 1890 ; Deputy 
Surgeon- General King, M.B., M.A., M.R.I.A., Member, 1883 ; Fellow, 1886 ; Most Rev. 
Lord Plunket, B.D., Archbishop of Dublin, Member, 1886 ; Fellow, 1888 ; Very Rev. 
A. F. Smyly, M.A., Dean of Derry, 1888. 

MEMBERS (22). John Cornwall Brady, J.P., 1888 ; Miss Edith Brown, 1891; 
Very Rev. Dean Byrne, M.A., 1868 ; Rev. W. Crook, D.D., 1889; Rev. J. Crowe, 
1889; John Dillon, 1880; William Gilmour, 1892 ; Samuel Guilbride, 1886; Alfred 
Henshaw, J.P., 1888; R. J. Hewitt, M.D., 1890; Francis McGlade, J.P., 1890; 
William A. Mahony, 1865; Rev. D. B. Mulcahy, M.R.I.A., 1870; Thomas F. 
O'Connell, 1893; Thomas O'Hanlon, 1895; Very Rev. Thomas O'Meara, P.P., 
1895; The Earl of Roden, 1893; Edmund F. Ryan, J.P., 1870; William Spillane, 
J.P., D.L., 1889; Rev. J. W. Stubbs, D.D., S.F.T.C.D., 1890; P. J. Tuohy, 1890; 
Miss Wade, 1895. 

Resigned (62). 

FELLOWS (5). J. G. Wandesford Butler, Member, 1888 ; Fellow, 1894 ; W. 
MacNeile Dixon, D. LIT., 1S89; Major E. C. Hamilton, J.P., 1890 ; J. W. Slattery, 
M.A., LL.D., 1891 ; John Stevenson, 1893. 

MEMBERS (57). Thomas Arnold, M.A., 1894; Rev. James Adams, 1891; 
Lieut. -Colonel C. M. Alexander, J.P., 1896 ; The Earl Annesley, J.P., D.L., 1893 ; 
Rev. J. H. Bibby, 1895 ; Rev. 0. Brighton, M.A., 1892 ; Mrs. Waldegrave 
Brodie, 1897; Samuel Burke, 1891; W. H. Caldwell, M.D., 1890; R. R. Cherry, 
LL.D., Q.C., 1891 ; C. G. F. Chute, M.A., 1888 ; Rev. S. E. Cooney, M.A., 1891 ; 
Ven. Archdeacon Daly, M.A., 1893 ; H. T. Daunt, J.P., 1892 ; Rev. M. Day, 
M.A., 1891; John Duncan, 1896; Rev. R. Eubank, B.D., 1890; Rev. J. A. 
Fanning, D.D., 1890 ; Rev. R.McC. Gilmour, 1895 ; Mrs. James Godley, 1892 ; R. A. 
Gray, M. INST. C.E., 1858 ; J. W. Gunnis, C.E., 1892 ; Walter Hare, 1893 ; R. M. Hill, 
B.A., 1892 ; Rev. James Kenny, C.C., 1896 ; J. G. Keogh, 1877 ; Miss King, 1892 ; 
Miss Leecb, 1895 ; T. E. Lloyd, 1895 ; N. C. Macnamara, 1893 ; Rev. J. D. Madden, 
1893 ; Rev. H. Magee, D.D., 1891 ; Rev. P. F. Mahon, 1894 ; Rev. C. W. O'H. 
Mease, M.A., 1894 ; Rev. F. Meredyth, M.A., 1889 ; Very Rev. Dean Monahan, D.D., 
1890 ; G. M. Moore, 1890 ; Rev. Canon Morris, M.A., 1891 ; W. J. Morrison, 1892 ; 
Rev. R. F. Mullins, 1889 ; G. L. O'Connor, 1895 ; Major P. O'Leary, J.P., 1896 ; 
Miss Payne-Townshend, 1890 ; Joseph Pigott, 1877 ; R. L. Praeger, M.R.I.A., 1891 ; 
G. O'C. Redmond, M.D., 1884; J. Ilingwood, M.D., J.P., 1893; J. W. Robb, 1894; 
L. H. Roberts, 1896; F. W. Smith, 1892; J. F. Smithwick, J.P., 1889; Mrs. 
Stone, 1890; R. J. Sullivan, 1896; G. B. M. Swifte., J.P., D.L., 1891; J. Todhunter, 
M.D., 1889; Rev. J. Warren, M.A., 1895; Rev. P. S. Weldon, 1895; Mrs. A. S. 
Woodward (Miss Steen), 1894. 

Eellows and Members who are now two years in arrears and up- 
wards : 


Elected s . d. 

1892 Taylor, Rev. J. W., LL.D., .. .. .. 1896-1897 ..200 

1892 Upton, W. H., .. .. .. .. 1895-1897 ..300 

MEMBERS (22). 

1891 Anderson, Very Rev. J. A., O.S.A., .. .. 1896-1897 1 

1885 Baker, H. F., .. .. .. .. 1896-1897 ..100 

1889 Fahy, Rev. J. G.. .. .. .. 1896-1897 1 

1892 Fitz Gerald, W. J., .. . .. 1896-1897 1 




Hanna, J. A., 

Hannay, Rev. J. 0... M.A., 

Hinkson, Henry A., M.A., ., 

Irwiri, William, 

Jefferson, W. G-., M.A., 

La veil, Rev. Edward, c.c., 

Molloy, Joseph, J.P., 

Moorhead, Rev. Joseph, B.A., 

O'Neill, W. P., M.R.I.A., 

Orr, Jacob, J.P., 

Sankey, Lieut.-Gen. Sir R. H., K.C. 

Sceales, A. E., 

Stokes, Michael B., 

Tobias, Matthew, . . 

Wakely, John, M.A., 

Walker, Charles F., 

Warren, Sir A. R., Bart., .. 

Whitty, Rev. T. J., 



1896-1897 .. 


1896-1897 .. 


1896-1897 .. 


1896-1897 .. 


1896-1897 .. 



1896-1897 .. 


1896-1897 .. 


1896-1897 .. 


1896-1897 .. 



1896-1897 .. 

1896-1897 .. 

1896-1897 .. 

1896-1897 .. 

1896-1897 .. 

1896-1897 .. 

1896-1897 .. 

1896-1897 .. 

The following Fellows and Members (32) owing, at the commence- 
ment of the year 1897, upwards of two years arrears, which have not 
since been paid, have been taken off the Roll : 


1890 Atkinson, Henry J,, Michigan, U.S.A., 
1894 Clancy, John, T.C., Dublin, .. 

1894 De Courcy, William, J.P., Urlingford, 

1894 Egan, The Rev. S., c.c., Rush, 

1891 Gallagher, P. M., Donegal, 

1893 Goldon, J. W., M.D., Parsonstown, .. 

1893 Hamilton, Captain J. D., Lagos, West Africa, 

1890 Harris, John, Galway, 

1893 Johnston, Miss Anna, Belfast, 

1893 Johnston, Robert, Belfast, .. 

1890 Lynch, The Rev. P. J., c.c., Monaghan, 

1893 MacDermot, C. E., B.A., Dublin, 

1892 M'Cartan, M., M.P., Ulster Buildings, Belfast, 

1895 M'Girr, The Rev. P., Adm., Westport, 

1893 M'Grath, Rev. T., P.P., Clogheen, .. 

1892 Mercer, Rev. W. Wilson, Stradbally , Queen's Co. , 

1889 Nash, Ralph, Limerick, 

1890 Nolan, Rev. C. P., Dublin, 

1883 0' Carroll, F. J., B. A., Hazelhatch, .. 

1893 O'Mahony, John, Dublin, .. 

1884 Orr, Cecil, Blackrock, 

1892 Purcell, M., Solicitor, 41, Lr. Sackville-st., Dublin, 

1892 Roe, W. E., Moutrath, 

1891 Sealy, J. H., J.P., Kilbrittain, 
1890 Shanley, Michael, M.D., Athlone, 

1893 Smith, Rev. Charles, M.A., 

1892 Smyth, T. J., LL.B., Barrister, 28, Goldsmith- 

street, Dublin, 

1893 Sullivan, Herbert, B.A., J. P., Charleville, 

1890 Sutherland, P. F., Municipal Buildings, Cork 
Hill, Dublin, 

1889 Taylor, The Rev G. B., LL.B., Clontarf, 
1892 Ward, F. E., Belfast, 

1890 Whayman, Horace W., Bellevue, Newport, Ken- 

tucky, U.S.A. (Fellow], 

s. d. 


., 1 



.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 



.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 



., 1 



.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 2 


.. 1 



.. 1 



.. 1 


.. 1 



.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 



.. 1 


.. 1 


.. 1 






tonrfff of &Kti%mm% of Jftelmtir 

FOR 1897. 

American Antiquarian Society, "Worcester, Mass., U. S. A. 

American Philosophical Society, 104, S. 5th Street, Philadelphia, Penn., U. S. A. 

Antiquary (Editor of), 62, Paternoster-row, London. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club : Rea's Buildings, Belfast. 

Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society : Rev. "William Bazeley, M.A., Hon. 
General Secretary, The Museum, Gloucester. 

British Archaeological Association : Hon. Secretary, 32, Sackville -street, London, "W. 
Byegones (Editor of) : Care of E. Woodall, Esq., Wingthorpe, Oswestry, England. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society : Dr. Hardcastle, Downing College, Cambridge. 

Cambrian Archaeological Association: Charles J. Clark, 4, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 

London, W.C. 
Chester and North Wales Archaeological and Historic Society : John Hewitt, Hon . 

Librarian, Grosvenor Museum, Chester. 

Cork Historical and Archaeological Society : care of Messrs. Guy & Co., 70, Patrick- 
street, Cork. 

Director, Geological Survey Department of Canada: Alfred R. C. Selwyn, Esq., 
LL.D., F.R.S., Sussex-street, Ottawa. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club : Rev. 0. P. Cambridge, Blox- 

worth Rectory, "Wareham. 
Folk Lore (Editor of), 270, Strand, London, W.C. 

Glasgow Archaeological Society : W. G. Black, Secretary, 88, West Regent-street, 

Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire: The Secretary, Royal Institution, 

Her Majesty's Private Library : The Librarian, Windsor Castle, London. 

Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland: Hon. Secretary, 35, Dawson-street, 

Irish Builder (Editor of), 42, Mabbot-street, Dublin. 

Kent Archaeological Society: George Payne, Esq., F.S.A., Rochester, Hon. 
Secretary, Kent 


Kildare Archaeological Society : care of Sir Arthur Vicars, F.S.A., Ulster King of 
Arms, Bermingham Tower, Dublin Castle. 

National Library of Ireland, Kildare-street, Dublin. 

Numismatic Society : The Secretaries, 22, Albemarle-street, London, W. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia : S. E. Cor. Twenty-first- 
street and Pine-street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U. S. A. 

Palestine Exploration Fund (Secretary of), 24, Hanover-square, London, W. 
Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist (Editor of): J. E. Allen, Esq., F.S.A., 
28, Great Ormond- street, London, W.C. 

Eoyal Institute of British Architects : The Librarian, 9, Conduit-street, Hanover- 
square, London, "W. 

Eoyal Institute of The Architects of Ireland : Albert E. Murray, Hon. Secretary, 

37, Dawson-street, Dublin. 
Eoyal Institution of Cornwall: The Hon. Secretary, Museum, Truro, Cornwall. 

Royal Irish Academy : Ed. Perceval Wright, M.A., M.D., Secretary, 19, Dawson- 
street, Dublin. 

Eoyal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : Mill Stephenson, Esq., 

F.S.A., Secretary, 20, Hanover-square, London, W. 
Eoyal Society Club, St. James' -street, London, W. C. 
Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles : 63, Eue de Palais, Bruxelles. 
Societe des Bollandistes, 14, Eue des Ursu^ines, Bruxelles. 

Societe Eoyale des Antiquaires du Nord : Messrs. "Williams and Norgate, 14, 
Henrietta-street, Covent Garden, London. 

Society of Antiquaries of London : W. H. St. John Hope, M.A., Assistant Secretary, 
Burlington House, London, W. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : The Curator of the Museum of Antiquities, Eoyal 
Institution, Edinburgh. 

Society of Biblical Archaeology : "W. Harry Eylands, F.S.A., Secretary, 11, Har- 
street, Bloomsbury, London, W.C. 

Smithsonian Institution (Wm. Wesley, 28, Essex-street, Strand, London) : Washing- 
ton, D. C., U.S.A. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : William Bidgood, Taunton 

Castle, Taunton. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. The Librarian, Athenaeum, Bury St. Edmunds. 
Surrey Archaeological Society: Hon. Secretary, 8, Danes' Inn, Strand, London, W.C. 
Sussex Archaeological Society : Care of Hon. Librarian, The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 
The Copyright Office, British Museum, London. 
The Library, Trinity College, Dublin (5 & 6 Viet. c. 45). 
The University Library, Cambridge (5 & 6 Viet. c. 45). 
The Bodleian Library, Oxford (5 & 6 Viet. c. 45). 
The Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 
Waterf ord and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society : Honorary Secretary, 


Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society: The Secretary, Devizes. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society. 




Revised at the Annual Meeting, 1896.) 


1. The Society is instituted to preserve, examine, and illustrate all Ancient Monu- 
ments and Memorials of the Arts, Manners, and Customs of the. past, as connected with 
the Antiquities, Language, and Literature of Ireland. 


2. The Society shall consist of FELLOWS, MEMBERS, ASSOCIATES, and HONORARY 

3. FELLOWS shall be elected at a General Meeting of the Society, each name having 
been previously submitted to and approved of by the Council, with the name of a 
Fellow or Member as proposer. Each Fellow shall pay an Entrance Fee of 2, and an 
Annual Subscription of 1, or a Life Composition of 14, which includes the Entrance 
Fee of 2. 

4. MEMBERS shall be similarly elected, on being proposed by a Fellow or Member, 
and shall pay an Entrance Fee of 10s. and an Annual Subscription of 10s., or a Life 
Composition of 7, which shall include the Entrance Fee of 10s. 

5. ASSOCIATES may be elected by the Council, on being proposed by a Fellow or 
Member, for any single Meeting or Excursion of the Society at a Subscription to be 
fixed by the Council ; but they shall not be entitled to any privileges of the Society 
except admission to such Meeting or Excursion. 

6. All Fees due on joining the Society must be paid either before or within two 
months from the date of Election. Fellows and Members failing to pay shall be 
reported at the next General Meeting after the expiration of this period. 

7. Any Fellow who has paid his full Annual Subscription of 1 for ten consecutive 
years may become a LIFE FELLOW on payment of a sum of 8. 

8. Any Member who has paid his full Annual Subscription of 10s. for ten conse- 
cutive years may become a LIFE MEMBER on payment of 5. 

9. Any Member who has paid his Life Composition, on being advanced to the rank 
of Fellow, may compound by paying a sum of 7, which sum includes the Entrance 
Fee for Fellowship. 

10. A Member paying an Annual Subscription of 10s., on being elected to Fellow- 
ship, shall pay an admission Fee of 30s., instead of the Entrance Fee of 2 provided 
for in Rule 3. 

11. All Subscriptions shall be payable in advance on 1st day of January in each 
year, or on election. The Subscriptions of Fellows and Members elected at the last 
Meeting of any year may be placed to their credit for the following year. A List of all 
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Members present at such General Meeting subject to the provisions of Rule 14. 








I MAY say, by way of preface, that certain objects which I have 
described as the " Older Flint Implements of Ireland" will not 
be referred to in the following Paper. I shall deal only, as regards 
Irish Implements, with those which are acknowledged by everyone 
to be Neolithic. 

We find among the stone implements in various countries, sometimes 
separated very widely in perhaps both time and space, many specimens 
which show a considerable degree of resemblance. This has been remarked 
by several observers. On pp. 14, 15, of " Reliquiae Aquitanicaj" are 
compared implements of the Esquimaux with those of cave-dwellers in 
Perigord ; and polished implements from British India, England, South 
America, France, and the Solomon Islands are placed side by side to show 
that they have a considerable degree of likeness to each other in shape and 
finish. Sir John Lubbock, in " Prehistoric Times," 1 points out that flakes 
and some implements in flint and obsidian are often very much alike in 
different countries. Professor Boyd Dawkins has shown that a likeness 
exists between the implements and artistic products of the cave-dwellers 

1 5th ed., pp. 89-92 et seq. 

JOUR. R.S.A.I., VOL. VII., PT. I., 5TH SKR. B 


in England and France and those of the Esquimaux, and MM. G. and A. 
de Mortillet, in " MuseePrehistorique," figure implements from England, 
Ireland, America, and elsewhere, to show that they are of nearly similar 
shape to the Paleolithic implements found in France. I have myself 
seen implements among those discovered by Schliemann at Hissarlik 
which I could match in Ireland ; and I have observed arrow-heads 
figured in " Materiaux," 1 from Finistere, which resemble implements of 
the same class in my own Irish collection. Although the likeness between 
Irish and American arrow-heads is not general, yet there are some kinds 
of these implements found in both countries that show a great degree of 
resemblance. I have some small scrapers from the south of Africa like 
others of the same class obtained from our Irish sandhills. I have also 
implements from various other countries like those found in Ireland, and 
could therefore increase the list to an indefinite extent. I believe that 
all these cases of resemblance show relationship, and that it will be the 
task of future archa3ologists to trace the paths along which those widely 
separated sets of implements will find a common origin. 

I have for several years past observed a considerable degree of resem- 
blance between Irish Neolithic flint implements and those of the cave- 
dwellers in the south of France of Palaeolithic age, and have referred to 
the subject more or less in papers contributed to learned societies ; but I 
shall now go more fully into the subject, and shall show and describe 
some plates of Irish implements which I consider have a resemblance to 
others of Palaeolithic age. As I cannot figure the two sets of imple- 
ments side by side except in one instance, I shall, refer to well-known 
works accessible to archaeologists in which figures of Palaeolithic imple- 
ments having a likeness to Irish objects are to be found ; as, for example, 
" Reliquiae Aquitanicae," " Musee Prehistorique," Evans' " Stone Imple- 
ments and Ornaments," and Worthington Smith's " Man, the Primeval 
Savage." In PL I., figs. 1 and 2, I am able to show figures of a Palaeo- 
lithic implement from Warren Hill, England, and a Neolithic implement 
found in a bog near Glarryford, about five miles from Bally men a. It 
will be seen that the Irish implement is slightly larger than the Palaeo- 
lithic one, but the shape and workmanship are very similar. Front and 
side views in both cases are shown. Compare also figs. 18 and 19, PL II. 
Evans' " Stone Implements and Ornaments." Figs. 3, 30 show front and 
side views of an implement which has a great resemblance to some of the 
Palaeolithic implements of the River Drift. See fig. 450, p. 520, of 
Evans' " Stone Implements and Ornaments," which is about the same 
size as the implement I have figured. It is made of basalt, and was 
found near dough, County Antrim. We find many rudely chipped 
and unpolished Neolithic axes in Ireland, but they are usually longer 
and less pointed than the example figured. It does not look like a 

1 Vol. for 1880, pi. viii. 

[Pj.ATK I. 

Irish Neolithic Implements compared \vith those of Palaeolithic Age. (One-fourth size.) 




spoiled object, but seems to be a complete implement of its kind. No. 4 
is a large pointed implement of flint, with heavy butt for holding in the 
hand, found near the banks of the River Eann, in the neighbourhood of 
Portglenone. It is fully an inch in thickness, and has been trimmed 
first coarsely, and then with more minute flaking, round the pointed 
portion. The under surface is undressed, and in all respects it resembles 
a large implement of the Moustier type. Fig. 5 is a thick and coarse 
implement from the same place as No. 4. It is about 1 inches thick 
in the centre, and is equally convex on both sides. Implements of 
Palaeolithic age of nearly similar shape, though perhaps larger in size, 
may be seen in " Musee Prehistorique," " Stone Instruments and Orna- 
ments," and "Man, the Primeval Savage." Fig. 6, 6a is a large flake, 
dressed round the edges on one side and undressed on the other. It is of 
the Moustier type, and can be compared with fig. 61, PI. xi., in 
"Musee Prehistorique," and fig. 461, p. 538, of " Stone Implements 
and Ornaments." PI. II. shows a series of implements of Moustier type, 
dressed round the edges on one side and plain on the other. I show the 
reverse and undressed sides in two instances (see figs. 7 and 8), after the 
manner of MM. de Mortillet in " Musee Prehistorique" ; but the sides, 
which are not shown, of the other figures, from 9-14, are in a similar plain 
and undressed state. Plates xi. and xii., " Musee Prehistorique," and 
Plates A. xxxvii. and xl., " Reliquie Aquitanicae," may be consulted for 
corresponding examples. In PI. III. I show u racloirs," or side-scrapers, 
(see figs. 15, 16, 17, 18, 22, and 23). They may be compared with those 
on PI. xiii., " Musee Prehistorique." I show also two double scrapers, 
figs. 21 and 24, which can be compared with fig. 120, pi. xix., " Musee 
Prehistorique." and figs. 10, 11, 13 of PI. A. xxiv. of " ReliquiaB Aquita- 
nicae." The long flakes, figs. 19 and 20, may be compared with similar 
long flakes with scraper-ends in " lleliquiaB Aquitanicse " (see PI. A. VII.). 
Figs. 25 and 25 show the two sides of an object excavated by myself 
from the Neolithic old surface at Whitepark Bay, county Antrim. It 
seems to resemble other objects found in a Paleolithic surface by 
Mr. Worthington Smith, in the sharp edge and the working of a 
small portion of the reverse side (see figs. 20, 21, pp. 118, 119, "Man, 
the Primeval Savage.") PI. IV. shows seven examples of Solutrien 
type. The reverse side of 26 is shown in 26#, and this example can be 
compared with 106, 106 fos., PL xviii., "Musee Prehistorique." The 
likeness of the two implements seems to be very close both in shape and 
workmanship. The other examples, in PL IV., though much smaller 
than many of the best examples found in France, yet show the same 
outline. There is the same pointed base and the sides inclining inward 
near the point. The same form, giving an almost six-sided outline, 
is observed in some of our Irish leaf-shaped arrow-heads. Compare 
PL xvii. of < Musee Prehistorique." PL V. shows, in figs. 33, 34 and 35, 
points of flint from Culbane, near Portglenone, which resemble figs. 115, 




Irish Neolithic Implements of Moustier Type. (One-fourth size.) 


116, 117, PL xviii., of " Musee Prehistorique." The Irish examples are 
very thin flakes, fig. 33 being dressed on one side, and figs. 34 and 35 on 
both sides, into fine needle-like implements. Pig. 36 may be compared 
with 112, and 37 with figs. 109 and 1 1 1, of " Musee Prehistorique." Fig. 
37 is not so much notched as the French examples of the same kind, 
but the workmanship over the one side with the other remaining 
undressed, or only very slightly dressed, at the point, shows a considerable 
degree of resemblance. 

We have a series of examples in Ireland of the type of fig. 40, but 
some much longer, which, from their knife-like character, would seem to 
have taken the place, in Neolithic times, of the pointer a cran from 
the French caves. The object I have referred to as fig. 40, in PL V., 
may be compared, as to size and shape, with fig. 133, PL xx., " Musee 
Prehistorique." We have also among our flint knives in Ireland some of 
the type of figs. 10 and 11, PL xxii., of M. Piette's beautiful Supplement 
to IS Anthropologie, No. 4, 1896. The objects referred to are from Mas 
d'Azil, in the Pyrenees, and from a bed which M. Piette says is inter- 
calated between the last bed of the Reindeer Age and the first of the 
Neolithic period. Examples are shown in figs. 38 and 39, PL V., of a 
small class of arrow-heads found in the north of Ireland, with the point 
short and placed at the broad end. As shown on the plate, the point is 
downwards. Compare with them fig. 104, PL xviii., "Musee Prehisto- 
rique." A series of finely worked and lozenge-shaped arrow-heads from 
county Antrim is shown in PL VI. , some of which vary slightly from 
original types. Lightness and thinness seem to have been characteristics 
of the laurel-leaf and lozenge-shaped implements of the French caves, 
and it is among the same class of objects in Ireland that these characters 
are most shown. The thinness of some of the Irish specimens makes them 
almost .transparent, so that our admiration and wonder are often excited 
as to how such objects could have been made so fine and slender by 
mere chipping. The making of these implements fine and thin would 
seem to have been an inherited art, which descended to the Neolithic 
inhabitants of Ireland from their Paleolithic ancestors, In some cases we 
have large spearheads ground and polished on both faces the result, 
probably, of a desire for thinness in a particular class of implement. 
These flint lance, or spearheads, with their faces ground and polished, are 
not, I believe, found out of Ireland. I show one example on page 15, 
somewhat varied in shape from the original "pointes en feuille de laurier." 

The objects I have figured are all from my own collection, and are 
only a few out of many examples of similar kinds. Besides the various fliut 
implements there are other objects of Paleolithic and Neolithic age that 
resemble each other. There are the stones with pits on either one or 
both faces. Both kinds of these objects are found around the hut-sites in 
the sandhills of the North of Ireland, as well as in the rock-shelters of 
the South of France. The hammer-stones, the pieces of rubbed and 


Irish Neolithic Implements of Moustier Type. (One-fourth size.] 


scraped haematite, and some, though not all, of the hone pins, in the one 
place, have a resemhlance to those found in the other. On referring to 
my note-hook which I used when visiting the St. Germain Museum a 
few years ago, I find I have noted a great many things having a likeness 
to Irish objects in my own collection. In the same way on examining 
the implements of Palaeolithic age in the Musee Wiertz in Brussels, my 
remarks were to the effect that I could match a great number with Irish 
objects found in the old prehistoric surface at Whitepark Bay, county 
Antrim, Portstewart, county Deny, and other similar sites in the north 
of Ireland. I therefore hold that there is a relationship between the 
implements of Palaeolithic Age in England, France, and Belgium, and 
those of Neolithic Age in the North of Ireland which we must endeavour 
to trace. 

It is held generally among archa3ologists that the Palaeolithic 
and Neolithic Ages do not merge into each other. That the men of the one 
age had as their companions a number of animals such as the mammoth 
and the woolly -haired rhinoceros, which are now extinct, together with 
others such as the hippopotamus and the reindeer which are now not 
found in this country, but are confined to warmer or colder regions, 
while those of the other came in with a fauna practically the same as that 
now living in these countries. Professor Boyd Dawkins says, in re- 
ference to the hiatus between the two ages, that the contrast between 
the Paleolithic and Neolithic wild fauna " implies a zoological break of 
the first magnitude which could only have been brought about by a series 
of changes going on through long periods of time." 1 The interval separat- 
ing the Pleistocene (Palaeolithic) from the Prehistoric (Neolithic) period 
" could not have taken place in a short time, and when we reflect that 
comparatively little change has taken place in this country during the last 
2000 years, it is obvious that the one period is separated from the other by 
the lapse of many centuries." 2 Sir John Evans, speaking of this break, 
says there appears, in this country at all events, to be a complete gap 
between the River Drift (Paleolithic) and the Surface (Neolithic) Stone 
periods " so far as intermediate forms are concerned, and here at least the 
race of men who fabricated the latest of the Palaeolithic implements may 
have, and in all probability had, disappeared at an epoch remote from 
that when the country was again occupied by those who not only chipped 
out but polished their flint tools." 3 Sir Henry H. Howorth says : 
" At all points, therefore, the evidence is complete that man and his 
companions in the Mammoth age differed completely from man in the 
succeeding period; differed in habits, in tastes, in art, and in the animals 
which were his companions. This difference is everywhere acknowledged. 
. . . What is much more important is the startling fact that the two 

1 Journal Anthropological Institute, vol. xxiii., p. 246. 

2 "Early Man in Britain," p. 263. 3 "Ancient Stone Implements," p. 618. 


Irish Neolithic Implements of Solutrien Type. (One-fourth size.] 


sorts of men, their remains, and their animal companions are sharply and 
definitely separated by a complete gap. There is nowhere on record a well 
certified instance in either the Europasian or the Mediterranean region in 
which the remains have been found mixed. Upon this subject there is a 
concurrence of opinion among the best judges." 1 Dr. James Geikie says that 
the Old Stone age did not graduate into the New Stone age. "The records 
of the latter epoch are separated very markedly from those of the former. 
No sooner do we pass from the uppermost deposits of the Pleistocene age 
to the more modern accumulations, than we find ourselves in another 
world. The hyaenas and lions, the rhinoceroses and mammoths have 
disappeared, and we are now face to face with a group of animals that 
we recognize as being the common indigenous European forms of our own 
day. Palaeolithic man has likewise vanished, and his place is supplied by 
races considerably farther advanced on the road to civilization." 2 Sir 
Charles Lyell gives a similar opinion, "that between the newer and the 
older divisions of the Stone Age there was evidently a vast interval of 
time a gap in the history of the past into which many monuments of 
the intermediate date will one day have to be intercalated." 3 

Mr. J. Allen Brown, in a Paper read before the Anthropological 
Institute, which appears in their "Journal," vol. xxii., p. 66, shows 
reason for the gap or hiatus between the two ages, being bridged " by 
the discovery of implements of later Palaeolithic types, and of others 
which from their form may be regarded as of transition or intermediate 
age in some combes or dry valleys, associated with deposits of chalk and 
flint rubble in parts of Sussex." 4 Again he says : " Among them are 
specimens which, if form is to govern their classification, may properly 
be described as intermediate between the later Palaeolithic and the 
period of polished stone". 5 He gives several illustrations of his inter- 
mediate forms which he names " Mesolithic." Mr. Worthington Smith 
believes that a mesolithic series of implements exist, and states that he 
has found some himself in situ, e though I should think he believes in a 
break of some kind, as he says : " At some period prior to the forma- 
tion of the English Channel, and the separation of Great Britain from 
the Continent of Europe, this country appears to have been, as regards 
man, temporarily depopulated." 7 Mr. J. Allen Brown, in support of his 
argument, refers to caves in the Pyrenees which have been inhabited by 
successive peoples, and which appear to show a continuity between the 
two stone periods, 8 but there may have been a continuity, or at least a 
close succession in the Pyrenees, whilst there may be a break in the 
south of England. Professor Boyd Dawkins, in a Paper in the same 
"Journal," vol. xxiii., replies to Mr. J; Allen Brown: "That the 

1 " The Mammoth and the Flood," p. 246. 2 " Prehistoric Europe," p. 118. 

3 ''Antiquity ot Man," p. 373. 4 Page 67. 

5 Ibid., p. 73. c " Man, the Primeval Savage," p. 299. 

7 Ibid., p. 8. Anthrop. Jour., vol. xxii., p. 88. 

Irish Neolithic Implements of Solutrien Type. (Two-fifths natural size.) 


evolution of the Neolithic from the Palaeolithic stage of culture in some 
part of the world may be accepted as a high probability;" 1 hut concludes 
after reviewing the whole evidence that "the progress of discovery has 
not yet bridged over the abyss separating the Palaeolithic age of the 
Pleistocene period, from the Neolithic age of the Prehistoric period in 
any part of the world." 2 

With the exception of Mr. J. Allen Brown, and perhaps Mr. 
Worthington Smith, it will be seen that there is general agreement 
among the eminent scientific men I have mentioned, that there is a 
break between the older and newer divisions of the Stone age, and many 
of the most eminent French and Continental archaeologists hold similar 
views regarding the gap between the two ages. But whilst there is 
general agreement that there is a break, there is a want of harmony in 
the explanations given for the cause of such break. Professor Boyd 
Dawkins assumes that Palaeolithic man may have been driven out of 
Europe by the Neolithic invaders. That " there were the same feelings 
between them as existed in Hearne's time between the Eskimos and 
Red Indians terror and defenceless hatred being on the one side met 
by ruthless extermination on the other." 3 But this would surely imply 
that the Neolithic invader occupied the land as soon as Palaeolithic 
man had left it, and would leave the zoological break unexplained. Sir 
H. H. Howorth has given a vast amount of evidence to show that the 
fauna in Pleistocene times, together with Paleolithic man, were 
exterminated by a flood of great magnitude. Whilst I am not convinced 
that the fossil bones found in the river gravels of England, and equiva- 
lent beds on the Continent, are the result of sudden drowning, yet the 
case laid down by Sir H. H. Howorth, in the " Mammoth and the Flood," 
requires careful consideration by those opposed to him, as the accidental 
drowning of individual animals, or even of occasional herds, would not 
account for the vast numbers of dead animals which are found in either 
Europe or Siberia. He shows how carnivorous, as well as herbivorous, 
animals, and young as well as those of mature age, have died together, 
and are often found buried in stiff clay, far from river courses. He 
states that "however paradoxical it may seem, animals which are now 
limited to cold and hot countries respectively lived strictly contempo- 
raneously in England and France, and lived together all the year 
round." 4 He concludes "that the extinction of the mammoth in the 
old world was sudden, and operated over a wide continental area, involv- 
ing a wide-spread hecatomb, in which man as well as other creatures 
perished ; that this catastrophe forms a great break in human continuity, 
no less than in biological records of animal life, and is the great Divide 
where history really begins." 5 

1 Page 243. 2 p age 2 5i. 3 Early Man in Britain," p. 243. 

4 Op. cit., p. 132. * Ibid., p. 256. 


Arrow-heads from Co. Antrim. (Two-fifths natural size.) 


Dr. James Geikie states that man was an occupant of our Continent 
during glacial and interglacial times ; that when the meridian of the 
last interglacial epoch was attained, a climate approximating to that of 
Pliocene times characterised our Continent. More humid than the 
present, it was at the same time much more equable. The British 
Isles were united to themselves and to the Continent. A bridge of 
land connected Italy and Malta, through Sicily, to the coasts of Tunis; 
and Spain, in like manner, was joined to Barbary. " Such were the 
geographical conditions of Europe when the southern mammals the 
hippopotamus, the elephant, the rhinoceros, and their associates 
advanced northwards to commingle with the denizens of temperate 
latitudes. . . . Southern and temperate forms ranged together from the 
Mediterranean region up to the north of England." 1 But " by-and-by the 
climate began to change, 'and the succession was reversed. The winters 
became colder. . . . The tender southern species of plants now com- 
menced to retreat from Middle Europe, and to creep farther and farther 
south, and a like migration of the fauna ensued." 2 " The great pachy- 
derms of southern habitats vanished from our Continent, and the temperate 
forms eventually took possession of the Mediterranean region. All these 
changes came about in a gradual manner, and hence each zone of latitude 
became in succession the head- quarters of the arctic and northern fauna 
and flora in their advance towards the south. Thus, Paleolithic man 
must have hunted the reindeer in southern England, Belgium, and 
northern France for many generations before the increasing severity of 
the climate compelled both to retreat. Step by step, however, man was 
driven south ; England and Belgium were deserted ; perhaps even 
Germany, down to the foot of the Alps, was left unoccupied, until, at 
last, the Paleolithic race or races reached the south of France." 3 Dr, 
Geikie then goes on to show that Paleolithic man did not survive the last 
glacial epoch; and he takes note of one objection urged by some English 
geologists. " They tell us that Paleolithic implements occur in certain 
deposits that overlie the great chalky boulder-clay in Norfolk and other 
places ; and these deposits are recognized by them as of post-glacial 
age, simply from the fact that they rest upon boulder-clay. Now this 
conclusion would be inevitable if it were true that the great chalky 
boulder-clay had been laid down during the last glacial epoch. If that 
were the case, no one could dispute their contention that Paleolithic 
man lived in England in post-glacial times. . . . We know now, however, 
that, during the glacial period, arctic -and genial climates alternated, and 
that the great chalky boulder-clay is not the moraine prof onde of the last 
glacial epoch, but belongs to a much earlier stage in the series." 4 He 
says there is evidence that tumultuous floods occurred towards the close 
of the Paleolithic period, the mud and loam from which overlie the- 

1 Op cit., p. 349. 2 Ibid., p. 350. 3 Ibid., p. 354. 4 Ibid., p. 360. 



gravels containing Palaeolithic relics. This is in harmony with the 
fact that, in many caves in England 
and the Continent, the Palaeolithic beds 
are covered with a more or less con- 
tinuous thick cake of stalagmite, which 
points to a long lapse of time, during 
which the caves remained unvisited by 
man or beast ; and he comes to the con- 
clusion that the Palaeolithic age came to 
a close with the last glacial epoch. 

1 have quoted from Dr. Geikie at con- 
siderable length ; because, if his contention 
can be upheld, we are able to find a satis- 
factory explanation of the break between 
the two divisions of the Stone age. If 
man was post-glacial, as is held by the 
majority of the eminent geologists I have 
referred to, it is not easy to see any reason 
for the one set of men, and the fauna 
associated with them, dropping suddenly 
from the scene, and, after "the lapse of 
many centuries," the succeeding people, 
with the newer fauna, coming as suddenly 
on. If, on the other hand, Palaeolithic 
man was inter-glacial, and he was com- 
pelled to retreat southwards during the 
last glacial epoch, then the gap would re- 
present the time between his departure and 
return. That only a small portion of the 
South of England yields Palaeolithic re- 
mains shows, I think, that during the time 
this small portion was occupied, the north 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland were 
uninhabitable ; and, therefore, there ap- 
pears to be good grounds for Dr. Geikie' s 
theory. I am sorry I cannot agree with 
Dr. Geikie in what he says regarding 
Neolithic man. He states that there is no 
proof, either direct or indirect, that Neo- 
lithic man was the descendant of his 
Palaeolithic predecessor. " On the con- 
trary, all the evidence points in quite an 

Opposite direction." He also Says " that V1I -~ Irish Spear-head, partly polished. 

the beautifully shaped and highly polished 

specimens of stonework must be assigned to some advanced stage of the 


Neolithic epoch admits of little doubt." 1 Yet it is just such a set 
which he exhibits as types of Neolithic implements. 2 I do not for a 
moment hint that there is any intention to deceive ; but it is generally 
the case that the objects or particular arts that contrast well are dwelt 
on when showing the difference between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic 
implements. I believe, myself, in there being a gap between the two 
ages ; but it should not be made wider than it is. At Whitepark Bay, 
county Antrim, where about 5000 manufactured objects, of flint and 
other stone, have been obtained and, if we count flakes artificially pro- 
duced, twenty or thirty times that amount only three or four polished 
implements have been found, and these only of a very poor description. I 
am convinced that, if a full series of such poor implements of everyday use 
as are found at Whitepark Bay could be contrasted with the implements 
from the old floors of caves of Paleolithic age in the south of France, 
that the points of likeness would be nearly as striking as those of differ- 
ence. I believe, from the likeness of the Neolithic implements to those 
of the later Palaeolithic age in the south of Prance, that the arts of 
polishing stone implements and making pottery were acquired in some 
southern country in the long interval during which these islands were 
depopulated ; and that, when the climate became again suitable for 
occupation, Neolithic man, descended from the older race, came with 
these new arts, but with many of the preceding age still surviving. 

It is stated in " Early Man in Britain" that the Neolithic people 
appear as farmers after Britain had become an island, 3 that they crossed 
in canoes, with their cattle and household stuff from the nearest shores 
of the Continent to Britain, and from Britain to Ireland, 4 whilst Dr. 
Geikie says that before the reappearance of the North Sea, Neolithic 
man had entered Europe and crossed into Britain. 5 The latter view 
would seem to me to be the more correct one, as at Whitepark Bay, which 
is still noted as a good fishing district, there is almost an entire absence 
of fish-bones in the old surfaces, whilst there is an abundance of remains 
of shell fish such as could be obtained between high and low watermark. 
At Portstewart the conditions are similar. The Bann, which is a good 
fish river, runs past the sites of the Neolithic encampments, yet fish-bones 
are very rare, though shell fish are abundant. This would lead me to 
believe that the people had not the means of fishing in the quiet bays and 
rivers, and I am, therefore, doubtful, whether the earliest Neolithic 
population of this country were acquainted with the use of canoes. 

If man and beast were driven out of England by the severity of the 
climate, and compelled to remain away for a long lapse of centuries, a ques- 
tion arises as to what was happening in the south of England during their 
absence. Had the river valleys been entirely excavated, and the gravels 

1 Op. cit., p. 364. 2 md) p L c . facing p. 372. 3 Page 266. 

4 Page 282. * Op. cit., p. 555. 


all formed before man's retreat southward? The proofs of his contem- 
poraneous occupancy are his implements which are included in the gravels, 
and the proofs of the fauna being present are their bones, which are also 
included in the gravels. Some leg-bones, and other parts of the skeleton, 
are occasionally found in their natural position, which would go to prove 
that the animals had- been buried in the gravels shortly, after death. 
But suppose Siberia, with its many entombed animals some embedded 
in frozen clay with the flesh still intact were elevated 200 or 300 feet, 
and carved into river valleys, we might expect to find gravels with 
fossil bones and many leg-bones and other parts of the skeleton in 
their natural position, and yet perhaps not one of these bones would belong 
to an animal which lived at the time the valleys were being excavated. 

Sir H. H. Howorth, in enumerating the various causes which might 
bring about the death of animals, makes mention, among others, of a 
severe winter. I think he does not dwell sufficiently on this cause, as I 
can easily conceive how an early winter, with deep snow and great cold, 
-coming on perhaps suddenly, would prevent many animals of all kinds 
from escaping southwards, and cause them to perish of cold and hunger. 
In this way in the south of England we could account for young and 
fully matured, as well as different species, being found together. Besides 
the implements found in the gravels are weathered, which would show 
that they had been exposed for a considerable time to the air, as weather- 
ing would not take place if implements were dropped into water or 
lost through iceholes while fishing on a frozen river. I think it more 
probable that man abandoned his implements in escaping southwards, 
and when floods afterwards swept them along, they would, with the 
heavier stones, fall first to the bottom, the position in the gravels where 
the implements are usually found. I have been much impressed with 
the sections showing Paleolithic floors and implement-bearing beds in 
^Ir. Worthington Smith's " Man, the Primeval Savage." He gives a 
section at p. 66, showing an old surface where he found heaps of rough 
flints which had been collected by Paleolithic people for the purpose of 
their manufacture, besides many flakes, cores, and implements already 
made. He states that he has replaced more than 500 flakes from this 
floor either on to other flakes or on to implements and cores. These 
implements, flakes, and material for further workmanship were evidently 
abandoned by the owners, the increasing cold having probably driven 
them away. The contorted drift on top of this section, and also that on 
top of the implementiferous sands, shown in the section given as fig. 140, 
p. 209, as well as the contortion of the old floor itself, as shown in fig. 139, 
indicate, I think, that the country had been subjected to great severity 
of climate after these old surfaces were abandoned. 

From the various considerations I have mentioned, I am not con- 
vinced that Palaeolithic man with the associated fauna was living in the 
south of England during the entire time of the excavation of the river 



valleys, and I believe that Fome, at least, of the work of excavation 
was accomplished during the time he was absent. 

The locality, where the evolution of the Neolithic from the Palaeolithic 
stage of culture took place, cannot as yet, I think, be donned. If the 
hiatus between the older and newer Stone age is bridged by the dis- 
coveries of M. Piette, in the cavern of Mas d'Azil, then it may have 
occurred in the neighbourhood of the Pyrenees, but M. de Quatrefages 
says that M. Hamy has met with skulls in the Canary Islands, u the 
ethnical relation of which, with the old man of Cro-Magnon, is beyond 
discussion," l and, therefore, the evolution in question may as readily have 
been effected in North or Noi'th-West Africa. It is probable that when 
the climate began to get milder and the glaciers to disappear there would 
be a movement from that place of evolution, wherever it was, towards the 
north. The artistic tribes, with the reindeer and its associates, would 
probably proceed first, whilst others might be delayed till the temperate 
flora had occupied the place of the glaciers, and probably the advance, 
like the retreat, would be gradual. The theory that the artistic cave- 
dwellers are represented by the Esquimaux involves an interesting 
question. Did they develop their taste for an arctic climate while 
hunting the reindeer in the south of France, or did they come there 
originally with the arctic fauna and return with it to their northern 
home ? It is also a subject of inquiry whether any of the artistic folk 
came to Britain. From the finding of harpoons, as for example in Victoria 
Cave, Yorkshire, as described by Professor Boyd Dawkins, 2 and at Oban, 
Scotland, as lately reported in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 
Scotland, by Dr. Joseph Anderson, 3 1 suspect that some may have followed 
the reindeer whose descendants have lingered to a comparatively recent 
date in Scotland. However these questions may be answered, I am con- 
\ 7 inced, from a comparison of our Irish implements with those of newer 
Palaeolithic age in France and elsewhere, as detailed above, that a good 
contingent of those tribes who used the Mousterien and Solutrien types 
of implements came to the British area, and that the best examples of 
their surviving art and skill are to be found among the flint implements 
of the North of Ireland. 

1 " Human Species," p. 335. 2 " Cave Hunting," pp. Ill, 112. 

3 Vol. v.,3rdSer., p. 211. 



the fifth century the chieftains of Muintur Murchada were lords 
of the fertile plains of Moy Soela. 1 Their tribe name was derived 
from Morough, the son of Maonach, Prince of Moy Soela, who died A.D. 
891. This Morough was a descendant of Eochy, monarch of Ireland, 
through Duagh, the " sweet-tongued," who is referred to as the "third 
Christian king of Connaught." 

In later years the lords of Moy Soela took the name of O'Flaherty, 
and for a considerable period held a position of pre-eminence amongst 
the chieftains of the "Western Province. They were near kinsmen of the 
O'Connors. The O'Hallorans, lords of Clan-Feargail, the MacConrys, and 
the clans of Dealbna Feadha beyond the Corrib, were their relatives, and 
seem to have ruled those districts as subordinate chieftains. Hence we 
find that, in the tenth century, and after, the O'Flahertys are frequently 
styled Chieftains of lar Connaught, as well as Lords of Moy Soela. Our 
annalists record the death of Archad, son of Murchad, chief of Moy 
Soela, A.D. 943, but we find that he is also styled "Lord of lar Con- 
naught." But though exercising a paramount influence over their 
kindred chieftains in the adjoining territories, the territory of Moy 
Soela, over which they were recognized lords, was by no means exten- 
sive. It extended from the village of Clare Galway to Tuam ; and from 
near Athenry to the shores of the Corrib. The entire district, according 
to the learned editor of "lar Connaught," 2 would only measure an area 
of 10 miles in length by 6 in breadth. But the district was exceedingly 
interesting. Several of the localities included within this area have 
been long memorable in our annals: Abbey Knockmoy is one of the 
oldest of our venerable Cistercian abbeys. Clare Galway and Ross- 
errilly are, even in their ruins, striking evidence of the splendour of 
our Franciscan monasteries before the Reformation period. And the 
ecclesiastical remains at Kilursa and Annaghdown recall the still earlier 
period, when the religious and monastic life of Ireland was the light of 
Northern Europe. 

The battlefield of Knock Tuagh has its memories of valour and 
heroism, but, alas! of profuse and profitless bloodshed also. And just 
as those venerable ruins of churches and monasteries recall the religious 
history of Moy Soela, so, too, the ruined castles which stand out in the 

1 O'Flaherty's " lar Connaught," ed. Hardiman, pp. 2-3. - Ibid., p. 148. 



landscape, weather-stained and roofless, speak to us of the conquerors 
who wrested the supremacy of the territory from the grasp of the 
0' Flaherties. 

The territory of Clanfeargail was adjoining, 1 and extended from 
Clare Gal way to the sea ; it lay east of the Corrib and the Gal way river, 
and included twenty-four battys, in which Galway, Clare, and Roscani 
were situated. The O'Hallorans, who were kinsmen of the O'Flahertys, 
were the Dynasts of this small territory. But we have at so remote a 
period as the reign of Cathal ' Conor evidence that the O'Flahertys 
were, at least, paramount lords of the district. It is recorded 2 that the 
chief of Muintur Murchada, with the consent of Cathal, King of Con- 
naught, made a present of the town of Lismacaun, in Clan-Feargail, to 
the abbot and convent of Knockmoy. The erection of an O'FLtherty 
castle in Galway, 3 in the early part of the twelfth century, may be re- 
garded as an additional evidence that the authority of the chiefs of Moy 
Soela extended southwards to the sea. In addition we have the fullest 
historical evidence that the 0' Flaherty territory was co-extensive with 
the Diocese of Annaghdown, in which we know the town of Galway was 

Though the O'Hallorans seem never to have attained military fame, 
yet it is their privilege to claim some of the most eminent of our Irish 
saints as kinsmen. St. Finbar of Cork and St. Aileron "the Wise" are 
regarded as members of this ancient tribe. It should be remembered 
that the O'Hallorans of Clan-Feargail are entirely distinct from the 
Munster family of the same name who claim descent as a branch of the 

"We think it pretty certain that the authority of the O'Flahertys was 
also recognized by the chieftains of Gno-more and Gno-beg in the 
remote districts of lar Connaught from an early period. Mr. Hardinian 
regards this opinion as probable, though he does not consider it can be 
supported by " direct evidence." 

But the important part which they took in the warfare of the period 
would be consistent with this opinion. In the early part of the twelfth 
century they frequently supported the growing power of their kinsmen 
the O'Connors against the Princes of Munster. In 1117 the son of 
Dermot O'Brien and his brave Dalcassians were " defeated with great 
slaughter," by the sons of Cathal O'Connor and by Brian O'Flaherty. 
And when a few years after, Dermot O'Brien and his armies would wipe 
ont the disgrace of their defeat, by an invasion of Connaught, it was to 
suffer a still more crushing repulse at the hands of Cathal O'Connor and 
O'Flaherty. King Turlough O'Connor received a loyal and continuous 
support from Mureadhach O'Flaherty, prince of lar Connaught, against 

1 0' Flaherty's "lar Connaught," ed. Hardiman, p. 232. 

2 " History of Galway," p. 3. 3 4i lar Connaught," p. 232. 


O'Brien. At the battle of Ardfinnan O'Connor was defeated, and 
O'Flaherty, with many others of his bravest followers, slain. But Connor 
O'Brien soon carried the warfare into the enemy's country. The castle 
of Gal way was destroyed, and soon after the entire territory of the 
O'Flahcrtys was devastated by Turlough O'Brien. 

But this loyal alliance was not destined to last between the O'Connors 
and their powerful kinsmen. We find that " Cathal, the son of Hugh 
O'Flaherty, was slain by Mortagh-Midhe-O'Connor." We find the 
English invaders then upon the scene, and constantly allied to some 
one of the ambitious aspirants to the Connaught crown ; in whose 
wretched ambition all other interests were lost sight of, whether of 
country or of kindred. We find accordingly that Roderic O'Flaherty, 
lord of " West Connaught," was taken prisoner by Cathal Crovedearg, 
" who delivered him over to the English, by whom he was put to 
death." And in the year 1204, when the authority of Crovedearg was 
still more firmly established as sovereign of Connaught, he expelled 
Hugh O'Flaherty from Moy Soela only to confer the territory on his 
own son. 

Richard De Burgo had obtained royal grants of the entire Province 
of Connaught. And in 1225 the Earl Marshal of Ireland was ordered 
by Henry III. to " seize" the whole country of Connaught, and deliver 
it to Richard De Burgo. Hugh O'Connor lent De Burgo his royal aid to 
carry this decree into effect in Moy Soela. By their combined forces 
Hugli O'Flaherty, lord of Moy Soela, was deprived of the islands of the 
Corrib, and obliged to take refuge in his strong castle of Gal way. Here, 
after a spirited defence against these unnatural allies, he was obliged 
to capitulate in A.D. 1232. " Hugh O'Flaherty and his people crossed 
Lough Orbsen, and took possession of these western districts, to which 
the name of lar Connaught had been exclusively given." 1 

No sooner was De Burgo master of the Castle of Galway, than he 
" built several additions to it," 2 and made it his chief residence. From 
it he was able to hold undisturbed possession of the plains of Moy 
Soela, on which several strong castles were soon after erected by his 
kindred and descendants. As many as thirty-three castles were erected, 
by them in this district from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. 
And as De Burgo seized the territory of the O'Flahertys, so also he 
appropriated the lands of Clan-Feargail, and drove its chiefs, with their 
kinsmen, into lar Connaught. 

This district, designated ' f lar," or ''Western" Connaught, was also 
known by other names, which perhaps more clearly indicate its position. 
It was called Dealbna Feadha and Tir da Locha the country of the 
L\\ r o lakes which were, we assume, Lough Orbsen and Lough Lurgan. 
It was also known as Conmhaicne of the Sea (Mara), now familiarly 

1 " Jar Connaught," p. 380. " History of Galway," p. 48. 


anglicised Connemara, and was described in 1586 as a territory of about 
20 square miles. lar Connaught, interesting though it is in many 
respects, is by no means the most picturesque portion of Western 
Galway. The mountain and lake scenery, which even in our own day 
charm the traveller by their beauty, belong chiefly to the still more 
remote districts of Ross and Ballinahinch, which were of old the homes 
of the Joyces and O'Malleys. Yet the lar Connaught districts present 
many charming pictures of hill and dale, of lake and open sea. 1 

For the most part the country slopes gently to the sea. Its 
highest hills do not reach a greater altitude than 700 feet ; while three- 
fourths of the district is not 100 feet over the sea-level. The weird and 
wooded lakes, the charming bays, the mountain gorges over which the 
hills reach an altitude of 2000 feet, belong to the more remote districts 
of Ross and Ballinahinch. And though much of the lands of lar Con- 
naught was comparatively unproductive, many of the plains which skirt 
the Corrib are very fertile. 

We have seen that the expulsion of the clans of Moy Soela and Clan- 
Feargail was effected in the opening of the thirteenth century. Hugh 
O'Flaherty was on the occasion chief of his name. On migrating beyond 
the Corrib with his tribe, and his kindred of Clan-Feargail, he seems to 
have, without opposition, asserted his authority over the districts hitherto 
held by the MacConrys and O'Heyneys, the chiefs of Gno-more and Gno- 
beg ; and Hugh O'Flaherty might therefore be regarded as the first of 
his name who could be, strictly speaking, regarded as chief of lar Con- 
naught. His new territory, which extended from the shores of the 
Corrib to Kilkieran Bay, was then comparatively unknown. 2 Indeed, it 
may be said to have remained unexplored by the English till towards 
the close of the reign of Henry VIII. Yet Richard De Burgo felt him- 
self insecure as long as the ex-chiefs of Moy Soela and Clan-Feargail 
could maintain their independence even in the " Wild West." Until 
the chieftain of lar Connaught was completely subdued, the astute 
Norman felt insecure in his newly acquired territory. 

In 1235 he accordingly organized an expedition for perilous ser- 
vice in lar Connaught. But Hugh O'Flaherty, finding himself aban- 
doned by the O'Connors and others to whom he might have looked for 
protection, entered into a treaty of peace with his powerful enemy, against 
whom he considered himself powerless to struggle alone. Though the 
O'Connors had been his faithless allies, they were still his kings; he must 
have felt that he still owed them allegiance, notwithstanding their petty 
strifes and ambitions. Yet he entered into an alliance with De Burgo in 
violation of his fealty to his king. ' This," says Hardiman, " was the 
last and the only disgraceful act of his life." 

In 1244 King Henry III. was engaged in his Scotch campaigns. He 

lar Connaught," p. 8. 2 Ibid., p. 383. 


considered the support of the chief of lar Connaught of sufficient impor- 
tance to solicit it by letters under his seal. 1 But before the Lord r of 
lar Connaught could have led his clansmen to his Majesty's aid, terms of 
peace were arranged with Scotland. But they supported Henry in his 
expedition to Wales, under Felim O'Connor, 2 " whence they returned 
victorious," says Hardiman. 

. On this occasion the O'Flahertys endeavoured to utilise their claims 
on his Majesty's good will, for the purpose of regaining their ancestral 
possessions in Moy Soela. They represented truly to his Majesty that 
they had been "unjustly expelled from their territory " ; but they also 
represented with absolute untruth, "that their ancestors and themselves, 
though mere Irish, always showed their fealty to him and his predecessors 
by assisting the English to reduce the Irish. They had notwithstanding 
been unjustly expelled from their territory to which they humbly prayed 
to be restored." 3 This appeal was made conjointly by Morogh O'Flaherty 
and his brother Roderic ; and we doubt if history supplies at this early 
period, on the part of any Irish chieftain, greater evidence of base 
recreancy to the Irish cause. The astute monarch replied through the 
Lord Justice of Ireland to this appeal to the Royal clemency, in a manner 
calculated to natter their selfishness. His Majesty informed the Lord 
Justice, in Latin more courtly than classical, that if those O'Flahertys 
and their ancestors had always supported the English cause, they could 
not then be justly deprived of their possessions, even though they were 
Irish* The king's reply may perhaps be regarded as an evidence of his 
willingness that some protection should be extended to such recreants. 
41 But," says Hardiman, in his valuable appendix to " lar Connaught," 
" the O'Flahertys derived no benefit from the Royal Mandate." On the 
contrary, their new territory was again invaded by Walter De Burgo, 
as if in defiance of it, and was plundered by the English. In 1248, 
Walter De Burgo marched against them with an army, but was defeated 
with considerable slaughter ; he soon after made another excursion against 
Roderic O'Flaherty, plundered his territory of Gno-more and Gno-beg, 
now called the barony of Moycullen, and seized on Lough Orbsen with 
its islands. The persecuted chief was at length forcibly expelled from 
his territory, but his expulsion was only temporary. It was the old 
struggle which their ancestors had fought out on the plains of Moy Soela, 
and now as of old, fortune favoured the invaders. 

But it did not suit the De Burgos to continue the struggle for the 
wild districts of the west, and so the O'Flahertys were soon after able 
to return to their territory. And from the close of the thirteenth to the 
fifteenth century, they continued practically undisturbed as chiefs of 
lar Connaught. Their wise abstention from interference in contem- 

1 " lar Connaught," p. 389. 2 Ibid., p. 380. 

3 Ibid., p. 381. * Ibid., p. 381. 


porary struggles outside of their territory, and the friendly relations 
which they cultivated with the O'Malleys and Joyces of the more remote 
regions of Connemara, also helped to give for a period additional security 
to their authority. NOT have we any reason to justify the assumption 
that their assertion of authority over Gno-more and Gno-beg met with any 
opposition from the friendly chieftains of those districts. 

O'Duggan tells us, in his "Topographical Poem," who the chief- 
tains of those districts were until their territories were seized by the 
O'Flahertys : 

" Mac Conry, mark, you shall find 
Over Gno-more of smooth callows ; 
O'Heyney over Gno-beg lasting, 
A nest not poor nor transient." 

We are informed by Hardiman, in his valuable notes to "Jar Con- 
naught," 1 that Conry was the first chief of Gno-more. In the course of 
centuries, the tribe migrated westward and settled in a district on the; 
seacoast, which received from them the name of Bally in aconry. It is 
interesting to know on the same authority that the English rendering of 
the name as "King" (as if the Irish were Mac an Kigh) is entirely 
incorrect. The name seems to have been also anglicised as Mac Enry. 

Those districts of Gno-more and Gno-beg over which the O'Elahertys 
and O'Hallorans had asserted a kind of joint occupation were also known 
as Moycullen, i.e. the plain of Ullin. O'Flaherty and others derive the 
name from Ullin, the grandson of Nuad, monarch of Ireland. On this 
plain Ullin slew Orbsen, a famous merchant, also known as Manannan 
Mac Lir, who had his principal residence on the Isle of Man. From this 
event, the place was designated the " Magh " or plain of Ullin, i.e., Moy 
Cullin ; or to use O'Flaherty' s words, " therefore from Ullin Moycullen 
is named to wit, Magh Ullin, the field of Ullin." The name is still 
preserved as the designation of the barony, which comprises the terri- 
torial divisions already referred to, of Gno-more and Gno-beg. It extends 
from the Corrib to the sea. It has the baronies of Ross and Ballina- 
hinch on its northern and north-western borders. And we are told by 
O'Flaherty that " Lough Orbsen," 2 and the river of Galway were the 
eastern boundary. 

The principal residences of the chiefs of lar Connaught were at Ein- 
voyle, Bunowen and Aghenure, "where the salmon comes under the 
castle on a river not far from the west side of Lough Orbsen." The site 
of Aghenure on the shore of the Corrib, must have derived considerable 
attractiveness from the ancient yews which grew around it, and from 
which the picturesque site derived its name Aghenure, i.e. " Field of the 
Yews." But these ancient trees from which Aghenure had derived its 

1 " lar Connaught," p. 281. - Ibid., p. 52. 


name had nearly all perished when the author of lar Connaught lived. 
One alone had remained, and that, which was showing evidences of decay r 
was reputed to be over a thousand years old. 

The Castle of Aghenure with 500 acres was, by Eoyal grant created 
a manor by James I. on the 25th June, 1618, in favour of Hugh 
O'Flaherty, father of Roderic, author of "lar Connaught " and " Ogygia," 
who writes of Moy Cullen as his patrimony 1 : " This is my natal soil 
and patrimony, enjoyed by my ancestors time immemorial. There was a 
manor exempted by a patent from all taxes ; it likewise enjoyed the 
privilege of holding a market and fairs, and was honoured with a Sene- 
schal's Court to determine litigations. But having lost my father at the 
age of two years, I sheltered myself under the wings of royalty, and paid 
the usual sum for my wardship. But before I attained the proper age 
for possessing my fortune, I was deprived of the patronage of my 
guardian by the detestable execution of my king. Having completed 
my nineteenth year, and the prince half a year younger, then I was com- 
pelled to take refuge in a foreign clime." 

Even at the present day the ruins of the Castle of Aghenure at Moy- 
cullen are amongst the most striking in the West of Ireland. 

Bunowen JUanor was another of the chief residences of the O'Flahertys. 
It occupied a picturesque situation an the shores of the beautiful lake of 
Ballinahinch, three miles from Irosbeg, and outside the borders of lar 
Connaught proper. It was overshadowed by some of the loftiest peaks 
of the " pins" of Bunnabeola. The hill of Duin stood near, which gave 
its name to the surrounding parish of Ballindown in which St. Flannan 
of Killaloe was venerated as patron. The Castle of Bunowen is described 
by Hardiman as an " extensive fortress." Donell na Chogaidh O'Flaherty, 
so called from his warlike proclivities, was owner of the castle in the 
sixteenth century. In the compositions under Elizabeth in 1585, we 
find that the " Castle of Bunowen and six quarters of land next adjoin- 
ing the same was conferred on Donell' s sons, Owen and Morogh, as a 
free demayne for ever." After the death of Owen, who was slain, 
Morogh became sole claimant of the Bunowen estates. He was known 
as Morogh an Maor (the Steward.) On the 25th May, 1618, King 
James I. made a grunt by letters patent to Morogh, of " the Castle of 
Bunowen, with numerous lands in the barony of Ballinahinch, and 
thereby created the manor of Bunowen to contain 1300 acres in de- 
mesne ; gave a power to create tenures, hold courts, leei and baron ; a 
Monday market at Bunowen, and a fair there on St. Laurence's Day and 
the day following." 

These were very important Royal favours ; and before Morogh passed 
away in 1626, he was justly regarded as equal in prominence and influence 
to his kinsmen at Moycullen. He was succeeded by his son Morogh na 

1 " lar Connaught " " Ogygia," p. 27. 


Mart (of the beeves) in the lordship of Bunowen, who was regarded on 
his accession as the most powerful of the western O'Flahertys." 1 

The Lord Deputy did him the honour of paying him what seemed to 
be a visit of ceremony in his remote mountain fortress. But the favours 
of Wentworth (" Black Tom") were open to grave suspicion. Though 
the chieftain was away on some military raid, the representative of royalty 
patiently awaited his return, and his stay was honoured by profuse and 
lavish hospitality ; and so pleased did his lordship seem to be with the 
hospitable chieftain, that he conferred upon him the honour of knighthood 
on his departure. We are told, however, that Wentworth carefully 
utilised his stay for the purpose of exploring the intricate passes of the 
district, and of ascertaining the exact extent of O'Flaherty's property. 
But whatever the Deputy's designs may have been, it is certain that Sir 
Morogh experienced in his own person one of those sad vicissitudes but 
too frequent at that period. He was robbed of his property in the name 
of law, and died A.D. 1666 in abject poverty. 

On the 15th May, 1678, his castle of Bunowen, and the " adjoining 
lands," were conferred on Edmond Geoghegan, the son of Art Geoghegan, 
of Castletown in Meath, a forfeiting proprietor. 2 

Early in the seventeenth century we find the O'Flahertys extending 
themselves still further to the north-west, and acquiring there from their 
kinsmen, the O'Hallorans, some additional territory and the strong castle 
of Rinvyle. This castle stood on Rinvyle headland, which runs into 
the sea opposite the Island of Boffin. Some say that this castle was 
erected by the Joyces, though it is difficult to say on what authority. 
We know with certainty that, in A.D. 1594, this castle was the property 
of Dermott Duff O'Halloran of Bearna, who sold it to Edmond O'Halloran, 
a Galway merchant. 3 The deed of assignment or transfer, which is a 
curious one, is preserved by Hardiman in his appendix to "lar Con- 
naught." And we also find that, in October, 1638, this same castle and 
lands of Rinvoyle were transferred to Edmond O'Flaherty by Theo. 
Eremond, the son of Edmond O'Halloran. 

From some other deeds of sale made by the O'Hallorans to their 
well-beloved lord, Morogh na Moyer O'Flaherty of Bunowen, it is certain 
that the Edmond O'Flaherty referred to was the second son of Sir Morogh, 
by whom the castle was held in 1642, whose opposition to the English at 
that period was active and continuous. 

The castles of O'Hery and Bearna, with extensive lands, were in 
the possession of the O'Hallorans at the close of the sixteenth century. 4 
O'Hery Castle occupied a picturesque situation on an island in Lough 
Lonan, now known as the Lake of Ross. It was therefore in dangerous 
proximity to the castle of their " well-beloved lord," Morogh na Doe at 

1 " lar Connaught," p. 83. 2 Ibid., p. 108. 

3 Ibid., p. 255. * Ibid., p. 84. 


Aghenure. In 1585 it was in the possession of Lonick O'Halloran. In 
that year he was driven out by Morogh " of the Battle-axes," who 
appropriated both the castles and lands of his kinsmen. The castle of 
Bearna was the chief residence of the O'Hallorans. It was situated 
by the seashore about three miles west of Galway. In 1594, we find 
that Dermott Duff O'Halloran of Bearna, who had transferred his Rin- 
voyle castle and property to Edmond O'Flaherty, was still proprietor of 
Bearna. On the 28th November, 1638, we find that " Stephen Lynch 
obtained a decree in Chancery against Edmond O'Halloran of Bearna in 
410 1 9s. 8^." 1 With reference to this judgment Hardiman adds : "This 
decree is supposed to have led to the transfer of the Bearna estates to 
the Lynches, by whom it is possessed to this day." 

1 "lar Connaught," p. 255. 



Itv <1KOH<;I': rnl'KKY, A.I.I!., M.U.I. A., Fi:imu 
(Continued from payo 69, /W. /'/., 1890.) 


iK main argument oft he pal ferns has been brought to a close, but} 
I IK- inquiry would bo incomplete) if we did not consider (he bearing 
of the evidence collected in the preceding sections on the question of 

eii|) mid cup-and-riug sculpt urrs. Much has lieen written mi the suh- 
jcct, :iinl various theories have been proposed to explain Iheir meaning. 
They have been supposed to be sacrificial altars, Hie cup cavities being 
designed to receive the blood of the victims (Nilsson); archaic maps of 
circular curups and cities (Ureonwell, Wilkinson, (jruves); a means of 
recording events, the explanation bring handed down by oral t radii ion 
(Keller, Dixon) ; dials, astronomical and astrological diagrams, tables for 
games, boundary marks (various writers). No substantial evidence has 
been produced in favour of any of these theories, and they ha\e been 
generally discarded. The prevailing opinion is that these mysterious 
markings, found so frequently on rude stone monuments, erratic block,- 
and rock surfaces, are symbols expressive of some religious conception. 1 

A theory pnt forth by Mr. Itivett-Carnac, that these symbols repre- 
sent the powers of generation in nature has won many adherents. 
-Briefly summarised, his argument is as follows : 

Two and a-half miles south of 'Dwara-llath, and twelve miles 
north of the military station of Kanikhet, in Kumaoii, Central India, 
is a narrow gorge, at the mouth of which is a temple, locally known 
by the name of Chamleshwar, sacred to Mahadeo. About two 
hundred yards south of the temple arises a rock at an angle of forty- 
live degrees, upmi \\hidi, in a space measuring fourteen feet by twelve 
feet, more than two hundred cups are sculptured. They vary fn>m an 
inch and a-half to six inches in diameter, and from half an inch to one 
inch in depth. They are arranged in groups of approx imatcly parallel 
rows. The illustration given in the Taper under notice shows 'J 
cups; in two instances the cups are enclosed by a single ring. 

1 A Nummary >l tho loading \u-\\s mi thr Mihjcrt will !> I'niiiul in Sir ,1 . Sim 
"Archaic Sculpt mrs," AM-.; mid nu>iv ivrrntiv in "Observations on ( 'np- 
and otlici 1 .apidari.m Sculptures in the Old World and in Anu-iicu," by Charles K.m, 
" U.S. <i. and <i. Sm \t y of the lux ky Mountain Ke:;hn, ( 'onl rihul ions to IS'ortli 
American Kthnology," vol. v. (1881). 


From the villagers and from the old priest at the temple, no informa- 
tion W08 to be obtained of the or igiii of these markings, beyond, "thai 

they were so old that tin- oldest man in the village had no knowledge 
pf who had made them, nor had they been made in UK- time of their 
lathers' lathers, hut, they were most probably the work of -iants or (he 
goolas ( herdsmen) in days gone by." 

On visiting the temple of (Ihandesh war, Mr. Kivett-Carnac was striirk 
by t,he resemblance of many of its shrines to tin- rock-markings. He says, 
the better class Muhadoo is represented by an upright stone, hut the 
"poorer type is without the upright, and ifl apparently a conventional 
rendering or sketch of these symbols roughly cut on the stone, the inner 
circle ivpre-.eiiting the. Mahadeo, the outer circle the Yoni, the line or 
lines the gutter by which the libations and offerings are drained (.If from 

this, as Well as the more elaborate class of Mahadeos." Four of the 

poorer shrines are figured. They consist of flat stones with (1) Two 
concentric, im-ised rings, witli a groove or gutter leading from the outer 
rin;; to the edge of the stone ; (2) a cup, surrounded by a single ring, 
from which a gutter leads to the edge of the stone; (3) a single rin-, 
with :i -utter from it to the edge of the stone. The fourth shrine 
M.\po of No. 2) shows cup-marks in addition to the symbol, but as, 
Mr. Kivett-Carnae states, "the cups were in all probability on the 
-Ia!i before it, was split oil' from the rock, and made to do service ull f,| M . 
top of the shrines, no particular significance can be claimed for this 


The resemblanee of these symbols to the (jup-und-ring markings in 
Great Britain and Ireland cannot be denied ; and Mr. llivett-Carnac draws 
the conclusion 'hat the latter are of the same class. 

In support of this argument, it should be stated, Mr. llivett- 
Caniac points to the r< --.- mblanee of tumuli, surrounded by circles of 
stones, on some of which nip-marks are found, in Central India, to monu- 
ments of the same class in Europe, and to the further parallel to bo 
drawn between the menhirs of Carnac in Brittany and the Siva embh m> 
of India. With the addition of this evidence, he concludes, that "the 
jcoiiii e..\ ion between, the marks in India and Europe" may " be considered 
tolerably complete." 1 

Sun worship and associated forms of worship of tin powers of gene- 
ration arc so widely distributed amongst primitive peoples that it is 
probable an underlying correspondence will be found in nianv in lances 
between the symbols and customs of widely separated countries. But 
we must not assume that such re.>emblam-e implies the identity of either 
DM symbol or its meaning. 

It will be observed that then- are M \eral \\eak points in Mr. Kivett- 
-Carnac's argument. In the first place, neither the priest nor the 

1 Asiiitir Society of Uengu vol. 46 (1H77) ; and vol. 48 (1879). 


villagers at Chandeshwar associated the cup-marks on the rock-surface- 
in the gorge with the emblems in the temple, or with Siva worship. 
The answer given was of the usual kind, such as peasants give in 
Europe concerning pre-historic remains. Further, out of 219 cup-marks r 
two only are ringed, so that the resemblance of tlie cups on the rock- 
surface to the Siva symbols at the temple is not very definite. 

The cup-marks on the tumuli stones, none of which are ringed, and on 
the rock-surface at Chandeshwar, appear to be pre-historic, and as far as 
the Indian evidence goes, there is nothing to show that there, is any 
original connexion between them and Siva worship. 

Cup-marks are widely distributed in Europe. They have been 
recorded from France, Switzerland, Portugal, Germany, Austria, Denmark, 
Sweden, England, Scotland, and Ireland. Yet, with the exception of 
a few instances, cup-and-ring, or concentric circle sculptures, have not 
been recorded in Europe, outside Sweden, Great Britain, and Ireland, 
The exceptions referred to are a cupped stone near Bunsoh, Holstein, 
showing twenty-seven cups, three of which are surrounded by single 
rings * ; a cupped stone, stated to bave existed near Mels, St. Gall, 
Switzerland, unfortunately destroyed, one of the cups of which was 
enclosed by two rings 2 ; some examples of cup-and-ring and cross-in- 
circle markings, in association with cup-marks, on rock- surf aces in the 
Eringerthal, Yalais, Switzerland 3 ; an example of concentric rings on a 
rock-surface in the Meraviglie, Mentone 4 ; and two or three examples 
on a surface in Galicia. 5 

The last two instances do not appear, from associated forms, to be 
strictly of the class under consideration. The Holstein examples are 
within the Scandinavian area, so that the instances in Switzerland would 
seem to be the only outliers from the north-western group. When we 
take into consideration how widely spread cup-marked stones are in 
Europe these facts become of first-rate importance. 

This narrow distribution of cup-and-ring cuttings is emphasised by the 
fact that cup-and-ring marks with radial gutters are absolutely confined 
in Europe to Great Britain and Ireland. To establish, therefore, for the 
purpose of Mr. Hivett-Carnac's argument, a connexion between cup- 
marks, cup-and-ring, and cup-ring with gutter marks, it is necessary to 
pass at a step from India to Britain (where they are found associated), 
skipping the Continent. This is an insuperable objection to the theory 
of a common origin for the Siva emblems of India, and the ring-and- 
gutter cuttings of Great Britain and Ireland ; and it is evident that a 

1 In a letter from Miss Mestorf, Rau, /. c., note, p. 24. 

2 Rau, I.e., p. 22. 


similar meaning cannot be assumed for the latter symbols until inde- 
pendent evidence has been produced for the British and Irish examples. 

Now let us see what light the Irish evidence throws on the subject. 

At New Grange there are numerous examples of cup-markings ; for 
instance, stone No. 6, right side of passage, on which are a number of 
irregularly-spaced cups from two to four inches iu diameter (there are no 
other markings on this stone). The curiously ribbed stone at end of 
passage on same side has a large cup below the ribs, and four smaller 
cups along the edge. Stone No. 5 in ch amber, and stone a outside may 
be also mentioned. But whilst cup-marks are numerous at New Grange, 
in no instance, except in the case of the cartouche-like figures, and con- 
centric curves on stone a (fig. 62), is any attempt made to combine them 
with the incised patterns. As previously stated concentric circles are 
not represented at New Grange, and necessarily cup-and-circle marks are 
absent. But it is important to note that cup and spirals are likewise 
absent. That is, there is no example of a spiral, the centre of which is 
sunk in the form of a cup-cutting. 

At Dowth single spirals and the debased form, concentric circles, are 
well represented. As at New Grange many examples of plain cup-marks 
occur, but here we find in addition several examples of concentric circles 
with cup centres. No examples, however, of a spiral with cup centre 
is found. 

Lough crew takes us a step further. Here we have the full series, 
with numerous intermediate forms. Some of the stones may be de- 
scribed as pitted with small cup-marks. Thus Con well mentions a 
stone standing outside cairn N, upwards of 6 feet above the surface, in- 
scribed with forty-eight cup-hollows, and one in cairn o, with thirty-nine 
cups varying from half an inch to three quarters of an inch in diameter, 
and about a quarter of an inch in depth. Other stones show large well- 
defined cup-marks, as for instance, stone d, Cairn T. Single spirals and 
concentric circles, as already stated, are well represented. Also transi- 
tional forms, spirals with concentric circle centres, concentric circles with 
spiral centres, and concentric circles and tangents. But further, spirals 
and concentric circles are frequently combined with cup-marks. Thus 
we have the spiral with cup-centre, stone d, Cairn T, spiral with cup-and- 
ring centre, stone a, Cairn H. Concentric circles occur with three, four, 
and more circles (stones c, Cairn i,j, Cairn u, d, Cairn w), and likewise 
descend to two, and if one can say so, single circles (stones/*, Cairn i, m, 
Cairn L). Similarly, cup-and-ring marks are found descending from 
many rings or circles to three, two, and single rings (Cairn L, view of 
chamber, stones ^and#, Cairn T, etc.) : in some instances these figures are 

Taking the evidence of Loughcrew with that of New Grange, the 
inference appears to be forced upon us that the cup is the oldest symbol, 
using the term for convenience of description, and that it was not yet 


associated with the spiral or concentric circle at the period of the erection 
of the latter monument, or at least was not associated in the tradition 
which governed the inscribed markings of New Grange. 

The general evidence from the Continent appears to support this view. 
Cup-marks are recorded from France (Brittany, Pyrenees, Rhone Yalley, 
Lozere), Portugal, Switzerland (French cantons, Zurich, Saint Gall), 
Germany (Schleswig, Holstein, Prussia, Saxony, Silesia), Austria 
(Bohemia, Moravia, Lower Austria), Denmark, and Sweden. Up to the 
present, cup-marks do not appear to have been recorded from southern 
Germany, Italy, and the more eastern part of Europe, but we may con- 
fidently expect that further researches will extend the area of their dis- 
tribution. 1 

It has been shown that the spiral did not travel westward across the 
oritinent. Concentric circles, the debased spiral, are represented on 
bronze remains from the western lands of the Continent, but for the 
most part they pertain to a late period, and become increasingly numerous 
in the early Iron Period, when inscribing by compass came into general 
use. We should expect to find cup-and-spiral and cup-and-circle mark- 
ings along the track of the spiral to the north, but spirals and con- 
centric circles do not appear to have been transferred to rocks or 
megalithic structures along this route, and cup-marks have not as yet 
been recorded further south than Lower Austria. In Sweden, where 
rock-sculptures are numerous, in addition to many cup-cuttings, we have 
some examples of the spiral, and many examples of concentric circle and 
cup-and-ring markings. In some instances the latter appear to represent 
shields held by armed men (Holmberg, Pis. 10 and 13). 

But other instances, for example, the stone figured by Simpson, 
PI. xxxi., from Halland, inscribed with six concentric circles, and 
examples of cups surrounded by single rings (Holmberg, Pis. 2 and 
22-23), would appear to be true cases of concentric circle and cup-and- 
ring markings. 

In Britain and Ireland, where the spiral and concentric circle were 
transferred to megalithic structures and rock-surfaces, the combination 
of cup-marks with the spiral and concentric circle, imperfectly represented 
by cup-and-ring marks in Sweden, is illustrated by numerous examples. 
The occurrence, as at Loughcrew, of the spiral and concentric circles in 
company with free cup-marks, and also (especially the spiral examples) 
combiped with cup-marks, seems to disclose the stages of a local combi- 
nation of the spiral and derived concentric circles with the cup-mark. 
I suspect that this combination was largely induced by the prevalence of 
circle-and-dot forms in the later Scandinavian Bronze Age. 

In this connexion, the tendency in concentric circle ornament to 

1 Ran, L 6-., p. 98. Allen, Proc. Soc. Ant., Scot., vol. xvi., pages 122-143. 
" Cartuilhac, Ages Prehistoriques de 1'Espagne et du Portugal." 


emphasise the centre may be noted. In metal work there is a further 
tendency to simplification, and the centres are frequently developed as 
bosses, when in relief, or deep sinkings, when incised. This may be 
observed in Mycenae gold work, and in the later Bronze Age of Scandi- 
navia examples are numerous. From this point of view, it is possible to 
regard the combination of the cup-and-circle as falling within a general 
tendency, the representatives of which are to be looked for on the Con- 
tinent in metal work. We have not as yet taken into consideration 
the important class of cup-and-circle markings which are characterised 
by radial grooves or gutters leading from the central cup through the 
enclosing circles. I have left this class of markings aside for the 
purpose of massing together the evidence regarding the combination of 
the spiral and concentric circle with the cup-mark. But before entering 
on the question of cup -and- gutter markings, it is desirable to examine 
the distribution of spiral and cup-and-circle cuttings in Ireland, and the 
relation of the rock-markings there to the tumuli series. 

So far the spirals observed in Ireland are confined to sepulchral 
monuments, with the exception of "a rude carving of a short portion 
of a spiral," noted on a stone in a fence in the county Kerry, by 
Dr. Graves, Bishop of Limerick. 1 In addition to the examples on the 
Boyne and Loughcrew tumuli, the following are recorded. Some two 
miles east of the Loughcrew hills, on an eminence called " King's 
Mountain," is a large flagstone set on end as a rubbing stone for cattle ; 
it measures 7 feet by 3 feet by 6 inches. One side is incised with 
spirals, the other shows no trace of carving. Conwell states that up to 
a few years before he visited it, a tumulus stood on its present site, 
" which the proprietor of the field caused to be carried away for top- 
dressing ; and in the centre of the mound this stone was found, covering 
in a chamber of smaller flagstones, and filled with bones, all of which 
have disappeared, the covering stone alone excepted." 3 An illustration 
of this stone is given here from a photograph, kindly taken for me by 
Mr. E. C. Eotheram (fig. 87). The spirals, it will be observed, are of 
better work than those of the Loughcrew series, and may be classed 
with those at New Grange. 

Wright, in u Louthiana," describes a sepulchral chamber on Killing 
Hill, near Dundalk. He states that on the principal stones of the 
"altar and cell of this temple," as he calls it, he "observed a rude 
sort of carving in the form of a spiral or volute." A spiral is figured 
which is evidently a true example of an archaic punched spiral 
(Book iii., p. 13, PI. vi.). Killing Hill I have identified with a hill at 
Killin or Killeen, about three miles north of Dundalk. A pond shown 
in Wright's drawing has been drained, and has now little water in it, 

1 Parish of Kilchrohane, Trans., R.I. A., xxiv., p. 46. 
3 "OllamhFodhla," p. 14. 




but the old water line can still be traced. Mr. Bell, the proprietor, 
informed me when I lately visited this site, that his predecessor had 
quarried the top of the hill for limestone, and that the rude stone 
structures on the top had then been completely cleared away. He 
showed me one of the slabs in his garden ; this has no markings on its 
exposed face. Another slab is at the forge close by. This he remem- 
bers was for some time used as a gate post, and one of its faces was 

Fig. 87. " 

utfiin," Meath. 

covered with markings. It has since been used for bending hoops, and 
the incised markings have been almost completely rubbed away. One 
of the cuttings appeared to have been spiral, and another spiral or 
concentric circles; some short lines of a branch-like form are also visible. 
The markings are, however, too indistinct to be worth transcribing. 

At TCnockmany, county Tyrone, a sepulchral chamber is inscribed 
with cup-and-ring, and other markings more or less of the Loughcrew 
class; they include a few spiral forms. 1 

1 Last year the owner, Mr. F. P. Gervais, kindly had one of the fallen stones of 
this monument raised for me. The under surface was found to be richly carved with 
arc-hair; markings. I hope shortly to publish a full description of this monument. The- 


At Castle Archdall, county Fermanagh, the stones of a sepulchral 
chamber, described and illustrated by "Wakeman, are inscribed with 
markings very similar, in general character, to the Loughcrew mark- 
ings. 1 Two single spirals occur on one of the stones. On another 
stone, circles joined tangentially, are, no doubt, debased spirals. A 
third carving consists of two lozenges arranged like the figure 8. At 
Clover Hill, county Sligo, spirals are incised on the slabs of a sepulchral 
chamber, described and illustrated by Mr. Wakeman. 2 

In Glencolumbkille, county Donegal, a rude stone structure, appa- 
rently sepulchral, also described by Mr. Wakeman, shows traces of 
inscribed markings, among which spiral forms and a lozenge cun be 
distinguished . 3 

The examples of spiral sculptures are, as stated, with the exception 
of the Kerry instance, confined to sepulchral monuments. The Kerry 
spiral is too indefinite to weigh in the argument. It is described as " a 
rude carving of a short portion of a spiral." It is in a district which 
has yielded an extensive series of cup-and-ring markings, but no other 
example of the spiral. Moreover, no examples of plain concentric 
circles have been found in the locality. 

Putting aside, therefore, the Kerry stone, we may state that spiral 
sculptures do not extend to rock-surfaces or boulder-stones in Ireland. 
In agreement with this distinction is the fact that plain concentric 
circles, common in the tumuli series, are extremely rare on rock-surfaces 
and detached stones. On a rock-surface at Ballybawn, county Cork, are 
five single circles, and an example of two concentric incomplete circles. 4 
One example of concentric circles and a few single rings are shown in 
Mr. Kinahan's figure of the rock surface at Mevagh, county Donegal 5 
(fig. 88). There may be a few other instances, but they are quite excep- 
tional. In the extensive series of cup-and-ring markings, published by 
Dr. Graves, from Kerry, there is not a single example of plain concentric 
circles. Again, among numerous examples of cup-and-ring cuttings on 
" St. Patrick's Chair," county Mayo, there is not a case of plain con- 
centric circles. 6 The same is the case at Rhyfad, county Fermanagh. 7 
The spiral which, as we have seen, is found as far north as Donegal, 
has not been found south of the Boyne line. 

Ireland has not been as thoroughly explored as Scotland and Eng- 
land ; many tumuli remain to be excavated, and possibly spiral markings 

general relation of the carvings appears to ine to belong to the later Scandinavian 
Bronze Age. 

1 Journal, R.H.A.A.L, 4th Ser., vol. v., pp. 546-551. 2 Ibid., p. 552. 

3 Journal, R. S.A.I., oth Ser., vol. i., p. 265. 

4 Journal, R.H.A.A.L, 3rd Ser., vol. i., p. 91. 

5 Ibid., 4th Ser., vol. viii., p. 429. Several single rings occur on the under side of 
the cap-stone, and on the inside of a supporting stone of a cromleach at Rathkenny,. 
county Meath. Proc. R.I.A., vol. ix., plates x. and xi. 

6 Kinahan, Proc. R.I. A., SS., vol. ii., p. 17. 

7 Wakeman, Journal, R.H.A.A.L, 4th Ser., vol. iii., p. 453. 

D 2 



will eventually be found to extend to the southern counties. Neverthe- 
less, it is remarkable that the examples hitherto recorded fall within the 
northern half of the island. This remark may be extended to inscribed 
tumuli generally. Although cup-and -circle markings are found on 
detached stones and rock-surfaces in the south of Ireland, no example of 
an inscribed tumulus chamber has up to the present been recorded south 
of the Boyne. 

Fig. 88. Mevagh, Donegal. 

It may be well to state here that the argument I seek to establish 
does not depend on the possibility of being able to show absolute lines 
of demarcation between the different classes of markings. It is possible 
that the spiral may yet be found to extend to rock-surfaces in Ireland, 
and that, as stated, the area of distribution may be enlarged. The 
practice of cutting markings on sepulchral and other stones lasted no 
doubt over a considerable period, during which continuity of tradition 
was preserved to a greater or less extent. We have also to take into 
account movement of population and change of settlement. We should, 


therefore, expect to find earlier forms occasionally reappearing among 
later forms, and stations detached exceptionally from the areas of distri- 
bution. The argument is hased, not on an absolute association of 
particular forms with a particular class of monuments, but on pre- 
ponderance of association. The evidence is not exhaustive, but it is 
sufficient to establish the preponderance relied on. 

Cup-marks and cup-and-circle markings have been recorded from many 
parts of Ireland, and range the entire length of the island from north 
to south, Donegal to Kerry. Unlike the spiral, they are not confined 
to sepulchral monuments, but are found also on detached stones and 
rock surfaces. Plain concentric circles that is, without central cups 
occur with cup-and-circle markings, but, except in the tumuli series, 
they are extremely rare. Tn the great majority of examples on detached 
stones and rock-surfaces the central cup is present. 

Concentric half circles are not known outside the Loughcrew series, 
and one example at Knockmany. The cross in circle, several examples 
of which are found at Dowth and one at Loughcrew, is found also on a 
rock-surface at Mevagh, Co. Donegal. The latter examples are well 
and firmly cut, and suggest at first sight a direct lodgment from Sweden, 
where the cross in circle is frequently found on rock-surfaces. But the 
presence also of cup-and-circles with radial grooves, a form unknown in 
Scandinavia, renders it doubtful that this is so. 

We come now to the cup-and-circle with radial groove. This 
remarkable form of marking is found at Mevagh, Co. Donegal ; at Muif, 
Co. Donegal l ; a fine example was recently discovered by Mr. E. C. 
Rotheram, built into a fence in the neighbourhood of Loughcrew, Co. 
Meath (now in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin). I am indebted 
to the late Dr. Y. Ball, Director of the Museum, for permission to have 
this stone photographed by magnesium light (fig. 89). The manner in 
which the symbol is displayed in centre of the stone, and garnished 
round with other markings, is very remarkable. This is seen better in 
the drawing (fig. 90), inserted as a key to the photograph, which I have 
prepared from rubbings, with constant reference to the stone itself. An 
important example was found at Youghal, Co. Cork. 2 Numerous 
examples have been published from the Co. Kerry by Dr. Graves. 3 

We thus see that this remarkable form of marking has been found 
from the north to the south of Ireland. Other examples will, no doubt, 
be discovered ; but those already recorded are sufficient to show how 
widely it is distributed. 

The first fact to note about this form of marking is its absence from 
the tumuli series. There is one doubtful case, Knockmany. The large set 

1 Journal, R.H.4.A.L, 4th Ser., vol. iv., p. 293. 

2 Ibid., vol. vii., p. 604. 

3 Trans. R.I. A., vol. xxiv. The substance of this Paper, and the illustrations, 
are reprinted in the Journal, JR. If. A. A. L, 4th Ser., vol. iv. 


of concentric rings on the upper part of the stone figured by Mr. Wakeman 
has a short radial groove. It is not shown in Mr. Wakeman's drawing 1 ; 
he does not seem to have regarded it as part of the figure, though it 
shows strongly in photographs of the stone. It does not, however, enter 
the central cup, and does not cut the outermost ring, and as there is 
some indication of a flaw at this part of the stone, I regard the case as 
doubtful. On the stone recently raised at this grave (see note, p. 34) 
there is a cutting of rings, showing a radial line left in relief. Here 

Fig. 89. Near Loughcrew, Meath. 

again, I am not sure that this marking is strictly of the class under 
consideration. My general impression is that the markings at Knock- 
many, as also at Clover Hill, Sligo, are late in the series ; but I hope 
to discuss these examples in detail at a future date when publishing the 
stone lately discovered at Knockmany. 

The cup with radial groove has been found on cist stones and sepul- 
chral chambers in Scotland and England, 2 and it is not improbable that 

1 Journal, R.H. A.A.I., 4th Ser., vol. iv., p. 99. 

2 Simpson, p. 27, and pi. xiv. 



it will yet be found in Ireland in association with sepulchral remains. 
We do not know whether the stone from the Loughcrew district and 
that from Youghal were sepulchral or not. 

This does not impair, however, hut increases the significance of the 
fact that this particular [form is absent, or, at most, represented by a 
single monument, in the tumuli series. In the chambered tumuli of 
Dowth, New Grange, Loughcrew, Clover Hill, Castle Archdall, and 
Glencolumbkille, we have^a^sufficient body of evidence to feel on sure 

These monuments, extending from Meath to Donegal, embrace 
counties in which the cup-and-circle with radial duct is found. The 
form is found associated with sepulchral remains in Scotland and 
England, so that there is apparently no reason pertaining to this parti- 
cular symbol for its exclusion from tumuli in Ireland. It appears to 
me to be inconceivable that 
if this very definite form 
had been in use in the period 
during which the majority 
of the tumuli were erected, 
it would be practically ab- 
sent from the markings on 
them . 

Moreover, the fact of the 
absence of this particular 
form does not stand alone. 
The evidence of the tuinuli 
series presents us with the 
following argument : 

At New Grange the cup- Pi . 90. 

mark had not yet been com- 
bined with the spiral and degenerate spiral, concentric circles. At Lough- 
crew this combination has taken place, the cup-mark is adopted as a centre 
for spirals and concentric circles, and the cup-and-ring mark, with one or 
more concentric circles enclosing the central cup, is firmly established. 
Outside the great groups of the Boyne and Loughcrew we still find the 
spiral associated with the chambered tumuli in company with the cup- 
and-circle. But the spiral does not extend to rock-surfaces and detached 
stones, and, further, it is to be noted that plain concentric circles, the 
representative of the spiral, common in the tumuli series, are extremely 
rare on rocks and detached stones. On the latter, the cup-and-circle, 
with or without radial grooves, is the predominant form. 

We thus seem led to the conclusion that the cup-mark, which pro- 
bably takes us back to the Stone age, was brought into combination with 
the spiral and concentric circle by the tumuli builders (in whose period 
the spiral was introduced into Ireland) ; that the tendency of the spiral 


to be replaced by concentric circles led to the disappearance of the spiral,, 
and the general prevalence of cup-and-circle markings ; that from the 
tumuli the custom of incising cup-and-circle markings spread to rock- 
surfaces and detached stones, - many of which were probably already 
cup-marked ; and, lastly, that it was not until the practice of cutting 
cup-and-circle markings on rock-surfaces and detached stones was estab- 
lished that the cup-and-circle with radial groove appeared. 

The evidence from Scotland and England supports these conclusions. 
Take first the distribution of the spiral. If we tabulate the localities- 
*from which spiral sculptures are recorded in Scotland and England, we 
find that they are confined to the following shires : 

Elginshire Strypes (Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist, iii., 

p. 41). 

Argyleshire Aughnabreach (Simpson, pi. xxiii.). 
Ayrshire Coilsfield (Simpson, pi. xiii.); Blackshaw (Proc. S.A.S. r 

xxi., 143). 

Wigtonshire Camerot Muir, Kirkdale (Simpson, p. 33, note). 
Dumfriesshire Hollows Tower, Eskdale (Proc. Berwickshire 

Naturalists' Club, x., 346). 
Peeblesshire La Mancha (Simpson, pi. xvi.). 

Cumberland Mauganby (Simpson, pi. v.) ; Old Park, Kirkoswald 
(Trans. Cumberland and Westmoreland Ant. and Arch. Society, 
1895, p. 389). 

Lancashire Calderstones, near Liverpool (Simpson, pi. vi.). 1 
Northumberland Morwick (Proc. Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 
x., 343) ; Lilburn Hill Farm (Archseologia JEliana, N.S., x., 

In addition to the preceding, two localities occur in Orkney, Edday 
and Frith (Simpson, pi. xix.), and one in Llanbedr, on the coast of 
Merionethshire, North Wales (Simpson, pi. xxvi.). 

The majority of the examples given above are associated with con- 
centric circles, cup-and-circle, and plain cup- markings. They occur 
chiefly on megalithic structures, but in a few instances on cist covers and 

The most interesting monument to us in the preceding list is the 
Calderstones. On these stones, in addition to cup-marks, there are 
two examples of the single spiral, and ten sets of concentric circles without 
central cups, and one cup surrounded with a single ring. 2 The markings 
are thus seen to be closely in line with the Loughcrew series. 

The manner in which the spiral in association with sepulchral monu- 

1 These stones are illustrated in greater detail by J. Romilly Allen, Journal British 
Archaeological Association, vol. 39, p. 304. 

2 Allen, ibid., p. 305. 



merits is extended on the west coast, from Argyleshire to Lancashire, sug- 
gests Irish influence. The spirals at Morwick show a couple of examples 
of single spirals joined S-wise (fig. 91). The example lately discovered 
in Elginshire, by Mr. Hugh "W. Young, consists of two 
beautifully formed single spirals, also joined S-wise 
(fig. 92). Moreover, it is in the north-east of Scotland 
Elgin, Aberdeen, and Eorfar that the most important 
examples of the stone balls incised with spirals have 
been found. 1 The S-joined spirals in Northumberland 
and Elginshire seem to represent a more direct tradi- 
tion than the general run of examples in Scotland and 
England ; and it is, I think, probable that the spiral 
has entered Elgin and Northumberland directly from 
Scandinavia. The occasional occurrence of the spiral 
amongst the rock-sculptures of Sweden has been in- 
stanced in section viii. The example there referred 
to (Holmberg, pi. viii.) may be supplemented by three 
examples on a rock-surface in Scania. 2 One of these 
consists of two single spirals joined S-wise, similar to those at Morwick 
and Strypes. A further point of relation may be noted. Among the 
sculptures at Mevagh is a form resembling the volutes of the capital of 
an Ionic column (fig. 88). This form is also found on the Hollows 
Tower stone, Northumberland, and similar forms are figured for Sweden 

by Holmberg, plates 18-19, and 22- 
23 (fig. 93). 

The probabilities of the case are, 
perhaps, reconciled by the sugges- 
tion that Scotland and the north of 
England has been the meeting ground 
of a direct wave of influence from 
Scandinavia and a return wave from 

Fig. 91. Morwick. 


Fig. 92. 

Fig. 93.- 



The inference that the spirals 
on the west coast of Great Britain, 
extending from Argyleshire to Lan- 
Tower, and Sweden, cashire, for the most part associated 
with megalithic structures, represent an extension of the Irish group 
gains force when considered in connexion with the distribution of the 

1 In a cist, with cremated remains, at Ardkeiling, Elginshire, two stone balls were 
found, " with eight projecting knobs on each, and well-formed grooves between them. 
Each of the six faces of the halls presented four knobs when looked at separately" 
(Hugh W. Young, Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist, vol. iii., p. 45). These 
balls, which appear to be within the Bronze Period, may^he set against the Late Celtic 
bronze ball, by which the Scotch stone balls have been hitherto dated. 

2 " Cong. Prehist.," Stockholm, vol. i., p. 479. See also Hildebrand, single and 
double spirals at Ekensberg, " Antiqvarisk Tidskrift for Sverige," vol. ii., p. 428, and 
pi. 3. 



spiral in Ireland. The spirals within the area from the Boyne line to 
Argyleshire may be regarded as a single group, the centre of which is to be 
placed in Ireland. The influence of Scandinavian Bronze Age ornament 
appears to have made a deeper impression on Ireland than on Scotland 
or England. This is to be inferred not only from the fact that more 

Fig 94. Map showing the Distribution of the Spiral in Great Britain and Ireland. 

important examples of the spiral are found in Ireland than in Scotland or 
England, but also from the evidence at Loughcrew of continuity of 
influence extending into the later Bronze Age of Scandinavia. The 
centre of activity of the group appears, therefore, to lie in Ireland. 

The examples in Orkney, on the sea-way between Scandinavia and 
Ireland, present no difficulty. The isolated example in Merionethshire, 


on the coast of North Wales, is no doubt an outlier from the Irish 

Other members of the Irish series are extremely rare in Scotland and 
England. Concentric half-circles are represented by a single example 
at Black shaw, Argyleshire. A horse-shoe form ut Morwick, Northumber- 
land, consisting of two concentric cuttings, with a border of pittings, or 
cup-marks, round the outer circumference of the figure, maybe, however, 
of this class. Lozenge markings are represented by three examples : 
( 1 ) Five concentric lozenges on a loose slab found in a cist at Carnban, 
Argyleshire (Simpson, pi. xiii.). (2) Three concentric lozenges, with 
central cup and groove, at Westbank, Northumberland (Simpson, pi. ii.). 
This latter example is important as showing the combination of the 
lozenge with the cup-mark, analogous to the combination of the spiral 
and concentric circle Avith the cup. (3) A cross-hatched lozenge on one 
of the stones of a cist discovered at Aspatria, Cumberland (Archceologia, 
x. 112). The cross in circle also occurs on this stone, and appears to be 
the only example of that form recorded from Great Britain. 1 

"We may now consider the classification and associations of forms. 
It is true that the spiral occurs on rock-surfaces at Aughnabreach, 
Argyleshire, Blackshaw, Ayrshire, and Morwick, Northumberland. At 
the two former stations it is exceptional ; at Morwick it is the prevailing- 
feature. But though these exceptions are to some extent disturbing, 
the association of the spiral with sepulchral monuments in Scotland and 
England is very marked, and, when we bring into view concentric 
circles, this association becomes significant. 

The definite cases of the sepulchral association of the spiral are 
Coilsfield, Ayrshire, on a cist cover ; Maughanby, Cumberland, on one of 
the stones of a circle enclosing a barrow and cist an urn was found in 
the latter this example consists of a spiral joined tangentially to a 
group of concentric circles; Old Parks, Kirkoswald, Cumberland, several 
rude spirals on stones in a tumulus, associated with urns ; Lilburn, 
Northumberland, rude spirals on stone in grave with cremated inter- 

To these may be added, as probably sepulchral, La Mancha, Peebles- 
shire, a spiral and concentric circle on a broken slab, found near other 
stones, and considered by Simpson as possibly sepulchral ; Calderstones, 
Lancashire, spirals and concentric circles on stone circle. 

The spiral recorded from Camerot Muir, Wigtonshire, is stated to 

1 Fergusson, in "llude Stone Monuments," relies on the statement that a skeleton, 
with iron sword, &c., was found in this cist, as proving that the tomb is as late as the 
Vikin- Age. On referring to the original account of the discovery of the cist, it 
appears that the description is secoad-hand, by a Mr. Rooke, from information given 
by Mr. lligg, the proprietor of the land, who was not present himself when the grave 
was opened. Hearsay evidence of this kind is worthless. Objects found near each 
other are frequently slated to have been found together. It was possibly a case of 
a secondary interment. 


have been on a standing stone, no longer in existence. The examples at 
Hollows Tower, Dumfriesshire, are on a stone now used as a door-sill. 

It thus appears that, with the exception of the three rock-surfaces 
previously mentioned, examples of archaic spirals in Scotland and England 
are associated with sepulchral monuments, or with megalithic structures, 
as distinguished from rocks and boulder-stones. When we include con- 
centric circles, and can thus extend the number of examples, this associa- 
tion becomes, as I have said, significant. 

Cup-and-circle markings, with and without radial grooves, are 
numerous on rock-surfaces and erratic boulders in Scotland and England; 
but plain concentric circles are extremely rare. I have failed to find a 
single example without the central cup in the large volume of plates of 
"Incised Markings on Stone," published under the direction of the late 
Duke of Northumberland. Again, in Simpson's plates, the only example 
of plain concentric circles on a rock-surface or a boulder-stone is one of 
two concentric rings on a rock at Berwick. The remainder of the 
surface is covered with cup-and-circle markings, the majority of which 
have radial grooves. A series of cup-and-ring markings, recently pub- 
lished from Kirkcudbrightshire, numbering thirty-four figures, and 
embracing probably over two hundred examples, includes but four cases 
of plain concentric rings. 1 

I may have overlooked some instances, but it will be seen from the 
preceding statements how extremely rare plain concentric circles are on 
this class of monuments. When we turn to the incised cist stones we 
find that the contrary is the case. 

On a cist cover at Cragie Hill, Linlithgowshire, there are carved nine 
groups of concentric circles. Of this number two show cups one is 
doubtful and in the centres of the remaining six there are no cup- 
marks. 2 

At Caerlowrie, Edinburgh shire, a cist cover was found incised with 
"three series at least of concentric circles," each set composed of five 
concentric circles. It is not stated whether these had central cups 
or not. 3 

At Carnwath, Lanarkshire, a cist cover is incised with three groups 
of plain concentric circles, and some triangular cuttings. 4 

At Cunninghar, Tillicoultry, near Stirling, a cist cover was found, 
incised with several groups of plain concentric circles. In the cist was a 
richly decorated urn, of the " food- vessel" type. The interment is ascribed 
to the Bronze Age. This example is, therefore, important as an indepen- 
dent check on the period in which concentric circle markings are to be 
placed. 6 

At High Hucklow, Derbyshire, a fragment of a slab, probably an 

1 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xxix. 2 Simpson, p. 7, pi. xv. 

3 Simpson, p. 28. 4 p roc< g oc ^nt. g coti> V ol. x., p. 62. 

5 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xxix., p. 190. 


urn cover, has cut on it a group of seven concentric circles without central 
cup. 1 Two slabs found in a tumulus at Came Down, Dorsetshire, 
associated with an urn and calcined bones, had a group of concentric 
circles cut on each of them, also without central cups. 2 

Cist stones and urn covers are very rarely sculptured in any way. 
They have been occasionally found with cup and cup-and-circle markings, 
in some in stances with radial grooves (Simpson, pp. 27-31). But, though 
rare as a class, the preceding examples show that in proportion to the 
number of examples, plain concentric circles are common on cist stones, 
where;) s. as already stated, they are extremely rare on rock-surfaces and 

Taking this fact in connexion with the association in so many cases 
of the spiral with sepulchral and megalithic structures, and the associa- 
tion of the spiral with concentric circles on the Maughunby stone and the 
(Jalder stones, we can say that the spiral and concentric circles are to be 
expected on tumuli and cist stones, but are to be regarded as exceptional 
on rock-surfaces and boulder-stones. 

There appears to be no reason to believe that the prevailing associa- 
tion of the spiral and concentric circles with megalithic structures, as 
distinguished from rocks and boulder-stones, is due to the appropriation 
of those forms of markings to a particular class of monuments. The co- 
existence of spirals, concentric circles, cups, and cup-and-circles, on the 
Calder stones ; the presence of cup-and-circle markings in company with 
plain concentric circles on cist stones ; and the occasional occurrence of 
the cup-aud-circle with radial groove, in association with interments; as 
also the presence of the spiral on rock-surfaces, shows that no strict 
division of types can be made according to class of monument. 

The evidence, though less clear than in Ireland, seems to tend to 
similar conclusions : namely, that the spiral and concentric circle were 
introduced into Scotland and England in the Bronze Age, and are to be 
associated, in the first instance, with the sepulchral monuments of that 
period ; that the concentric circles on the cist stones represent the tradi- 
tion of the spiral ornament or symbol ; and that, some time after the 
introduction of the spiral and concentric circle, when the custom of com- 
bining the circle with the cup-mark, or of emphasising the centres of 
circles by the cup-mark, had become general, the practice of incising 
these markings was extended to rock-surfaces and boulder-stones; lastly, 
that the cup-and-circle, with gutter or radial grooves a type common 
on rocks and boulder-stones, but rare on sepulchral stones is probably 
the latest of the series. 


Concerning the origin of the type of the cup-and-circle with gutter 
leading from the cup, I have not succeeded in finding a satisfactory clue. 

1 Simpson, p. 62. 2 Warne's " Celtic Tumuli of Dorset," p. 36. Simpson, pi. xii. 



Isolated cups are frequently joined by channels or gutters, and in many 
instances several cups are connected together by a system of gutters, 
without any apparent definite plan or purpose. This is also the case- 

with cup-and-circle markings. 
The grooves or gutters from 
the cups of the hitter fre- 
quently connect with other 
cup - and - circles, sometimes 
with complex ramifications. 

The cup with concentric 
circles and single radial groove 
leading out from the cup is, 
however, definite in form, and 
is, apparently, the key to the 
question. In some instances 

Fig. 95. (After Holmberg.) 

two or more radial grooves- 
occur ; as, for example, at 
Mevagh, county Donegal ; l and, in some other instances, the enclosing 
circles are stopped or gapped along a radius ; so that the groove to the- 
cup is replaced by what may be described as a path. 

Some remarkable cup-and-ring sculptures at Ilkley, Yorkshire, have 
recently been published by Mr. Romilly Allen. 2 They show two grooves 
proceeding, in most cases, from one of the inner rings surrounding the 
cup rarely from the cup itself. These grooves are prolonged beyond 
the outer ring, and the space between them is barred across like a ladder- 
This type has not been observed in Ireland. 

Mr. Allen seeks to connect this and the usual gutter type with 
certain conventional or symbolical representations of men in the rock- 
sculptures of Sweden. Fig. 95, after Holmberg, indicates the line of 
Mr. Allen's inquiry. The figures can be related to figures of men with 
rayed heads, in ships, on the small bronze knives found in women's 
graves in Denmark ; and Mr. 
Allen draws the deduction that 
"the cup-and-ring is the symbol 
of some deity, perhaps the Sun- 
god, who is indicated by substi- 
tuting a cup-and-ring for his 
head." 3 

This is, I think, the most sug- 

Fig. 96. Fiinen. 

gestive line of inquiry that has as yet been opened concerning the so- 
mysterious markings. Mr. Allen further illustrates a figure from 
Ilkley, which seems " to have been suggested by a cord following a 
winding path round a series of fixed pins." It takes the form of a sort 

1 Kinahan, L c., fig. 3. 

2 The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist, vol. ii., p. 65. 

3 Ibid., p. 82. 


of curved swastica. This and allied forms are found on Mycenaean and 
Danish metal work, and an almost identical figure occurs on a rock 
at Tossene, Sweden (Holmherg). It is remarkahle how the evidence- 
seems closing in for Bronze Age relations between Scandinavia and 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

There is a series of Scandinavian patterns which it is desirable to 
notice in this connexion. These patterns are found chiefly on bronze 
vases from the old Danish lands of the later Bronze Age. Pig. 96 
appears to be derived from the spiral, but the connecting lines have 
ceased to be tangential ; figs. 97-101 show the influence of other 
motives. 1 In all these examples we see the tendency to terminate the 
free lines of the pattern by concentric circles. This suggests the pos- 
sibility that many of the -lines connecting groups of concentric circles, 
and the branching systems of these sculptures on rock-surfaces, as also on 
some of the Loughcrew stones, represent the rude execution of the same 

Tli is idea is helped out by a form of ornament frequently found on 
celts, with more or less quadrangular sockets, found in Great Britain and 
Ireland (figs. 102-105). These celts belong to the end of the Bronze 
Age. Thus we see the analogies of form for the cup -and- circle with 
radial groove, fall in with the evidence of the monuments, pointing to 
the late appearance of this form of sculptures. 


The subject of symbolism has been avoided in the preceding sections. 
Patterns and forms have been considered solely with regard to the con- 
ventionalisation of ornament, and diffusion by copies and copies of copies. 
It is desirable, in bringing this essay to a close, that the question of 
symbolic meaning should be briefly discussed, more by way of caution 
than of exposition. 

The lotus, Professor Flinders Petrie states, " was not a sacred plant'* 
in Egypt. 2 

This statement seems to be at variance with the views of Maspero and 
other writers, who regard the lotus as symbolical of life, resurrection, 
and immortality. Apart from the disputed question of the definite 
symbolism of the lotus, the discussion of which would take us too far, it 
may be claimed that the frequent representation of lotus offerings, lotus 
sceptres, lotus amulets, the association of the flower with the solar disc, 
the representations of the sun rising from a lotus, and other analogous 
uses of the flower, imply a sacred adoption of the flower which cannot 
be explained on decorative principles, though it may not be always easy 
to distinguish between its religious and its decorative use. 

1 For references, see Montelius, " Manadsblad," 1881, p. 69. 

2 "Egyptian Decorative Art," p. 106. 

Fig. 97. Scania. 

Fig. 98. Scania. Fig. 99. Smaland. 

Fig. 100. Jutland. 

Fig. 101. Fiinen. 

Fig. 102. R.I.A. Fig. 103. R.I. A. Fig. 104. Yorkshire. Fig. 105. R.I. A. 

(Half-size.) (Half-size.) (After Evans.) (Petrie Coll.) (Half size.) 


The intimate association of the lotus and the spiral, which forms so 
prominent a feature in the decoration of the XVIII. -XIX. Dynasties, 
was not preserved in the spread of spiral patterns to the north of Europe. 
I have "been able to discover only one example in Scandinavia in which 
the survival of the lotus motive can be traced (fig. 44). The spiral has 
become the ruling feature of the patterns. To this the spread of the 
earlier JGgean spiral system of the scarabs may have contributed. 

No definite symbolic meaning can be alleged for the Bronze Age 
spiral, but it is not improbable that some talisman ic power was attributed 
to it. The combination of three spirals is confidently recognised by some 
archaeologists as the solar symbol known as the triskele. But as there is 
no evidence that the tetraskele or svastica r the solar significance of which 
has been established, 1 and of which the triskele is a variant, had reached 
the north in the spiral period, I do not see that the spiral triskele rests 
on any surer ground than a resemblance of form. The filling of a 
triangular space by six spirals may be instanced in fig. 44, and the reduc- 
tion of the spirals to three seems fully accounted for by decorative fitness 
without calling in the aid of symbolism. 

There is no reason to doubt that the cross 
in circle is a sun smbol. As Count Goblet f , J 


^^^ __ 

, J () \^J, 

*\ l\\ ' \ 
\ I \ ,* 

d'Alviella tells us " Amongst the Assyrians 

themselves the equilateral cross, as denoting 

the main directions in which the sun shines, 

became also the symbol of the luminary, and Fig- 106. 

consequently here, again, of the god who 

governs it. It was the same with the Chaldeans, the Hindus, the 

Greeks, the Persians, and, perhaps, with the Gauls, and the ancient 

civilizers of Northern America." 2 

It must not be supposed from this that all crosses are solar symbols. 
But the union of the cross with the solar disc, in the cross in circle,' and 
the fact that the centre of these specialised forms of symbolism lies to 
the south-east of the Mediterranean, and from thence spread northward 
and westward through Europe, along lines followed, it would seem, more 
tardily by the swastica, is sufficiently conclusive as to the meaning of the 
cross and circle in Northern ICurope. With the latter are to be associated 
various wheel, star, and rayed forms. But to decide as to the distinctions 
of meaning which may have been attached to these different forms, we 
have not, I think, at present evidence. 3 

The rayed cup-and-circle as found at Loughcrew (fig. 79) is no doubt 
a solar symbol. The solar disc with rays proceeding downwards is a 
well-known Egyptian sign for the sun and light 4 (fig. 106). With these 

1 Goblet d'Alviella, " Migration of Symbols." 2 Ibid, 

3 The cross in circle occurs on pre-Mycenaean pottery. It goes back to the Stone 
Age in Scandinavia (Peterson, "Mem. Soc. R. des Antiq. du Nord.," 1877, p. 330), 
but it is not found in general use until the later. Bronze Age. 

4 Champollion, " Dictionnaire Egyptienne." 

.TOUR. U.S. A. I., VOL. VII., VT. I., 5TH SER. E 


examples may be compared (fig. 107) from Loughcrew, 1 and simplified 
forms (fig. 108), also from Loughcrew. 2 

These instances seem to suggest that the cup-and-circle is a solar 
symbol. But the inference cannot be narrowed so cloely. It is true 
that Worsaae accepts concentric circles as a sun 
sign, but in Europe concentric circles represent 
for the most part the spiral. Until, therefore, 
some agreement has been arrived at concerning 

w the question of the symbolism of the spiral, it 

/ jf * 1*1*^* cannot be assumed that concentric circles have, 
* 9 l\ 1 in all cases, a solar meaning. Moreover, the cup- 

* * mark itself, extending behind the spiral and 

p-^ 1() 7 Loughcrew. concentric circle, has to be explained. It thus 

appears that whereas rayed cup-and-circles, and 

in many instances the cup-and-circle, may be correctly explained as sun 
signs, it by no means follows that all cup-and-circles are to be so 

Further we cannot venture at present with safety. At the same time 
it is difficult to escape from the impression that some scheme of association 
underlies the markings on some of the stones at Loughcrew, pertaining 
to religious myth, or the life stories of the persons who were buried 
there. A comparison is suggested with petroglyphs and pictographs of 
America, so exhaustively illustrated by Colonel Mallery in the "Tenth 
Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology," Washington. 

Concerning cup-marks, Dr. Charles Rau has brought together a number 
of superstitions in relation to cupped stones still in vogue among the 
peasantry of different European countries. In Sweden cupped stones 
are called elfstenar, or elfstones. Offerings of a trifling nature a 
button, a coin, a flower, or a ribbon are deposited in the cups. In cases 
of sickness some object worn by the sick person is deposited. A 
Swedish proprietor who had caused an elfstone to be transported to his 
park, found a few days afterwards small sacrificial gifts lying in the cups. 

In the church of 

Voanas, Ain, is a large ' * ^-^ ^ Q 

stone, called La Pierre ',@x ~, VT^ $!> ** /& 
de Saint - Loup, into ' * 

which sick and impo- Fig . 108. Details, Loughcrew. 

tent persons grind holes 

and drink the pulverised matter, which, as they believe, cures fevers and 
renews the vital strength. Another stone, known as La Pierre de Saint- 
Clement, same department, is used for the same purpose. A cupped stone, 
called the JBischofs- Stein, near Niemegk, Brandenburg, Prussia, is visited 

1 Stone on Patricksto-wn Hill. 

2 Cairn T, stones x, d, h, b ; Cairn s, stone d; Cuirn i, stone c. 


by patients and quack doctors, who rub it with grease in order to bring 
about cures. Cup-marks are found on many churches in Germany, Swit- 
zerland, and Sweden. Sometimes they are partially executed on the 
mortar, showing that they were made after the erection of the churches. 
Healing properties are generally attributed to them. Fever-sick persons 
blow, as it were, the disease into the cavities, or patients swallow the 
powder produced in grinding out the cups. In a few instances the inside 
of cups on German churches exhibited traces of grease. On the other 
hand, in Posen a tradition refers the cups to the souls of the damned, 
who during lifetime never had visited the churches. They ground out 
the cavities during the night, and left them as tokens of despair. 1 

Cartailhac mentions that in the department of Ain, when young 
women and widows make a pilgrimage to the ancient chapel of Saint- 
Blaise, they pass by Thoys, near a small erratic bearing sixty cup-sculp- 
tures, at which they practise certain ceremonies to obtain marriage 
within the year. 2 

The preceding folk-superstitions are interesting in themselves, but it 
is doubtful if they furnish any evidence as regards the original meaning 
of cupped stones. In some instances they appear to lend colour to 
Eivett-Carnac's theory ; but the fact that cup-sculptures are found in 
-all sorts of positions, horizontal and vertical, and again in closed tumuli 
where access was not possible, renders any inference from cup offerings 
or the anointing of cups of slender value. In handling folk-traditions 
much caution is necessary. Prehistoric remains are almost invariably 
-endowed by the peasantry with supernatural and magic powers. Stone 
celts are thunderbolts, flint arrow-heads elf -darts. As such they are 
potent charms. Thus, as Rau remarks, " what was originally an object 
employed in daily life, became in course of time a charm." 

On the subject of cup sculptures in America, Colonel Mallery writes : 
" Inquiries have often been made whether the North American Indians 
have any superstitions or religious practices connected with the markings 
under consideration, e.g., in relation to the desire for offspring, which 
undoubtedly is connected with the sculpturing of cup depressions and 
furrows in the eastern hemisphere. No evidence is yet produced of any 
such correspondence of practice or tradition relating to it." 3 

In America several groups of cup-and-ring markings have been re- 
corded, resembling closely British and Irish types, notably in Georgia, 

1 Rau, I.e., pp. 86-89. 

2 "La France Prehistorique," p. 247. Superstitions, more or less similar, are 
recorded for Scotland, Proc. Soc. Ant., Scot., vol. xviii., p. 126 ; and see references in 
note, vol. xxvii., p. 452 ; also for Ireland, Wakeman's " Inismurray," p. 121 ; 
Stone of St. Hugh, of Rahue (Journal, U.S. A. I., 5th Ser., vol. vi., p. 332). No 
attempt has yet been made to collect the superstitions connected with cupped-stones 
in Ireland. 

3 Picture-writing of the American Indians : " Report of the Bureau of Ethnology," 
Smithsonian Institution, 1888-1889, p. 199. 



Maryland, California, Venezuela, and Brazil. They include examples 
with radial and connecting grooves. The spiral is also frequently pre- 
sent. Little progress has as yet been made in elucidating the meaning 
of these markings. It is possible that working from the known elements 
of picture-writing in America, an explanation may be discovered in par- 
ticular instances. Such explanations, if forthcoming, could not, however, 
be considered as evidence for European examples. Until a connexion 
can be shown independent of resemblance of form, similarity of meaning 
must not be assumed. 

I cannot more, fitly conclude the present Paper than by quoting 
Colonel Mallery's conclusions on this point. Summarizing the result of 
his studies upon American petroglyphs as distinct from other forms of 
picture-writing, he writes : " Perhaps the most important lesson learned 
from these studies is that no attempt should be made at symbolic inter- 
pretation unless the symbolic natiire of the particular characters under 
examination is known, or can be logically inferred from independent 
facts. To start with a theory, or even an hypothesis, that the rock 
writings are all symbolic, and may be interpreted by the imagination of 
the observer, or by translation either from or into known symbols of 
similar form found in other regions, were a limitless delusion." l 

Loc. tit., p. 768. 



TPiETAiLED descriptions of gold lunulae, of which the Museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy contains an unrivalled collection, have not 
yet appeared in the pages of this Journal. Examples are also preserved 
in the British Museum, and in the National Museum of Antiquities, 
Edinburgh ; there is one in the Belfast Museum, three at least remain in 
private collections, and two are recorded found in France. They are termed 
in Irish tales, *' Minn-oir," or " Minds " ; the}* are composed of thin plates 
of hammered gold, of crescentic shape the borders usually decorated by 
linear or angular patterns, forming various figures, triangles, squares, 
and decussations, arranged to produce symmetrical designs ; similar 
ornamentation is repeated on the cornua of these crescents, arranged 
transversely and corresponding on either side. The bordering lines, and 
longer markings were produced by a sharp graving tool, whilst those of 
smaller extent are formed by chisel-shaped punches, for the depressions 
so caused are perceptible as distinct elevations on the reversed side of 
the metal plate. One of the specimens preserved in the Royal Irish 
Academy Museum differs from the rest in its decorations, which consist of 
numerous small circular-punched markings, arranged to produce definite 
patterns ; this is exceptional, for in all other instances the ornamenta- 
tion was formed by combinations of straight lines, more or less prolonged. 
No two lunulaj are alike, they differ in weight, in the height of the 
crescent, its transverse breadth, and the size of the inner cavity, which 
is more or less circular in outline : such measurements, being liable to 
variation, are recorded hereafter when describing the separate lunulae. 

The ornamental patterns, whilst preserving a certain general art 
resemblance, vary in details, and are essentially different in their arrange- 
ment and execution. At either extremity the crescents terminate in 
small flat appendages of rounded or discoid form, placed at right angles 
with the plane of the lunula, approximating to the size of a sixpence. 
In several of the lunulge curved lines are engraved along the borders of 
the crescents with such precision that they must have been formed by 
skilful workmen, with the assistance of a guiding outline, or some similar 
arrangement to direct the course of the graver's tool, for the curves are 
drawn with remarkable accuracy ; some display the highest style of 


ornamentation; others are less elaborate, having patterns made by small 
punched indentations, and a very few are without markings. Regarded as- 
a whole, the style of decoration employed represents a class of ornament 
that must be considered distinctive, and which was accepted at the time 
as correct and fashionable for such golden coronets ; somewhat like the 
present custom of ornamenting the back of watch cases with an engine- 
turned pattern, more a conventional matter of taste than dependent on 
any possible utility, or referable to any special aesthetic development of 
the race of people who wore them. 

An inspection of the illustrations given will explain better than 
mere description the character of these gold lunula?, and their style of 

Bishop Pococke, in 1773, was the first person who applied the term 

From Gold Lunula belonging to Sir Montague 
Chapman, Bart. 

lunulae to these objects (see " ArchaBologia," 
vol. ii., p. 36) ; he there stated : tl Many such 
have been found in Ireland, some flat and 
plain, others crimpled and like a fan"; the 
latter portion of his statement is explained 
by Sir William Wilde, who remarked, such 
" crimpling was caused by the spoiler when 
concealing them, or the finder wlio wished to lessen their bulk for 
convenient carriage." 

An early reference to the wearing of lunulae by women is pre- 
served in the Book of Leinster (see Professor Atkinson's Introduction, 
p. 51). It is the legend of the Robber Gorman Mac Bomma Licce, who 
in spite of severe enactments against theft, and during the "Truce of 
God," at the Feast of Teamair, stole the queen's golden diadem from 
the Royal Palace, and carried it off to Inber Slaine, in the south-west of 
Ireland. The king's name was Cathair-Mor, who was slain A.D. 177. 
The same story is found in the Books of Ballymote and of Lecan, so that 
it may claim the respectable antiquity of transmission in legendary form 
for about one thousand years before the earliest of those books was 

Lunula No. 32. 
Royal Irish Academy Collection. Found 1890, in Co. Wi-stmeath. 

Xo. 1. 
Denarius of Julia Miinnn;ea. 

No. 2. 
Denarius of Marcia Otacilia Severa. 


We can refer to the " Silva Gadelica," of Standish H. O'Grady, for 
those who are not Irish scholars, upon the employment of gold ornaments 
by females for their head-dress. Thus, in the often quoted legend of the 
two Queens of King Dermot, one of them being Maireen, who is also 
sui named " Mael," or Bald, and the other Mughair, a daughter of 
Conchraid, son of Duach (of the men of Munster), the latter, who is 
represented as jealous of Maireen, bribed a female jester to remove from 
Maireen's head her gear of gold, and presumably with it some artificial 
hair which she habitually wore .to conceal her defect, whereupon 
Maireen cried, " God and St. Kieran help me at this need," and forth- 
with "glossy convoluted golden -sheeny hair" fell down to her very 
shoulders. Whatever else this story tells us we obtain from the mention 
of the saint, Kieran, the Carpenter's Son, a date of some importance for 
working out the history of these ornaments. The saint was born in 
A.D. 515, and his death is recorded as having taken place about A.D. 548 ; 
and the king represented is Diarmid, son of Fergus Cearbhall, who was 
slain at Rathbeg, county Antrim, in A.D. 565. 

Another story, that of Prince Cano, contains references to the use of 
these " Minns "; this can be consulted in O'Curry's "Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient Irish," vol. iii., p. 620. It brings down the 
date of their being worn to A.D. 620. 

Again, in the wooing of Becfola, in the reign of Dermot, Aedh 
Slaine's son (see "Silva Gadelica"), mention is made of "Three Dia- 
dems of Gold that I left in keeping"; here we obtain an additional 
date, for the death of King Dermot (the second), son of Aedh Slaine 
the Second, took place from the Plague called " Buide Connaill," which 
happened, as stated in Rev. J. F. Shearman's "Loca Patriciana," in the 
year A.D. 665 or 666. 

Superficial erroneous comparisons have sometimes been suggested 
between these golden crescents and the coronas around the heads of 
saints, and the aureolae of Byzantine mediaeval painters. The latter are 
obviously drawn around the head of the personage intended to be repre- 
sented, or placed behind it for supernatural addition, neither belonging 
to the dress itself, nor attached to the body of the individual saint, whilst 
lunulae are portions of ornamental attire, appropriated to decorate the 
hair of the possessor, and so far as we can judge, restricted to females of 
position, for we have no account of men having worn them. 

Their use can be illustrated by comparing representations of a similar 
class of crescentic ornaments worn by Roman Empresses, such as are 
figured on the denarii of Julia Mamma3a, wife of Alexander Severus, who 
was assassinated A.D. 235 ; or of Marcia Otacilia Severa, wife of Philip 
the Elder, who died subsequent to the year A.D. 249 : nor was their 
employment restricted to this period of Roman history, for we find 
similar lunulae represented on some of the family denarii preceding 
the Caesars, such as a coin of L. Buca, probably Quaestor under Sulla, 



tmd on one belonging to the Didia Gens, of P. Fonteius Capito, which 
displays the veiled head of the goddess Concordia wearing a crescent 
head-dress. r These references are sufficient to show that golden decora- 
tions of similar shape were worn by females in Italy as well as in 

The only recorded analysis of a gold lunula is that which Mr. J. W. 
Mallet has given in the Trans. R.I.A., vol. xxii. It yielded 

Gold, 87-67. Silver, 11-05. Copper, 0-12. 

The specific gravity was 17-528. This result which he obtained differs 
materially from the analyses and specific gravity of genuine specimens 
of county t Wicklow gold, which appears to have a very definite composi- 
tion. The specific gravity closely agrees with my determination of a 
lunula belonging to Sir M. Chapman, Bart., which I ascertained to be 


91-00 7- 

S. A Ichorn, Mint Master in London in 1 796 Gold. Silver, 
(see Phil. Trans, for that year), cal- 
culated from analysis of a penny- 
weight which he examined, 
Professor Forbes in 1869, . . 91-01 8'85 

Professor Church, . . . 92*36 6-17 

J. W. Mallet, 92-32 6-17 

| Copper and j 
\ i ron traces. ) 

Silica, 0-14 
Iron, 0-76 

Next to a chemical analysis, the specific gravity of gold affords useful 
data for estimating its purity, particularly in the absence of heavy 
metals, such as platinum, which are not present in the Irish gold of 
-county Wicklow. 


Molesworth, in 1796, ascertained that Wicklow gold was sp. gr. 12 ; 
compared to sterling gold, sp. gr. 18. 

Dr. Kirwan at the same time gave a ratio of 13 ; compared to sterling- 
gold, 18. 

Forbes, in 1869, found its density range from 14-34 to 15-07. 

With this closely agree the results I obtained from careful estima- 
tion of two small nuggets in my possession; they were sp. gr. 15*01 and 

The fine nugget of Wicklow gold, weighing 336 grains, in posses- 
sion of T. H. Longfield, Esq., has sp. gr. 15-51. 

It is possible that the specimens examined by Molesworth and Kirwan 


were either porous, as native gold often is, or contained an appreci- 
able amount of included silica or oxide of iron. Whether we consider 
the results of analysis, or the ascertained specific gravity, both are 
opposed to our attributing the lunula examined by Mallet to native gold 
obtained from the "Wicklow mines. 

All gold ornaments found in Ireland may be satisfactorily arranged 
into three well-marked groups, which differ in relative purity of metal as 
follows: Class No. 1, yielding gold mixed with 18 to 23 per cent, of 
silver; No. 2, with about 10 to 12 per cent, of alloy, chieliy silver ; and 
No. 3, consisting of nearly pure metal. 

The specimens falling under the first and third classes are few in 
number, whilst lunulae, penannular rings of all kinds, and those fine 
objects with expanded cup-shaped extremities which, collectively, form 
the great bulk of our antiquities, belong to the second class, and have a 
remarkably definite composition. 

As for the first class, it approximates to the native alloy of gold and 
silver called electrum, first coined about 500 years before our era in 
Asia Minor, from gold ore obtained in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and 
which gradually extended as a circulating medium through Lydia and the 
Greek settlements of Asia Minor westwards, until reaching Sicily it was- 
issued by Agathocles for coin in that island, and finally spread to Gaul, 
and the Kentish shores of Britain before the descent of Caesar, B.C. 55 ;. 
where coins struck from electrum appear to have circulated previous to 
the striking of a true gold coinage. According to Kenyon, the earliest 
British coins were made 150 B.C., and were debased copies of pieces struck 
by Philip of Macedon. 

There are two important analyses by Mallet of fragments of gold 
torques from the collection of the Koyal Irish Academy, with the 
following results : 

Gold. Silver. Copper. Sp. Gr. 

No. 1, . . 71-54 23-67 4-62 15-377 

No. 2, . . 79-48 18-01 2-48 15-444 

Another analysis recently made by Mr. E. A. Smith (Proa. R. I, A., 
May, 1896) agrees so closely with No. 1 of Mallet, that it would 
appear to be made from another portion of the same fragment of a 

AVe have in the -'Book of Leinster" a poem in praise of the Palace- 
of Ailinn, county Kildare. 

deuipc 6ip a cipib gall. (H 2 18, f. 27, a. b.) 
(" The Torques of Gold from foreign lands.") 

O'Curry (vol. iii., p. 182), terms this a remarkable passage " because- 
its authority states that the articles there mentioned were of foreign 


manufacture." Mallet, as the result of his researches on Irish gold 
ornaments generally, admits it as " conceivable " the gold may have been 
found here, " though its quantity would seem to indicate foreign com- 
merce as the more likely channel by which it was procured." Substituting 
foreign raids for commerce, of which we have little or no evidence, and 
putting aside the exact composition of the metal found in these "torques" 
for future investigation, I believe it can be established that the principal 
source whence our gold was derived for making personal ornaments was 
the plunder of Roman Britain during its successive recorded devastations 
by Irish invasions, and the metal already standardised and coined into 
Roman aurei of definite weight, was subsequently converted into rings 
and other decorative objects. As coin, it would be useless in Ireland where 
money never circulated until small silver pieces were struck about the 
tenth century, by the Danish princes, and none subsequently until this 
country was invaded by the Anglo-Normans. If hereafter clear evidence 
is obtained that these torques of gold, which are found not only in Ireland 
and Britain, but in many parts of the Continent, are formed from electrum 
gold similar to those examined by Mallet, then it will follow that they 
are referable to an earlier date than other gold ornaments of purer 
composition. This will demand future investigation for its definite 
acceptance. At all events the great amount of gold that was obtained 
by Brennus from the Roman Senate is the first historic record of its 
being acquired by northern races in sufficient quantity to account for its 
subsequent distribution amongst them, from Pannonia possibly to Gaul 
and the south-east of Britain where it circulated as money previous to the 
invasion of Julius CaBsar. 

Class No. 2. Th<3 next series of analyses made by Mallet correspond 
with that of the lunula he examined in the relative amounts of gold and 

Gold. Silver. Copper. Lead. Sp. Gr. 

Thin gold plate, . 88*72 10-02 Ml 17-332 

Boss of diadem, . 81-10 12-18 5-94 0-28 15-306 

Thin ring, . 81-72 12-14 1-16 17-258 

. 85-62 12-79 1-47 16-896 

It is from gold of this description that Irish ornaments appear to have 
been fabricated, with few exceptions. It agrees closely with the coins 
issued by Alexander the Great and his successors, and was of the accepted 
standard for purity subsequently adopted by the Romans, which univer- 
sally replaced the electrum coins of earlier fabrication and those of almost 
pure gold made by Darius and by Philip of Macedon. 

It is difficult to obtain analyses of Irish gold ornaments, for that 
process necessitates the destruction of at least some portion of a valuable 
article. In its absence we find the specific gravity a matter of impor- 
tance, as it depends on the results of simple accurate weighing. I 



append a list of those densities of the metal contained in several gold 
rings, and made with great accuracy : 

Weight grains. 

Sp. gr. 

Penannular Rings, 
do. do. 



do. do. 



do. do. 











130, in E.I.A. 

3, ,, 
604 grains. 


Lunula of Sir M. Chapman, 

This list can be compared with the specific gravities of some Roman 
aurei in my possession, determined by Professor O'Reilly, M.R.I. A. : 

Valentinian II. 

Theodosius II., 


Constantius II., 
Leo, . 
Justinian, . 

Sp. gr. 


Emperor of the West, A.D. 383. 

Assassinated, 392. 
With Gratian, 379. Died, 395. 

Emperor of West, 395. Died 423. 
Augustus, 333. Died, 351. 
Emperor of East, 457. Died, 474. 
Sole Emperor, 528. Died, 565. 

Except the above there are few determinations recorded of the 
specific gravity of Roman aurei. Those described are of purer metal 
than we find in Irish gold ornaments, which might be explained by the 
ease with which gold^ on re-melting, can be debased by the addition of 
a small portion of silver, with profit to the working goldsmith. Still 
the list is too limited for accurate results, and the special coins which it 
is desirable to estimate, these, of Diocletian and his successors, are not in 
my possession. As the outcome of these investigations, I can assert, 
after examining a large number of gold articles of all descriptions, that 
they are, without exception, derived, as to weight, from aurei of 72 or 
.70 grains each, such as were current from the reign of the Emperor 
Diocletian to the fall of the Eastern Empire, the heavier articles being 
usually simple multiples of aurei, and the smaller ones either of similar 
weight, or obtained from the fabrication, two or more, from a given 
amount of coined metal. 

This is consonant with the ordinary practice of manufacturing gold- 
smiths at all times, for it was easier to melt down coin of known weight 
tmd purity, than to work with metal in the form of ore; and the laws of 


all countries abound Avith restrictions, of little avail, to prevent the 
conversion of current gold coin into other forms for ornaments. 

Class No. 3. In the following instances the articles examined con- 
sisted of nearly pure gold, the first analysis was made by Mallet, the 
second by Mr. E. A. Smith : 

Gold. Silver. Sp. Gr. 

(Mallet), twisted gold wire, . 96'90 2'49 (trace of copper) 18-593 
(Smith), fillet from sword, . 98-02 1-98 19-103 

Objects made from gold of this exceptional purity are rare. The 
fine chains of thin twisted wire, such as that found attached to the 
Tara brooch and similar articles, which resemble fine Indian workman- 
ship, are probably almost pure gold. 



1. 7f inches across, 5^ inches clear in the inner circle, 7 inches 
high, and 2 inches deep in the broadest portion. Weight, 
1 oz. lOdwt. 11 gr. Purchased from a dealer. 

2. 9 inches across, 5-f- inches in clear of hollow, part of which is a 
perfect circle; 2-|- inches deep in widest portion at top. 
Weight, 3 oz. 2 dwt. 3 gr. Perfect, with the exception of 
slight tear at upper and inner edges. Gold of paper thin- 

Believed to belong to the Academy's original collection. 
Presented by Lord Kenmare in 1778, and described in 
" MS. Minute Book of Committee of Antiquities," vol. i., 
p. 50. Said to have been found near Killarney. 

For description and woodcut, see Wilde's "Catalogue of 
Gold Antiquities," p. 11 ; it is also photographed. 

3. Wants terminal cross-plates, 8|- inches broad by 8 inches high, 
6 inches across inner circle, 2 inches deep in broadest part. 
Weight, 2 oz. 2 dwt. 

From the Daw son Collection. Ornament figured in " Gold 
Catalogue," p. 15. 

4. Half of a small lunula, measuring 6 inches in height. Weight, 
'10 dwt. 11 gr. Ornament figured in " Gold Catalogue," 
p. 15, 

Found with JSTos. 8, 9, and 15, in hard gravel, apparently 
the remains of au ancient togher or road through a boggy 
field, in the parish of Dunfierth, barony of Carbury, cpunty 
Kildare. Near it were found a quantity of bones of large 

5. The largest and most ornamented lunula in the Collection ; perfect, 
but in seven fragments; measures 111 inches broad by lOf 



inches high, and is 4 inches deep in the widest portions, remark- 
ably small in the clear, which is only 5f inches across. Weight, 
4 oz. 3dwt. 21 gr. Ornament figured in "Gold Catalogue," 
p. 17. 

Found near Athlone, county Roscommon, in 1842. Pre- 
sented hy Earl de Grey, Lord Lieutenant. The square ter- 
minal plates were subsequently purchased. 

6. Perfect, beautifully decorated, having oblong terminal plates in- 
stead of circular, 7 inches high, 6 inches across, 5-|- inches 
in the clear, and If inches deep at widest part. Weight, 
18 dwt. 2gr. Figured in "Gold Catalogue," p. 14. Got 
with the Dawson Collection. 

7. Perfect, 7-f inches wide by 7 inches high, 5% inches in the 
clear, and If inches deep. Weight, 13 dwt. 9 gr. Pattern 
figured in "Gold Catalogue," page 16. Purchased from a 

8. Found with Nos. 4, 9, and 15, in county Kildare. Perfect. It 
was torn across at the widest part, and the second portion was 
not procured for many months after the first. A small portion 
had been cut out of the upper edge of one fragment by the 
finder to make a ring for a pig's snout, fancying it was com- 
posed of brass. 

8|- inches wide by 8^ inches high, 6f inches in the clear, and 
2f inches deep at top. Weight, 2 oz. 4dwts. 14 gr. See 
"Gold Catalogue," figure, p. 16. 

9. Left limb of a small narrow lunula, 7-| inches long, and 1 inch 
broad in the widest part. Weight, 4 dwt. 2 gr. Ornament 
figured in " Gold Catalogue," p. 15. Found with Nos. 4, 8, 
and 15. 

10. Perfect, 7f inches wide, 7|- inches high, and If inches broad in 
widest portion, broad in lateral diameter of cut-out portion, 
and also wide in the opening at terminal plates. Ornament 
figured in "Gold Catalogue," p. 16. From the Sirr Collec- 
tion, stated to have been found in county Galway. Weight, 
1 oz. 3 dwt. 

11. Perfect, 7-f- inches broad by 7-J- inches high, 5^ inches in the clear, 
and 2 inches deep in the widest portion. Weight, 1 oz. 
7 dwt. 5gr. Pattern figured in "Catalogue," p. 16. Pur- 
chased in 1852. 

12. Complete, torn across centre, without ornament, terminal plates 
oblong, 7i inches wide, 5^ inches clear in the opening, and 
2 inches deep in the widest portion. Weight, 18 dwt. Pur- 
chased from a dealer in 1853. When obtained it was crumpled 
up as if to lessen the bulk. 



13. Both limbs % highly ornamented but deficient in centre; has a 
peculiar punched ornamentation ; shown in " Gold Catalogue," 
p. 16. 8 inches in width and depth, 6 inches wide in the clear 
of opening. Weight, 14 dwt. 3 gr. Analysed by Mr. J. W. 

14. Perfect; very small ; unornamented ; wide in the opening, which 
appears to have been stretched ; 5f inches across, 6 inches high, 
4i inches in the clear, and 1 inches broad at widest part. 
Weight, 15 dwt. 16 gr. From the Dawson Collection. 

15. Left limb of an ornamented luimla, wanting terminal plate, length 

9 inches, 1-J- inches wide at broadest part. Pattern figured in 
p. 15 of "Gold Catalogue." Weight, 7 dwt. 19 gr. Found 
with Nos. 4, 8, and 9 in county Kildare. 

End of Lunulae in Sir W. Wilde's " Catalogue of Irish Gold 


16. Greatest width, 7| inches. Weight, 1 oz. 10 dwt. 2 gr. Got 

with Nos. 17 and 18 at Banmore, parish of Kilmoylic, barony 

of Clanmorris, Kerry. 
17. Greatest width, 6f inches, in two pieces. Weight, 1 oz. 7 dwt. 1 gr. 

Got with Nos. 16 and 18. 
18. Greatest width, 7-J- inches. Weight, 19 dwt. 16gr. In two 

pieces. Got with Nos. 16 and 17. 
19. A fragment weighing 2 dwt. Bought in 1868. Measures 3^ 

inches long. 

20. Greatest width, 6f- inches. Weight, 1 oz. 6 dwt. 8 gr. 
"21. In two pieces. Greatest width, 8-|- inches. Weight, 1 oz. 18 dwt. 

11 gr. 

22. Greatest width, 6f inches. Weight, 1 oz. 1 dwt. 1 gr. 

123. Greatest width, 8i inches. Weight, 1 oz. 2 dwt. 14gr. Found 
in a bog near Newtown, Crossdoney, county Cavan, at a depth 
of 6 feet, between two oval slabs of oak, which were saturated 
with moisture, and have contracted considerably by drying. 
Bought April, 1884. 

24. Greatest width, 7-f inches ; height, 8i inches. Weight, 1 oz. 

10 dwt. 17gr. Found on a mountain near Trillick, county 
Tyrone, near one of the so-called " Danish Forts," under a 
large rock which was being broken up. Purchased in 

25. Greatest width, 8f inches; breadth, 2| inches. Weight, 1 oz. 
10 dwt. Said to have been found before 1820, near Mullingar. 
Bought from Rev. Mr. Burton, Bective Glebe, Cavan, in 



26. Greatest width, 8f inches. Weight, 2 oz. 5 dwt. 12 gr. Found 

in a, bog at Carrowduff, three .miles fronLEnnistynion, county 

Clare, May, 1877. 
27. -Greatest width, 7f inches ; breadth at widest part, 3 inches. 

Weight, 1 oz. 13 dwt. 5 gr. Bought, with No. 28, from Mr. 

Perry, Newtown Park, county Dublin, in July, 1881. 
28. Bought with No. 27, Greatest width, 61f inches ; breadth, If 

inches. Weight, loz. 2 dwt. 12 gr. 
29. Greatest width, 8-- inches. Weight, 1 oz. 8 dwt. logr. Bought 

with the Petrie Collection. 

30. Greatest width, 7-f- inches; height, 7 inches. Weight, 1 oz. 7 dwt. 
' 20 gr. Said to have been found May, 1886, at Trenta, between 

Carrigans and St. Johnston, six miles from Derry, on the slope 

of a rocky mountain, beneath a great boulder recently blasted 

together with a large flint arrow-head. 
31. Greatest width, 8f inches. Weight, 1 oz. 11 dwt. 19 gr. Found, 

in 1848, near Athlone. Bought January, 1893, being No. 143 

of the "Bateman Collection." 
32. Greatest width, 8 inches; height, 7^ inches ; breadth of widest 

part 2i inches in the clear. Weight, 1 oz. 7 dwt. 17 gr. Found 

in ploughing in the townland of Ross, barony of Kilkenny 

West, county Westmeath, near the shores of Lough Ree, about 

half-a-mile from a ruined castle named Ballincliffs. Purchased 

March, 1896, from Mr. Edmpnd Johnson, Grafton-street. 


1. Weighing loz. 19 dwt. 5 gr. Measures 9-^V inches wide/ Ob- 
tained from Carnarvonshire. 

2. Weighing 1 oz. 17 dwt. 6 gr. 9 inches wide., Found in county 
Kerry, at Mangerton, under bog. Formerly in possession of 
Sir Thomas Tobin. 

3. Weighing 1 oz. 1 1 dwt. 4 gr. 8-j4r inches wide. From Co. Cavan. 

4. Weighing 11 dwt. 3 gr. A fragment 5 inches long. From 
county Cork. 

5. Weighing 1 oz. 6 dwt. 6 gr. 8i inches wide. Obtained from 

6. Weighing 2 oz. 4 dwt. 4 grs. 7f inches' wide! From Penwith, 
Cornwall. Described in Minutes of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, 1783. 

7. Weighing 2oz. 1 dwt. 19 gr. 8 inches wide. From Ireland. 

8,77- Weighing 2 oz. 12 dwt. 4 gr. 9^ inches wide ; also from Ireland. 
' . 9. Weighing 1 oz. 6 dwt. 5 gr. 7^ inches wide. ' No history. 
"10. Weighing 13 dwt. 14 gr. 7 inches' wide. Do. 

11. Weighing 1 oz. 8 grs. 6f inches wide. Do. 



1F.E. Weighing 1 oz. 8 dwt. 13 grs. Figured in "Catalogue." 
Ornamented only with incised lines and double row of 
punctures along its borders. From Southside, near Coulter, 

2F.E. A considerable portion .of one side wanting. Ornamented 
with parallel and angular lines. Found ' near Fochabers, 
Elginshire, in 1873. 

3 F.E. Weighing 4 oz. 1 dwt. 5 gr. Ornamented with incised lines 
and double row of punctures. Deposited by His Grace the 
lute Duke of Buccleugh. Found at Auchentaggart, Dum- 

1 F. F. Weighing 1 oz. 15 dwt. With finely executed ornamenta- 
tion of bands of triangles filled with parallel lines. Found 
in Ireland, and purchased with the " Bell" Collection. 


Greatest width, 7- inches; height, 7 inches; 1-f inches deep in 
widest part at top. Weight not recorded. Measured from a 
tracing by W. H. Patterson, Esq., J.P., Belfast. Obtained 
from the Benn Collection. 


1. In possession of Sir Montague Chapman, Bart., Killua Castle, 
county Westmeath. Greatest width, 7f inches; height, 7f 
inches. Measurement of widest part at top slightly in excess 
of 2 inches. Weight, 1 oz. 6 dwt. Through the kindness 
of its owner I was enabled to determine the specific gravity ; 
it is 17-34. 

2. Belonging to Robert Day, j. p., Cork. This was recently 
exhibited by his permission to the Royal Society of Anti- 
quaries, Ireland. I am unable to give its dimensions. It 
weighed 1 oz. 12 dwt.,- and was found at Bally bay, county 

3. Another specimen in Mr. Day's collection. Found near Enniskillen 
under twenty feet of peat. Weight, 1 oz, 1 dwt. 10 gr. 

It is desirable to place on record certain lunulae imperfectly known, 
-some of which may possibly be now in public collections, and others 
seem to have disappeared : 

1. Found at Dungiven, county Londonderry, in removing a tree, 
March, 1814. 7 to 8 inches in height, and at widest part 1 
inches broad. Figured in Mason's "Statistical Account of 
Ireland," vol. i., p. 304. * 




2. Co. Sligo. Found in a bog, March, 1847. Weight, 1 oz. 6dwL 
1 1 grs. Represented in Mr. Windele's Sketches in Library 
K.I. A., volume ''Miscellanea," p. 206. 

3. Co. Cork. Got in 1867. 8 inches wide, 7f inches high, and 
2f inches broad at top. Shown in a drawing by the late- 
Mr. Brash in a scrap-book of Mr. Clibborn's in It. I. A. Library. 
4. Co. Cork. Specimen shown in a drawing in same book. 
5. Co. Donegal. Shown with Lord Londesborough's Collection at 
Dublin Exhibition, 1872. The plate of gold about 2 inches- 
at its greatest width. ''Engraved with borders of small 
chevrons with lines between, on inner and outer edge, and 
towards the ends six transversal lines, with hatched triangular 
ornaments." In "Miscellanea Graphica," said to have been 
found at Ardaragh. 

6. Co. Antrim, townland of Cuirnlochran, parish of Maheramesk. 
Three crescents turned up, rolled together, at a depth of about 
5 feet, in removing a fallen cromlech stone. One of them 
weighed 4 ounces. See Dublin Penny Journal, volume 4, 
p. 295. 

7. Co. Clare ; found in a ditch at Keyhole. (See Gough's "Carnden," 
vol. iv., p. 230, referred to in Ulster Journal of Archeology, 
vol. ix., p. 46.) 
8. Co. Tyrone; found in a bog. Recorded in Campbell's "Philos. 

Survey of Ireland," and Ulster Journal of Archceology. 
9. A small lunula, in Piltown Museum in 1845, weighing 16 dwt. 
15 gr. It measured 6 inches across, and 1 inches in height. 
(See volume of " Miscellanea," in Koyal Irish Academy 
Library, by Mr. Windele.) 


1. Found at St. Cyr in 1805, between Valogues and Montebourg, 
It was melted down, but a drawing was made and figured in 
" Mem. de la Societe des Antiquaires de Normandie" (1827- 
1828) ; also see " L'Anthropologie," t. v., No. 2, for 1894. 

2. Discovered at Saint Potan, Cotes du Nord. Weight, 194-70 
grammes. Found, in 1890, by quarrymen, and sold to- 
M. Paul du Chatelier. 


[NOTE. Those marked * are by Members of the Society. ,] 

* Lambert, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, as an Engraver of Book-Plates. By 
J. Yinycomb, M.E.I.A. (Newcastle-on-Tyne : A. Reid & Co., Ltd., 

THIS work, reprinted from the "Journal " of the " Ex Libris " Society 
revised and considerably extended has, we may say at the outset, one 
most serious fault; its issue is limited to 150 signed and numbered 
copies. This we may suppose unavoidable, but we regret that so many 
enthusiasts, in the gentle and artistic paths of book-plate collecting, 
should be debarred from possessing this dainty little volume. The 
author, Mr. John Yinycomb, who is a Member of Council of the "Ex 
Libris" Society, carries great weight in all questions of seals, heraldry, 
and similar examples of engraving. Asa Fellow of our Society, besides 
less direct help and advice, he gave us a learned Paper on the original 
device upon the Seal of the Deanery of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 
published in our Journal, 1890-91, p. 228; and later on (1893, p. 69) 
an interesting article on the ancient Seals of Carrickfergus. 

Even to those who do not collect book-plates, especially to admirers 
of Bewick's engravings, this book will be of much interest. The charming 
"tail-pieces" of Bewick's " Natural History " are vividly recalled by 
some of Lambert's plates, notably those on p. 15, and plates 7, 16, 17, 
19, and 31 ; while for comparison, both with Lambert's work and the 
"Natural History," Bewick's book-plate of J. B. Dale, on p. 23, is 

" Mark Lambert was one of Bewick's apprentices, but, unlike so many 
pupils of that great master," he "was not led away by the new art" of 
revived wood-engraving, but continued to work at copperplate and silver- 
engraving, founding one of the largest engraving and printing establish- 
ments in the North of England. 

Tn 1807 Lambert commenced business on his own account; he died 
in 1855 ; his son, partner, and namesake dying so lately as 1893. 

The volume contains 58 selected examples of book-plates, with 
biographical memoranda relating to 124 plates engraved by Lambert, 
which cannot fail to be of interest, especially to the North of England 
families referred to. 

We have watched with interest the revival of this (perhaps) the 



youngest branch of heraldry, and believe that the work of Mr. Vinycomb 
and his colleagues has done much to improve the sterile, tasteless school 
of book-plates, so much in vogue in this country during the last forty years. 
Nothing that tends to improve taste in this very practical generation can 
be despised, and a work like Mr. Viny comb's is a valuable corrective at 
once of the symbolic complexities of some of the modern examples, and 
of the dry bones of heraldry in some of the older types of book-plate. 
T. J. W. 

* The Story of an Irish Sept : their Character and Struggle to maintain 
their Lands in Clare. By a member of the Sept (N. C. Macnamara). 
(London: Dent & Co., 1896.) 

THE study of tribal history has received much less attention in Ireland 
than its importance in relation to the general history of the country 
merits. With very many clans the amount of material at hand is not 
encouraging to the student. This is not the case with the tribe whose 
story is told in these pages. 

The Ui Caisin, or Clan Choilen, whose chiefs took the name of 
Mac Conmara, and ultimately Mac Namara, formed the second division 
of the great Dal Cais family. When the present county Clare was 
conquered by the Dal Cais in the fourth century after our era, the 
Ui Caisin settled in the newly- acquired country, giving their tribe-name 
to a district. To its chief, as head of the most important tribe, belonged 
the privilege of inaugurating the King of North Munster. The place of 
inauguration, a mound still known, has been illustrated by Mr. T. J. 
Westropp in our pages ; and his view is reproduced in this book. 

The Clan Choilen, as the clan was now more usually called, followed 
their king in his wars, taking part with Brian at Clontarf. After the 
Norman invasion they supported O'Brien against the invaders. In the 
following century, when a war of succession arose among the O'Briens, 
the Clan Choilen was the principal supporter of Tuiiough, while the 
Normans aided his rival. 

This prominence of the clan seems to have excited the jealousy of 
other neighbouring tribes. Several of them united, and, though for- 
bidden by O'Brien, the provincial king, attacked and defeated the Clan 
Choilen, with the natural result of again encouraging their Norman 
enemies, and restoring, for a time, their supremacy in Clare. The 
Irish allies of the Norman leader, De Clare, were overthrown in 1318, 
and the last stronghold of the Normans, Bunratty, was captured by 
Mac Namara in 1332. 

After the overthrow of their enemies the power of the clan increased, 
and its territory extended over much of Eastern Clare. Following the 


example of the Normans, they built numerous castles, many of which 
still stand. Greater power and territory, however, brought internal 
dissensions, and before the end of the fourteenth century the clan had 
divided under two chiefs, who fought each other vigorously. 

For two centuries following there is little light on the history of the 
district. In the interval their tribal state had come to an end, and, at 
the end of the sixteenth century, the Mac Namaras appear as landed 
proprietors of a modern type, strongly resisting the claims of the 
O'Briens to any superiority. This position was maintained until the 
Cromwellian confiscations reduced their property to fragments of its 
former importance. The subsequent story relates to prominent indi- 
viduals of the family. 

Mr. Macnamara has produced a book which can be read with 
interest, and which fairly illustrates many points of Irish history. It 
fails, however, to realise the main purpose of a tribe history. We read 
only of the doings of the chiefs, with no attempt to trace the life of the tribe 
at large, except by generalising from outside sources. In common with 
too many Irish local histories, it gathers its matter mainly from already 
well-known published works, and lacks the local colour and the light 
which the study of local antiquities, traditions, and writings should 
bring to explain and illustrate the work of the general historian and 
chronicler. Mr. Macnamara gives us views of castles, but he does not 
tell us of their age or builders ; he refers to ancient deeds, rent-rolls, 
and inquisitions, but does not attempt to deduce from them any evidence 
which they may contain of the great change, the most important in the 
history of the tribe, by which the patriarchal chief, dwelling in his rath, 
developed into the quasi-feudal landlord in his castle. 

In matters of detail the book needs much revision. The spelling of 
Irish names is very uncertain and inconsistent. Thus the name usually 
written in English Donogh, appears also as Donough, Donchadh, and 
Donchardh, the last absurd form being used deliberately and most often. 
One cannot help sympathising with the poor English compositor, whose 
efforts to set up the name Domhnall were left uncorrected, and lead to 
such results as " Dunhual," " Dunknal," " Dornhuall." After this we 
cannot wonder that Vallancey, Betham, Campion, and Stamer, are con- 
verted into Yallaney, Bentham, Champion, and Stain er ; nor that Ferns 
is described as the capital of Meath. Unhappily too many similar 
errors might be pointed out. 

The book is very well turned out, and is illustrated with a number 
of views of antiquities, and some good reproductions of miniature 
portraits. J. M. 


The Book-Plate Annual and Armorial Year-Boolc, 1897. Edited by 
John Leighton, F.S.A., Yice-President, " Ex Libris" Society. 
Royal 4to. Price 2s. 6d. (London : A. & C. Black, Soho-square, W.) 

THIS Annual, now in its fourth year of issue, is not devoted entirely 
to the investigation of matters connected with book-plates. It has a good 
deal of useful information on subjects relating to libraries, books, and 
bindings, and there is much in it which will be highly prized by book- 
buyers, lovers of literature, and collectors generally. There are two 
excellent portraits of Lord Leighton and Sir John E. Millais. There are 
also copies of the heraldic achievements of both of these distinguished 
painters, and the book-plate of Lord Leighton is given, as also one etched 
by Millais in 1854. There is a portrait of George du Maurier by himself, 
as well as a characteristic achievement of that artist and author. 
Adverting to the achievement of Lord Leighton, his arms has supporters 
horses of Helicon: they are highly appropriate propositions; and 
Lord Leighton, we are informed, declined the supporters suggested by 
the Heralds' College, and was designing them for himself at the time of 
his death ; thus these additions have never been confirmed. 

A very interesting and suggestive Paper is that on " Jewish Coats of 
Arms," and it is well illustrated. European heraldry only became 
systematised in the thirteenth century ; but long prior to that date 
the Jews, in common with other nations of antiquity, had used family 
and tribal emblems. The antiquity of heraldic devices among the Jews 
is shown by a verse from the Pentateuch (Numbers ii. 2), in which 
"every man of the children of Israel" is instructed to "pitch by 
his own standard, the ensign of their father's house." There are 
several other fascinating chapters all lavishly illustrated. 

Monument at Clonkeen, Co. Gal way. Mr. "Wakeman forwards a 
rubbing, and a reduced drawing of an inscription, both of which refer to 
a much neglected monumental effigy of a bishop, now lying in the 
cemetery of Clonkeen, near Tiaquin, Co. Galway. He writes : 

"In Brady's 'Episcopal Succession,' vol. ii., the following notice 
occurs: '1718, Edmond Kelly succeeded " per mortem ultimi illius 

COD EoroonD Keay 

SoPbonne FopmePLLy Dean 

ty 1J leap GenePaLLoF qoioc 


COUP t oF "bienni vLate 
Lopo bishop oFQonFepl 


Episcopi." His Brief was dated in February, 1718. He wrote to 
Propaganda on the 14th of May, 1718, to announce his consecration, 
which had been performed in Dublin, with three bishops assisting. His 
faculties as bishop were granted on the 15th November, 1718. In April, 
1733, Clonfert was vacant.' " 

Proposed Destruction of Kilmallock Castle. At a meeting of 
the Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, it was proposed by 
Mr. George Coffey, M.R.I. A., seconded by J. J. Digges La Touche, LL.D., 
and passed unanimously : " That the Council of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland has heard with regret that a Presentment has been 
passed by the Presentment Sessions for the Liberties of Kilmallock for the 
purpose of taking down the King's Castle at Kilmallock. 

" The Council is surprised at the contemplated act of vandalism, inas- 
much as the preservation and protection of ancient and historic monuments 
is recognised as a matter of great public interest, and trust that now 


public attention has been directed to the subject, the presentment will 
not be proceeded with. 

" The Council would further suggest that steps be immediately taken 
to place this interesting monument in charge of the Board of Works for 
protection under the 'Ancient Monuments Protection Act.' " 

The attention of Council was called to this important matter by letters 
from Dr. Joyce and Mr. J. G. Barry of Limerick, the latter enclosing 
cuttings from a local paper detailing the proceedings that have taken 
place. He is in communication with the landlord on the subject, and 
will oppose the confirmation of the presentment by the Grand Jury. 
Dr. Joyce describes the King's Castle, the old city gate, which it is 
proposed to demolish, as " one of the most characteristic remains of the 
old Geraldine days." 

[The Grand Jury has rejected the presentment.] 

Inismurray. It having been reported to the Council of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries that an inscribed stone among the antiquarian 
remains on the Island of Inismurray has been recently removed, the 
Council have requested the Board of Works to investigate the circum- 
stances, and beg to suggest that Mr. Michael Waters, one of the principal 
residents on the island, or some other suitable person, be appointed 
caretaker of the remains. 

In a letter to Mr. Wakeman, Mr. Michael Waters reports that " some 
tourists have taken away a slab from the altar." 

Notes on the Irish Monasticons and the Rev. Mervyn Archdall. 
From the "Anthologia Hibernica," 1794, I find that the Archdall family 
is descended from John Archdall, of Norsom Hall, in the county of Norfolk, 
who came over to Ireland temp. Queen Elizabeth, and settled at Castle 
Archdall, in the county of Fermanagh, about 1600, having purchased an 
estate from Sir John Neale. The family must, therefore, have been in 
wealthy circumstances. 

The author of the " Monasticon " was born in Dublin, April, 1723. He 
passed with reputation through the Dublin University. He always 
showed a turn for archaeology, especially for inquiry into the monastic 
history of Ireland. He made the acquaintance of Harris, the editor of 
"Ware's Antiquities," C. Smith, the county historian, Thomas Prior, 
and Archdeacon Pococke, When the latter became Bishop of Ossory he 
bestowed on Mr. Archdall the living of Attanagh, his domestic chap- 
laincy, and a prebend. This made a comfortable provision for him, and 
enabled him to pursue his antiquarian studies in ease and retirement* 
His generous patron and friend, Dr. Pococke, died in 1765. Mr. Arch- 
dallhad by this time prepared records of our monastic foundations to the 
extent of about two folio volumes. These records had reference to the 
original donors of lands and buildings, and to the present grantees of these 


at a subsequent period from the Crown, which included more than a third 
of Ireland. This was the outcome of a labour of forty years, and then, 
invaluable as these records were, Mr. Archdall found no one patriotic or 
generous enough to aid him in the publication. He was, therefore, 
obliged to abridge his collections into one volume quarto, and thus 
appeared the " Monasticon Hibernicum," first published by subscription 
in 1785, 4to, Dublin, Luke "White. In the preface to this great work 
Mr. Archdall explains the necessity for thus epitomising his work, and 
says : " The public are certainly losers by the defalcation; for scarce a 
family of note in England or Ireland who may not at some period trace 
their pedigree in the subscriptions to our monastic charters and donations, 
and find remains of their property, both before and after the dissolution 
of these societies." What has become of the remainder of the invaluable 
manuscript ? 

Mr. Archdall's next work was an edition of "Lodge's Peerage of 
Ireland," published in 1789, in seven volumes, 8vo. There is a story told 
that Mr. Lodge had left numerous additions to his work in MS., but 
written in a cipher inexplicable to every one ; and so about to be 
given up in despair, until Mrs. Archdall applied herself to their decipher- 
ment, and happily discovered the key. These valuable notes were thus 
brought into use, and greatly enriched the new edition. 

Previous to Archdall's time several notices of the Irish monastic 
establishments appear. In Dugdale's "Monasticon Anglicanum" we 
find references to thirty -five regular houses in Ireland with some of their 
foundation charters. 1 Ware, 2 in his " Monasteriologia," gives an outline 
of the abbeys and monasteries, noting the places, founders, times, 
assignees, and grantees of the several establishments. In Harris's 
edition are given eighteen fine copper-plates illustrating the religious 
and military habits of the different orders. 

In 1690 M. Allemande collected and arranged materials for a monastic 
history which was published in 12mo at Paris in that year under the 
title " Histoire Monastique d'Irlande." This work was translated and 
enlarged chiefly from Colgan, Wadding, Ware, &c., by Captain John 
I'.CUIF. tic p.llnl <', in one volume, 8vo, London, 1722, under the 
title "Monasticon Hibernicum." Both works are now scarce. This latter 
is also illustrated with eight plates of costumes, and contains an excellent 
clearly printed map of Ireland "by Herman Moll, Geographer," giving all 
the principal towns, roads, distances from town to town, archbishoprics, 
bishoprics, boroughs, &c. The matter of the book is arranged according 
to the respective religious orders. 

Archdall's "Monasticon" is arranged geographically, and has 
eighteen plates of costumes the same as those in Harris's " Ware " ; they 

1 Vide end of vol. ii., " Monasticon Anglicanum." 

2 Harris' " Ware," vol. ii., pp. 262 et seq. 


were probably printed from the copper-plates of the latter re- 

A splendid edition of this "Monasticon " by the Most Rev. Dr. Moran 
appeared in 1873 (Kelly, Dublin) in 3 volumes. 4to, embellished with 
many full-page illustrations of churches and monastic ruins, with chro- 
moliths in gold and colours of the costumes of the Orders, by Marcus 
Ward. The text is verbatim from Archdall, but the very valuable copious 
notes by the editor and other distinguished antiquaries much exceed the 
bulk of the original. It is really a grand work, and the manner of its 
production as to paper, type, and illustration, is highly creditable to 
Irish workmanship. I have the five Monasticons now before me, viz. : 
Dugdale's, folio ; Ware's (Harris), folio ; Allemande's (Stevens), 8vo ; 
Archdall's (original), 4to ; and Archdall's (Moran), 4to, and can have no 
hesitation in stating that the last is in all respects the best. The notes 
give a vast amount of antiquarian information on the subject of the 
work, both historical and topographical. The learned editor corrects 
many errors on these points which appear in the original. My copy of 
the 1786 edition belonged to the late Mr. Cooke, of Birr, a well-known 
antiquary ; it has numerous marginal notes by him giving corrections 
and additions, with several etymologies. 

It is a curious coincidence that the first edition of the " Monasticon 
Hibernicum" was prepared under the fostering care of a Protestant 
Bishop of Ossory, and nearly a century afterwards the last edition ap- 
pears with loving care from the hands of a Roman Catholic Bishop of the 
same diocese. C. WINSTAN DUGAN. 

Principal Gateway, Merrion-square. Mr. P. Kenny writes : 
" I beg to submit a note from a very intelligent man who takes a great 
interest in the doings of our Society. Would it not be possible that a 
communication from the Press would stir up the Commissioners of that 
square to take action in this matter, and have the inscription freshly 
coloured, and the shrubs removed at very little cost to themselves ? 

' ' ' Could anything be done to preserve those beautiful stone carvings over the 
ancient gateway into Merrion-square, west side ? They are really beautiful. Perhaps 
if you called attention to the matter, something could be done that would prevent 
their being altogether destroyed. They are decaying a little.' 

" There is an inscription in Irish characters on a mural slab close to 
the doorway of Dalkey churchyard. Would it not be worth while 
having copy and translation made." 

Marble Box. I have in my possession an old marble box probably a 
relic box got some years ago from Mr. Cooke's (Birr) Collection. It is of 
solid white marble beautifully inlaid with coloured marbles, the arched 
top also inlaid in a curious manner. It is about 8 inches square, with a 
marble lid inside. Mr. Cooke considered it a great treasure, and his son 
said it was found in the river Brosna, near Roscrea. C. W. DUG AN. 


Monumental Inscriptions from the Cathedral, Jamaica. The four 
inscriptions given below were copied and sent to me by my brother 
Lord George Fitzgerald, who is Private Secretary to Sir Henry Blake, 
Governor of Jamaica. They are to be found on monuments in the 
Cathedral of St. Catherine, at Spanish Town, which was the old capital 
of Jamaica ; and as they relate to natives of Ireland, they may be of 
interest to the descendants of the families named on the slabs. 














Black marble. Arms : Party per pale indented, two spears' heads 
erect. Crest, a goat's head erased. Motto " Tout ou Bien." 











Below the Inscription, Arms : argent ; three chevronels, or. 





YEAR 1633 





I6 97 ." 

Arms : three hautboys, between as many cross crosslets. 

On a black stone. Crest, an unicorn's head couped, bridled ; on his 
breast a crescent. Motto "Dare." 





ON THE 27 OF MAY 1808. 








AGED 80 YEARS NOV 12 l8lO. 





Old Latin Poem. Having purchased some time ago a portion of 
the library of the late Mr. Thomas Gooke, of Birr, a well-known anti- 
quary, I found in one of the books an old quarto manuscript poem in 
Latin. It occupies fifteen pages, having a total of 468 lines, and 
is written in a seventeenth-century hand. The following is the 

title : 

" Hyberniae Sub Cromwello 
Tyranno Ingemiscentis 

The first line 

' Ilia ego Christicolae non ultima portio gentis." 

The last line 

" Carle veni, prohibet plura referre dolor." 

The poem contains several references to the Stuarts, Cromwell and 
his generals, their cruelties, &c. The MS. is in a very cramp hand, and 
bears much similarity to the Latin poems of Lynch, author of " Cam- 
brensis Eversus." Can any of your readers give me information relative 
to this old poem ? C. W. DUGAN. 

Identification of " The Ascetic's Church," Leana, Co. Clare. In 

the description given in the " Caithreim Thoirdhealbhaigh," of the 
march of Dermot (son of Turlogh) O'Brien, and Maccon (son of Loch- 
lain) Macnamara, with their followers, to "break" the battle of 
Oorcomroe (A.D. 1317) upon Donogh O'Brien, grandson of Brian Roe, 
and his adherents, it is stated by John Mac Rory Magrath, who wrote 
circa 1350, that the army halted, after the first day's march, at Coradh- 
mic-Dalhoireann, 1 and there encamped for the night. Next morning 
they tramped over Bothar-na-mac-Righ* across Mullach-Gaoil* through 
u Leana? s* rich dairylands," past Cill-mic-Ui-Donain, the Ascetic's 
Church, on through Crioch-mhailf until they arrived at the Abbey of 
Corcomroe, where they put up, in anxious expectation, doubtless, of 
the morrow's battle. 

For some years I had been searching for this old church of Cill-mic- 
Ui-Donain, but to no purpose. I knew that its ruins, if existing, 
should be somewhere between Leana and Crughwill. However, in 

1 Coradh-mic-Dabhoireann = the weir of the son of Davoren, now ' ' Kells Bridge "on 
the 6 -inch Ordnance Map. It was generally known until recent times as Curravick- 
burrion. At this place the waters of the Fergus disappeared underground, before the 
drainage diverted the river into another channel. 

2 Bothar-na-mac-liigh (= the road of the King's sons), between Corofin and the old 
Church of Kilnaboy. 

3 Mullach-Gaoil, now a rough limestone hill in the townland of Eunnagat South, 
north of the old church of Kilnaboy. 

4 Leana, Ordnance Survey, Sheet 17, in parish of Kilnaboy. 

5 Crioch-mhail Crughwill, parish of Carran, barony of Barren. 



July, 1896, it came to my ears that there was a curious stone at Leana, 
with a human face carved upon it. I visited the place on the 27th of 
the same month, and found what convinced me that I had at last 
discovered the " Ascetic's Church," mentioned in the " Caithreim 

It is now known as Coulnamraher, 1 and is marked, but not named, 
on the 6-inch Ordnance Map. About 5 feet high of the walls were 
standing forty or fifty years ago, and were pulled down, soon after that 
time, by the tenants, for the purpose of making boundary walls. They 

did their work only too well, not 
leaving a stone upon a stone, their 
only excuse being that they did not 
know it was a church. 

From people who saw it I learned 
that its dimensions were about 20 
feet by 15 feet, and that its orienta- 
tion was somewhat south of due east. 
Built into the fences of the field in 
which the old church stood, are 
numerous stones, cut and uncut, 
which once belonged to it. Among 
these are seven well-cut jamb-stones, 
each with a scotia moulding 6 inches 
wide in one angle. A similar stone 
is built into another wall in a field 
more to the west. This latter has a 
human head carved in alto-relievo at 
top of the scotia ; and three of the 
others have a more or less conical 
ornament, also at the top of the 
moulding. All the cut stones have 
practically an equal " rake," which, 
when in position, would give jambs 
with an incline from the perpen- 
Inclined jamb of door. dicular of H inches to the foot. I 

could not discover any evidence of burials either in the church or its 
vicinity ; but the whole place has been tilled many times. There is not a 
single cut arch-stone among the debris, but, of course, there may have been 
one or more arches in the building made of rough hewn stones. The 
character of the jambs, however, incline me to the belief that all the 
opes had probably horizontal lintels. Two of the stones are better cut, 
and have the moulding shallower (6 x inch) than the rest. These are 

1 Coulnamraher Cabhal-na-mfirathar = " The ruined house of the Friars." CabJtal 
is a word commonly used in Clare to denote a house of any kind in ruins. 


the one with carved head, and another with plain scotia ; which, 
undoubtedly, correspond, and are shown in tne accompanying sketch. 
The other stones are more coarsely cut, and have the scotia deeper 
(6 x 1-|- inches). The three of the latter style, with conical ornament, 
formed at least part of three jambs, for they are all top-stones, and none 
of them could have formed a base. They are evidently parts of the 
inclined jambs of door, window, or chancel. 

Mr. T. J. "Westropp, who visited the place recently, fully agrees 
with me that it can be no other than the " Ascetic's Church." 

About 250 yards N. E. of the site of the church are the much 
dilapidated remains of a roughly-built house, 
now locally known as Teach-na-mBrathar, or 
"The House of the Friars," where, probably, 
the priests who officiated in Cill-mic-Ui-Donain 
once resided. It measures on outside 30 feet 
by 20 feet, and has rounded quoins. The 
walls are 2 feet thick ; and the doorway, about 
3 feet wide, is in the western wall about its 
centre. Some 80 feet N.W. of this ruin is a 
very curious "bullan," with two well-cut cir- 
cular hollows, and part of another. There are 
also, on two or three large boulders to the S.W., 
some artificial cup-shaped hollows, a few inches 

in diameter. The "bullan" would appear to have been useful for the 
purpose of bruising corn, or nuts, into coarse flour ; and the cups on 
the rocks would be extremely handy for cracking hazel-nuts, which, in 
the season, are very plentiful in these parts. 

I brought the existence of the ruins tinder the notice of the 
Ordnance Survey, the officers of which took great pains in having them 
correctly named and located. GKORGE U. MACNAMAUA, Local Secretary 
for North Clare. 

Ogham Inscription in Co. Cork. The Rev. Edmond Barry, P.P. 
(Hon. Local Secretary for East Cork] writes from Rathcormac : "On 
the 29th of November, 1896, in searching for Ogham inscriptions at 
Rathcanning, in the parish of Dungonrney, barony of Imokilly, and 
county of Cork, the Rev. James Green, B.D., c.c., Dungourney, Mr. John 
B. O'Higgins, of Boston, U.S.A., and myself, examined two clayslate 
flags that, for eighty years, have served as entrance pillars to a Mr. John 
Colbert's car-shed ; and on one edge of one of these stones I found 
Ogham characters. 

" The inscribed stone is 5 feet 10 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches broad, and 
10 inches thick ; and is only a lower or an upper fragment of its former 
self. Similarly the inscription, which is only 22 inches long, breaks off 


in the middle of the second word, read downwards, or of the first word, 
read upwards. The inscription is : 

which may he read downwards, as ILUNA MUC[OI ....],' [the headstone] 
of Illann, son of [...]'; or upwards, as [. . .]su MAQU DI, ' To [. . .]sa, 
*on of Dia.' " 

Recent Find of Early Silver Coins, Co. Mayo. About the beginning 
of last October a countryman brought to Dublin a canvas bag, contain- 
ing about fifty silver coins of the kings, &c., named below. He stated 
to my informant that he had found them in the bag, within a box, 
buried in a bog, in this county ; but any further particulars of the 
locality I was unable to ascertain. He also stated that nothing else had 
been found with them, but that his brother had discovered more coins 
near the same place about twenty years since. 

The box in which the coins and bag were found he described as " a 
real old one." They consisted chiefly of groats and half-groats, and 
were all in a very good state of preservation : 

Edward II. A penny of Canterbury. 

Henry VI. (Cantor), Archbishop Morton's initial M. 

Edward IV. A groat, " Dorninus Hifcc^ftiae."' (See A. Smith, 

No. 76.) 

,, , ,, (London) ; M. M. 1 a sun. 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, a pierced cross. 

,, ,, (Dublin). 

(Drogheda). (See A. Smith, No. 40.) 

,, ,, ,,3 crowns, in pale. (See A. Smith, No. 70.) 

Eio.hard III. % groat (Irish) ; Kildare arms. 
Henry VII. groat (York).- 

,, ,, ,, Cantor. Arched crown. 

,, ,, Groat (Dublin) ; tressure all round ; M. M. a ^. 

(See A. Smith, No. 29.) 

Henry VIII. ^ groat; M. M. a pomegranate, and letter K, for 

Katherine of Arragon. (Archbishop Warehani.) 

,, ,, M. M. Lys. First coinage, the head of his father, 

Henry VII., being used. 
Elizabeth. Id. (Irish) of 1601 ; M. M. a star. . 

P. D. V. 

1 M. M. (Mint mark). 


Irish Church Plate. I am now engaged in collecting, for publica- 
tion, particulars of the Church-plate in use in this country, in the 
churches of the various denominations, and I shall feel much obliged for 
any particulars that may be sent to me concerning the same. Verbatim 
copies of any inscriptions, descriptions of " Hall" and other marks on the 
several articles, and information as to whether they are silver, plated, 
brass, or pewter, with height and diameter, and, if possible, weight ; 
as well as sketches or photographs of flagons and chalices, will be most 
thankfully received. 

The constant sale of ancient Church-plate, and its loss, from one 
cause or another, make it very desirable that such a list as I propose 
making, should be prepared and printed. PHILIP D. VIGORS, Colonel, 
F.R.S.A.I., Holloden, Bagenalstown, Co. Carlow. 

P.S. It is particularly requested that an account of any Church- 
plate in possession of families may be sent to me. 

The Firmer Cairn. Parliamentary language, especially the dialect 
spoken by officials in reply to unpleasant questions, appears to be admir- 
ably adapted to its purpose. Ordinary language, we are told, was given 
to man to conceal his thoughts : the patois spoken by Under-Secretaries 
of State seems to have been given certainly it is sometimes used for 
the misrepresentation of facts. A youthful officer, laying out a rifle-range 
for Thomas Atkins, proceeds to destroy a prehistoric cairn at Firmer, 
county Donegal (which would, in no way, have interfered with the flight 
of Thomas's bullets). Questioned on the subject by an Irish Member 
of Parliament, the Tinder-Secretary of State for War replies that there 
was no cairn in the place at all. There was only a " natural limestone 
formation," from which twelve cubic feet of loose stones had been 
taken. However, there was a thing there called " Muldoon's Grave," 
which was not in the way, which had not been " touched" (and about 
which, let us add, he had not been asked for information). 

We understand that the local Press has spoken out freely on the 
subject, and that local antiquaries have even succeeded in teaching the 
officer in charge of the range whose motto appears to be "rien n'est 
sacre a un Sapeur" that a sepulchral cairn, of great antiquarian 
interest, is not a ''natural limestone formation of loose stones." Our 
contemporary, the Donegal Independent, quotes the following passage 
from Colonel Wood-Martin's "Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland," 
page 160 : 

"About two miles from Bundoran, on the Ballyshannon side, and in 
the townland of Finner, there are the remains of a cairn with exposed 
and circle of upright stones. A. W. Foot, M.D. (who on this 
occasion accompanied the writer), ventured into the chamber, and 
emerged bearing with him several human hones. A few years ago 

JOIJU. U.S. A. I., VOL. VII., VT. I., OTH S-ER. G 


Colonel F. J. Folliott, of Hollybrook, had given directions for the 
erection of a wall on this portion of his estate, and the workmen 
employed utilised the materials of this cairn. After some time they-- 
came upon a large stone, which they smashed to pieces, when the cist 
became exposed to view. It contained a large quantity of human bones, 
amongst which were several skulls in fine preservation. Before, how- 
ever, any intelligent person had been made aware of the discovery, the- 
place was invaded by a number of treasure-seeking roughs from Bally - 
shjinnon, who broke the crania in pieces, and scattered the other 

The following circular letter has been addressed to each of the Hon. 
Provincial and Local Secretaries of the Society : 

" DEAR SIR, I have the honour to inform you that you have 
been nominated Hon. Local Secretary for the year 1897. I am desired 
by the Council to direct your attention to Rule 18 of the General Rules. 
The Society relies on your carrying out, to the best of your ability, the 
duties as therein denned, and that you will the more particularly give 
me timely notice of the discovery of any Objects of Antiquity in your 
neighbourhood, and of injury done to, or likely to be done to, Ancient 

" It is further suggested that [as far as possible] the Local Secretaries 
should make themselves acquainted with the Folk-lore and Folk-Customs 
(for instance, May-day, Harvest, Funeral Customs, &c.) of their respective 
Districts, and note particulars not previously published. The distribution 
of customs is also of archaeological interest, and it is important to record 
new localities for customs already published for other counties or 

" Paragraphs of Historical and Archaeological interest, Notices of 
Finds, &c., frequently appear in the local daily and weekly newspapers, 
and these may be cut out and forwarded with note thereon, and verifi- 
cation where necessary. A means will thus arise for preserving the 
information in the pages of the Journal for the benefit of Antiquaries, 
which otherwise would be lost. 

" It is not desirable that Hon. Provincial and Local Secretaries should 
make official communications to the Press, or summon Local Meetings, &c.,. 
without first obtaining the permission of the Council through the Hon. 
General Secretary. 

" The favour of your reply is requested before 8th March next, and 
if you are unable to act for the Society, you might be good enough 
to suggest the name of a Member likely to undertake the duty for the 
current year. 

" Yours faithfully, 

" ROBKRT COCHRANE, Hon. Gen. Sec. 
"24th February, 1897." 


RULE 18. The Council may appoint Honorary Provincial Secretaries 
for each Province, and Honorary Local Secretaries throughout the country, 
whose duties shall be denned by the Council, and they shall report to the 
Honorary General Secretary, at least once a year, on all Antiquarian 
Remains discovered in their districts, investigate Local History and Tra- 
dition, and give notice of all injury inflicted, or likely to be inflicted, on 
Monuments of Antiquity or Ancient Memorials of the Dead, in order that 
the influence of the Society may be exerted to maintain and preserve 

Archaeology in Limerick. In a report of the Annual Meeting of the 
Limerick Naturalists' Field Club, published in the Limerick Chronicle, we 
observe with great satisfaction that a proposition of Mr. J. Grene Barry, 
seconded by Mr. J. Frost, for the establishment of an Antiquarian section 
of the Club, was carried unanimously. It will be called " The Limerick 
Historical and Archasological Society," its objects will be the examination, 
preservation, and illustration of the ancient monuments of the city and 
county ; "the diffusion of valuable information regarding the past of the 
county and city ; the collection of manuscripts and printed records of the 
past ; and of oral traditions which survive and are becoming scarcer day 
by day." The section will be affiliated to the Club, will meet quarterly, 
and publish a Journal, which the Photographic section will aid in illus- 
trating. Under the able guidance of Messrs. Barry and Frost, and with 
the material which Limerick abundantly supplies, the new section will, 
we are confident, soon rival Cork in the production of good work. We 
trust that similar movements will be made in other counties abo^e all, 
in Clare. 


THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING of the Society for the year 1897 was 
held (by permission) in the Royal Dublin Society's House, Kildare- 
street, Dublin, on Tuesday, 12th January, 1897, at 4 o'clock, p.m. ; 

COLONICL PHILIP D. VIGORS, Vice-President, and subsequently THOMAS 
DKEW, R.H.A., F.R.I.B.A., President, in the Chair. 

The following took part in the proceedings : 

Felloivs : William Frazer, F.H.C.S.I., M.U.I.A., Vice- President ; S. F. Milligan, 
M.U.I. A., V ice- President ; Robert Cochrane, F.S.A., M.R.I. A., Hon. General Secretary 
and Treasurer; G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., M.R.I. A. ; J. G. Wandesford Butler; 
George Coffey, B.A.I., M.R.I. A. ; John Cooke, M.A. ; the Rev. J. F. M. ffrench, 
M.R.I.A. ; John R. Garstin, M.A., B.D., F.S.A., M.R.I. A. ; George A. P. Kelly, M.A. ; 
G.Henry Kinahan, M.R.I.A. ; Deputy Surgeon -General King, M.A., M.B., M.H.I. A. ; 
W. J. Knovvles, M.U.I. A. ; Richard Langrishe, F.R.I. A.I. ; J. J. Digges La Touche, 
.M.A., LL.D., M.R.I.A. ; T. J. Mellon ; James Mills, M.R.I.A. ; W. R. Molloy, M.R.I.A. ; 
M. M. Murphy, M.R.I.A.; Count Plunkett, M.R.I.A.; Countess Plunkett ; J. G. 
Robertson, Hon. Fellow ; the Rev. Canon Stoney, D.D. ; Major- General F. W. 
Stubbs ; T. J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.I.A. ; Robert Lloyd Woollcombe, LL.I>., M.R.I.A. ; 
E. P. Wright, M.D., M.A., M.R.I.A. 

Members : The Rev. William F. Almeut, B.D. ; Newton B. Ashby, United States 
Consul; F. Elrington Ball, M.R.I.A. ; the Rev. John Woods Ballard ; H. F. Berry, M.A. ; 
0. H. Braddell; J. B. C. Bray; M. J. C. Buckley; the Rev. R. A. Burnett, M.A. : 
the Rev. J. W. R. Campbell, M.A. ; the Rev. W. W. Campbell, M.A., R.N. ; John 
Carolan; Anthony R. Carroll; James Charles, M.I.J. ; R. W. Christie; M. Edward 
Con way ; Henry A. Cosgrave, M.A. ; the Rev. George W. S. Coulter, M.A. ; Miss M. 
Cunningham; Miss S. C. Cunningham; E. R. M'C. Dix ; Mrs. Drew ; the Rev. 
Anthony L. Elliott, M.A. ; Frederick Franklin ; Major G. F. Gamble ; Surgeon 
Lieutenant-Colonel Greene, M.B. ; Thomas Greene, LL.K. ; Mrs. Thomas Greene ; A. 
C. Haddon, F.L.S. ; the Rev. Denis Hanan, D.D. ; the Rev. John Healy, LL.D. ; W. 
A. Henderson ; Henry Hitchins ; Miss II. Hughes ; the Very Rev. Henry Jellett, 
D.D., Dean of St. Patrick's; the Rev. Canon Keene, D.D. ; Patrick Kenny ; Miss K. 
L. King; the Rev. H. W. Lett, M.A., M.R.I.A.; the Rev. William O'N. Lindesay, 
M.A. ; the Rev. F. J. Lucas, D.D. ; the Rev. H. C. Lyster, B.D. ; the Rev. A. B. W. 
Mack, M.A. ; Francis M'Bride ; P. J. McCall ; the Rev. George McCutchan, M.A. ; 
Miss 11. G. Manders ; Morgan Mooney ; Joseph H. Moore, M.A. ; D. J. O'Donoghue; 
Patrick O'Leary ; William P. O'Neill, M.R.I.A.; P. J. O'Reilly; Miss Peter ; the 
Rev. A. D. Turefoy, M.A. ; Miss Reynell ; the Rev. J. J. Ryan, v.r. ; Mrs. J. . 
Shackleton; William J. Simpson; E. Weber Smyth; Mrs. E. W. Smyth; V. E. 
Smyth ; Bedell Stanford, B.A. ; Mrs. Stoker ; the Rev. Professor Stokes, D.D., 
M.R.X.A. ; F. P. Thunder; H. P. Truell, M.B., D.L. ; J. Walby ; Charles J. Wallace, 
M.A. ; the Rev. George R. Wedgewood; the Rev. S. de Courcy Williams, M.A. 

The Minutes of the previous Meeting were read and confirmed. 


The following Candidates, recommended by the Council, were 
declared duly elected: 


Clarke, William Usher (Member, 1889), Bridge House, Teddington, Middlesex: 
proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., M.K.I. A., Fellow. 

Crawley, W. J. Chetwode, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., F.R. HIST. s. (Member, 
1894). 3 and 4, Ely-place, Dublin: proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., M.R.I.A., 

Hickey, the Rev. Michael P. (Member, 1894), Professor of Gaelic and Lecturer on 
Irish Archaeology, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth : proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, 
M.A., M.U.I.A., Fellow. 

Marsh, Frank S., B.A. (Dubl.), 35, Holies-street, Dublin, and Brown's Barn, 
Co. Kilkenny : proposed by Richard Langrishe, F.R. I.A.I., Fellow. 

Mellon, Thomas J., Architect, Rydal Mount, Milltown, Co. Dublin: proposed by 
Robert Cochrane, F.S.A., Fellow, Hon. Gen. Sec. 

Murphy, J. H. Burke, The Agency, Cultra, Holy wood, Co. Down: proposed by 
Edward Allworthy. 

McGreeney, Very Rev. Patrick, Canon, P.P.. Crossmaglen, Co. Armagh: 
proposed by S. K. Kirker, Fellow. 

O'Neill, "William Purcell, C.E., Eden Vale, Conyngham-road, Dublin : proposed 
by Charles C. Ormsby, Felloiv. 

Warren, the Rev. Thomas (Member, 1890), Belmont, 29, Gipsey Hill, London, 
S.E. : proposed by T. J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.I.A., Fellow. 


Brodie, Mrs. Waldegrave, Ballmahinch, Tulla, Co. Clare : proposed by Thomas 
J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.I. A., Fellow. 

Byrne, Miss, 19, Main-street, Blackrock : proposed by W. F. Wakeman, Hon. 

Conan, Alexander, Mount Alverno, Dalkey : proposed by Henry F. Baker. 

Courtney, Charles Marshall, Mount Minnitt, Ballybrood, Pallasgreen : proposed 
by Jnmes Grene Barry, J.P. 

Cunningham, Miss S. C., Glencairn, Belfast: proposed by Seaton.F. Milligan, 
M.R.I.A., Vice- President. 

Dixon, Henry, jun., 5, Cab ra- terrace, Dublin: proposed by George Coffey, 

K.A.I., M.U.T.A., Fellow. 

Dowling, Jeremiah, sen., M.D., Nelson -street, Tipperary : proposed by the Rev. 
Denis Hanan, D.D. 

Elliott, Rev. Andrew, The Bar, Trillick : proposed by Seaton F. Milligan, M.K.I.A., 
/ 'ice - Presiden t. 

Faren, William, Mount Charles, Belfast : proposed by Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I.A., 
Vice- President. 

Field, William, M.P., Blackrock, Co. Dublin : proposed by W. F. Wakeman, 
Jfun. Fellow. 

Field, Miss, Blackrock, Co. Dublin : proposed by W. F. Wakeman, Hon. Fellow. 

Goddeu, George, Phoenix Park, Dublin : proposed by the Rev. A. D. Purefoy. 

Gore, John, 58, Rutland-square, Dublin : proposed by E. Reginald M'C. Dix. 

Goodbody, Henry P., Obelisk Park, Blackrock: proposed by the Rev. Professor 
Stokes, D.D., M.K.I. A. 

Goodbody, Miss, Obelisk Park, Blackrock : proposed by the Rev. Professor 
Stokes, D.D., M.K.I. A. 


Goodman, Peter, 44, Rutland-square, Dublin : proposed by the Very Rev. Canon 

Greaves, Miss, 12, Rathgar-road, Dublin : proposed by "W. F. "Wakeman, Hon. 

Griffin, J. J., M.D., Waterloo Villa, Greengate, Plaistow, London, E. : proposed 
by John Cooke, M.A., Fellow. 

Hall, Rev. Alexander, B.A., Drogheda: proposed by the Rev. W. T. Latimer, B.A., 

Hemphill, Rev. Samuel, D.D., Birr Rectory, Parsonstown : proposed by the Rev. 
Denis Hanan, D.D. 

Henderson, William A., Belclare, Leinster-road West, Dublin: proposed by 
E. Reginald M<C. Dix. 

Higgins, Patrick, Town Clerk's Office, Town Hall, Waterford : proposed by 
G. D. Burtcliaell, M.A., M.R.I. A., Fellow. 

Julian, James, Lismore House. Tralee : proposed by Miss A. M. Rowan. 

Keith, James, Inspector of National Schools, The Mall, Westport : proposed by 
W. H. Welply. 

Lucas, Rev. Frederick John, P.D., 5, Breffni-terrace, Kingstown : proposed by 
S. A. Quan- Smith. 

Lynch, Rev. James Fetherston, B.A., Cahirconlish Rectory, Pallasgrean : pro- 
posed by James Grene Barry, J.P. 

M'Ciill, Patrick J., T.C., 25, Patrick -street, Dublin : proposed by D. J. 

Meehan, Rev. Joseph, c.c., Belhavel, Dromahaire, Co. Leitrim: proposed 
by the Rev. James O'Laverty, P.P., M.R.I.A., Vice-President. 

Musgrave, James, D.L., Drumglass House, Belfast: proposed by G. D. Buitchaell, 
M.A., M.R.I. A., Fellow. 

O'Malley, Joseph, B.E., 10, Glentworth-street, Limerick: proposed by Michael 

O'Meara, the Rev. Eugene H., Incumbent of Tallaght, The Vicarage, Tallaght, 
Co. Dublin: proposed by the Rev. J. F. M. ifrench, M.R.I.A., Fellow. 

Ryan, Thomas V., Solicitor, 46, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin : proposed by E. 
Reginald M'C. Dix. 

Sandford, Rev. Herbert JE., M.A., Drogheda: proposed by the Rev. Dr. Healy. 

Speth, George William, F.R. HIST, s., La Tuya, Edward Road, Bromley, Kent: 
proposed by W. J. Chetwode Crawley, LL.D., D.C.L. 

Tallon, Thomas, T.C., Drogheda : proposed by Anthony Scott. 

Tuite, James, M.P., 14, Greville-street, Mullingar: proposed by Patrick J. 

Wallace, Major Robert H., Downpatrick : proposed by M. J. Nolan, M.D. 

The Report of the Council was then brought forward, and read as 
follows : 


During the year 18U6, 137 new names were added to the Roll of the Society. 
Deducting the names of those who have died, resigned, or been struck off for non- 
payment of Subscriptions, the Roll now contains the names of 200 Fellows, and 
1146 Members in all 1346 names, being 36 more than at the close of the preceding 

The deaths of six Fellows were reported during the year : Francis Edmund 
Currey, J. p., William John Gillespie, the Most Rev. Dr. Gregg, Lord Primate ; the Earl 
of Limerick, K.P. ; the Rev. Denis Murphy, s.j., Vice - President ; and the Right 
Rev. Dr. Wynne, Bishop of Killaloe. 


The death of the Rev. Denis Murphy has deprived the Society of one of its most 
-active and useful Members. He was elected a Member in 1878, and a Fellow in 
1890, and, at the same time, a Member of the Council, of which he continued an 
ordinary Member until elected, a Vice -President in 1894. A Memoir and Portrait 
have been published in the Journal for 1896, p. 181. The following Papers by him 
have appeared in the Journal : 

" Mungret Abbey, Co. Limerick " (1889), " The Wogans of Rathcoffey " (1890), 
" The Castle of Roscommon " (1891), " The Shrine of St. Caillin of Fenagh " (1892), 
" On the Ornamentation of the Lough Erne Shrine" (1892), " The College of the 
Irish Franciscans at Louvain " (1893), "Notes on Tara" (1894), in conjunction 
with Mr. Westropp, and " The De Verdons of Louth " (1895). He also edited " The 
Annals of Clonmacnoise," issued last year as an Extra Volume. 

Mr. Carrey was for forty years a Member of the Society, having been elected in 
1855 ; he was advanced to a Fellowship in 1871. A Paper by him on " St. Bridget's 
Church, Britway, Co. Cork," was published in the Journal for 1894. 

The deaths of twenty Members have been reported, and the resignations of four 
Fellows and twenty-nine Members have been accepted. As many as forty-one names 
are liable to be removed from the Roll in consequence of owing more than two years' 
subscriptions, and seventy-four Members have not paid any subscription for 1896. 

The Quarterly Meetings for the year 1897 have been fixed as follows : The 
Annual General Meeting in Dublin, on Tuesday, the 12th of January ; the Second in 
Kilkenny on Easter Monday, 19th April; the Third in Mnnster in June or August; 
and the Fourth in Dublin in September. In connexion with these Meetings there 
will be an Excursion to Drogheda on 13th January, the day following the Annual 
General Meeting, and excursions will be arranged in connexion with the other 
Meetings. A sea-trip, the particulars of which are given hereafter, has been arranged 
for the Munster Meeting. 

On the 1st of December the following nominations were duly made for the 
honorary offices now falling vacant, in accordance with the Rules of the Society : 
For President Tli e Right Hon. The 0' Conor Don, M.R.I.A. For Vice- Presidents 
Thomas Drew, K.H.A. (retiring President), for Leinster; W. J. Knowles, M.H.I. A., for 
Ulster; the Rev. J. F. M. ffrench, M.B.I. A., and the Right Hon. A. H. Smith-Barry, 
M.P., for Munster ; and Edward Martyn, D.L., for Connaught. For seats on the Council 
Deputy Surgeon -General King, M.A., M.B., M.R.I.A., Fellow; W. R. Molloy, M.R.I.A., 
Fellow, and J. J. Digges LaTouche, M.A., LL.D., M.R.I.A, Fellow. Also as Honorary 
President His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, K.G., Fellow. As the nominations 
have not exceeded the number of vacancies, no Ballot will be necessary. 

The Rev. Canon Courtenay Moore, who was elected a Member of the Council at 
the last Annual General Meeting, finding that it would not be possible for him to give 
a constant attendance, resigned his seat on the 12th of February, which was filled, on 
the 26th of February, by the co-option of the Rev. Professor Stokes. 

During the year 1896 the Council met twelve times, and the Members attended as 
follows: Mr. Cochrane (Hon. Secretary], 12; Mr. Coffey, 9; Mr. Westropp, 9; 
Dr. Wright, 9 ; Mr. Mills, 8 ; Dr. Joyce, 8 ; Mr. Drew (President), 7 ; Mr. Cooke, 7 ; 
Mr. Kelly, 7 ; Mr. Moore, 6;. Mr. Langrishe, 5 ; Rev. Dr. Healy, 4; Rev. Professor 
Stokes, 4 ; Rev. Mr. ffrench, 3. 

The financial condition of the Society is satisfactory. Messrs. Cooke and Robertson 
have been nominated as Auditors of the Treasurer's Accounts for 1896, and their Report 
will be laid before the Second Quarterly Meeting, in accordance with the Rules. 

Adjourned Meetings have been held in Dublin in connexion with the last 
Quarterly Meeting of the Society, for the purpose of reading and discussing Papers 
unavoidably held over from the Ordinary Meeting. These have proved most success- 
ful, and it is proposed to pursue the same course during the winter. 

The Council hope to have the active co-operation of the Hon. Local Secretaries who 



will be appointed for 1897, in reporting to the Hon. General Secretary upon all 
Antiquarian finds in their districts, and on the state of monuments of antiquity in 
their several localities, with a view to having those structures, so requiring it, brought 
within the provisions of the Ancient Monuments Acts. 

Names removed from the lloll in 1896 : 

Deceased (26). 

FELLOWS (6). F. E. Currey, Member, 1855; Fellow, 1871; W. J. Gillespie, 
Member, 1873; Fellow, 1888; The Most Rev. R. S. Gregg, D.D., Lord Primate, 
Member, 1875; Fellow, 1889; The Right Hon. the Earl of Limerick, K.P., Fellow, 
1877 ; The Rev. Denis Murphy, B.J., LL.D., Member, 1878 ; Fellow, 1890; The Right 
Rev. F. R. Wynne, D.D., Bishop of Killaloe, Eilfenora, Clonfert and Kilmacduagh r 
Fellow, 1894. 

MEMBERS (20). Rear Admiral Alexander, 1892; C. H. Brien, 1890; J. F. 
Calderwood, J.P., 1895; John Campion, 1889; M. J. Clery, J.P., 1889; Henry 
Edwards, 1892 ; The Dowager Lady Fitz Gerald, 1889 ; John M. Fitz Gibbon, 1894 ; 
The Rev. Professor Goodman, M.A., 1880; C. A. Johnstone, L.B.C.P.I., 1891; The 
Rev. J. J. Keon, P.P., 1891; J. J. Laffan, 1890; J. V. Legge, 1892; Denis 
M'Cormack, 1878; Arthur M'Mahon, J.P., 1889; Miss May, 1890; John R. Mus- 
grave, D.L., 1890; The Very Rev. Francis O'Brien, P.P., M.U.I.A., 1885; The Very 
Rev. Canon E. O'Neill, 1894 ; Edward Tipping, J.P., 1895. 

Resigned (33). 

FELLOWS (4). J. G. Barton, Fellow, 1894 ; His Honor Judge Fitz Gerald,, 
Fellow, 1893; F. M. the Right Hon. Viscount Wolseley, K.P., G.C.B., Fellow, 1891 ; 
W. E. Wilson, Member, 1888 ; Fellow, 1889. 

MEMHERS (29). Miss Honor Brooke, 1892; the Very Rev. T. Btmbury, D.D., 
1889 ; the Very Rev. F. Burke, M.A., 1891 ; James Caverhill, 1895 ; Miss Chamney, 
1895; the Rev. J. H. Cole, B.A., 1890; the Rev. W. Colquhoun, M.A., 1896; the 
Rev. J. W. Coulter, B.A., 1895; Alderman John Coyle, 1889; T. C. Dickie, 1889; 
the Rev. F. S. Gardiner, M.A., 1891 ; J. E. Geoghegan, 1894 ; R. H. Geoghegan, 
1894; Mrs. T. G. Houston, 1890; John Langan, 1889; the Newberry Library, 
Chicago, U.S.A., 1892 ; H. V. Macnamara, D.L., 1894 ; the Rev. F. H. J. M'Cormick, 
1889 ; the Rev. J. H. Mervyn, M.A., 1891 ; Andrew Moore, 1890 ; James O'Connor, 
1895 ; M. W. O'Connor, J.P,, 1891 ; the Rev. J. J. O'Grady, 1889 ; the Rev.. L. A. 
Pooler, M.A., 1892; J. H. Robinson, 1893, the Rev. R. Caledon Ross, 1895; Miss 
Rowan, 1888; the Rev. P. R. Staunton, P.P., 1891 ; J. H. Weldon, J.P., 1889. 

The following Members, being upwards of two years in arrear, have 
been taken off the list of those receiving the Society's Publications, but 
will be reinstated on payment of the amount due : 


1890 Atkinson, Henry J., Michigan, U.S.A., .. 1894-1896 

1893 Brew, T. F., F.R.C.S.I., The Cottage, Ennistymon, 1895-1896 

1894 Clancy, John, T.C., Dublin, . . . . . . 1895-1896 

1894 DeCourcy, William, J.P. , Urlingford, .. 1895-1896 

1889 Dixon, W. MacNeile, D. LIT., Mason College, 

Birmingham, .. 

1894 Egan, The Rev. S., c.c., Rush, 

1891 Gallagher, P. M., Donegal, 

1893 Goldon, J. W., M.D., Parsonstown, .. 

1893 Hamilton, Captain J. D., Lagos, West Africa, 

1890 Harris, John, Gal way, 

1888 Hudson, Robert, M.D., Dingle, 
1890 Langan, The Rev. T., D.D., Athlone, 

1895-1896 .. 

1895-1896 .. 

1895-1896 .. 

1895-1896 .. 

1895-1896 .. 

1894-1896 .. 


1895-1896 .. 

1895-1896 .. 







Lynch, The Rev. P. J., c.c., Monaghan, 


.. 1 



Mac Dei-mot, C. E., B. A., Dublin, 


.. 1 



MacNeill, J. G. S., Q.C., M.P., Dublin, 


.. 1 



M'Cartan, M., M.P., Ulster Buildings, Belfast, 


.. 1 


M'Girr, The Rev. P., Aum., Westport, 


.. 1 


M'Grath, The Rev. T., P.P., Clogheen, 


.. 1 


M'Kenna, Very Rev. E. W., P.P., V.F., Cumber 

Claudy, Co. Derry, 


.. 1 


Mercer, Rev. W.Wilson, Stradbally, Queen's Co., 


.. 1 



Nash, Ralph, Limerick, 


.. 1 


Nolan, Rev. C., c.c., 82, Summer-hill, Dublin, 


.. 1 


0' Carroll, F. J., B.A., Hazelhatch, 


.. 2 


O'Connor, C. A., M.A., Q.C., 50, Upper Mount- 

street, Dublin, 


.. 1 


Orr, Cecil, Blackrock, 


.. 1 



Powell, F. Y., M.A., Prof., Christ Church, Oxford, 


.. 1 


Power, Rev. G. B., B.A., Kilfane Glebe, Thomas- 



.. 1 


Pure ell, M., Solicitor, 41, Lr. Sackville-st, Dublin, 


.. 1 


Ridgevvay, W., M.A., Feu Ditton, Cambridge, 


.. 1 


Roe, W. E., Mountrath, 


.. 1 



Sealy, J. H., J.P., Kilbrittain, 


.. 1 


Shanley, Michael, M.D., Atlilone, 


.. 1 


Smith, Rev. Charles, M.A., 


.. 1 


Smith, Christopher, 3, Bellevue- place, Clonmel, 


.. 1 


Smyth, T. J., I.L.B., Burrister, 28, Goldsmith- 

street, Dublin, 


.. 1 


Sullivan, Herbert, J.P., Charleville, .. 


.. 1 



Sutherland, P. F., Municipal Buildings, Cork 

Hill, Dublin, 


.. 1 


Taylor, The Rev. G. B., LL.B., Clontarf, 


.. 1 


Ward, F. E., Belfast, 


.. 1 




Whayman, Horace W., Bellevue, Newport, Ken- 

tucky, U.S.A., .. 


.. 1 


The following publications were received during the year, the 
donors, where not specifically named, being the Councils of the 
respective Societies: 

American Antiquarian Society Journal, vols. x. and xi., Part 1 ; Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Journal, vol. xxv., Parts 3-5; L'Anthropo- 
logie, tomes iii.. iv., v., vi., vii. ; and " Colonies du Mas d'Azil ; Association for the 
Preservation of Memorials of the Dead in Ireland, Report and Index, 1895 (Col. P. D. 
Vigors); Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, Report, vol. iv., Part 3; Bristol and 
Gloucester Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xix., Part 1 ; Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Association, Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1896, Part 50; Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, Proceedings, vol. ix., 1894-95; list of Members, 1896; Chester Architec- 
tural, Archaeological, and Historical Society, vol. v., Part 4; Cork Historical and 
Archaeological Society, Journal, 1896; Hon. Society of Cymmrodorion, Transact ions, 
1894-5; Exeter Diocesan Architectural and Archaeological Society, Transactions; 
Geological Survey of Canada, Report, vol. viii., with maps, catalogue, 1893; Geolo- 
gical Depaitment United States of America, Report, 1892-3, Monographs xxiii., xxiv., 
Bulletins 118-122; Historical State Society of Wisconsin, Report, December, 1895; 


Institute of Civil Engineers of Ireland, vols. xxiii.-xxv. ; Kildare Archaeological 
Society, Journal, 1895; Numismatic Society Journal, 1895, Series iv., vol. xv., Parts 
60-63; Revue Celtique, vol. xvi., No. 4, vol. xvii., Nos. 1-3; Royal Archaeological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. liii., Nos. 209, 210 ; Hoyal Dublin Society, 
Scientific Transactions, August, 1894, September, 1895 ; Proceedings, vol. viii., Parts 
3 and 4 ; Royal Institute of British Architects, Series iii., vol. iii., Nos. 1-20; vol. 
lii., and Calendar, 1896-97 ; Royal Institute of Cornwall, vol. xii., Part 2, xiii., Part 
1; Royal Irish Academy, Transactions, 1896; Proceedings, Series iii., vol. iii., No. 4, 
The Irish Nennius; St. Albans Architectural and Archaeological Journal, 1893-4; 
Sheffield Naturalists Club, Report, 1895; Smithsonian Institution, Reports, 1883, 
1889-90, 1890-91, 1893; List of Publications, 1894; Monographs, xxiii., xxiv. ; 
Bulletins 118, 122; Chinook texts ; Siouan tribes ; Ancient quarry ; Investigations on 
the rivers James and Potomac; Societe d'Archeologie de Bruxelles, Annuaire Tome 
vii. x.; livraison 1-4 to January, 1896; Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
Memoire, Nouvelle Serie, 1895; Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 
1895-6; Foreningen til Nordisk Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring, 1844-94; 1892-3; 
1893-4 ; Nonneseter Klosterruiner, Kunst og Haanverk; Society of Antiquaries of 
London, Proceedings, vol. xv., Nos. 1-3 ; Archaeologia, Series ii., vol. iv. ; Society of 
Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Proceedings, vii., 21-22, 26-34; Archaeologia 
Aeliana, vol. xviii., Parts 46-48, Programmes, &c. ; Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, Proceedings, 1894-5 ; Society of Architects, New Series, vol. i., Nos. 8-10, 
vol. iii., 3-10, vol. iv., 1 ; Society of Biblical Archaeology, xvii., No. 8; xviii., Nos. 1- 
7; Surrey Archaeological Society, vol. xiii., Part 1; "Watcrford and South -East of 
Ireland Society, Journal, vol. ii., 7-9 ; "Wiltshire Archaeological Society, Magazine, 
vol. xxviii., Nos. 84, 85 ; Abstracts of Inquisitions, &c. ; Catalogue of Museum, 1896; 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Parts LIII., LIV., Excursion, September, 1896 ; The 
Artist, January, 1896 (A. Constable & Co) ; Le Comte de Chambord, Le musee 
sociale (President de Foffice Irnperiale des Assurances a Berlin) ; British and American 
Archaeological Society of Rome, vol. ii., No. 5. (Secretary) ; " Castellani de Santelmo 
su document! inediti," by Cavaliere Lorenzo Salazar ; " Storia della famiglia Salazar," 
by same (The Author) ; County records of the surnames of French, &c., by A. D. 
Weld ffrench, Esq. (The Author) ; History of Irish Almanacks and Directories 
(Peter Roe, Esq.) ; The Irish Builder for 1896 (Peter Roe, Esq.) ; The Irish Theo- 
sophist, May, 1896 ; Influence of Literature on Architecture, reprinted from Journal, 
R. I. B. A., by A. T. Boltou (The Author) ; Through the Green Isle, by M. J. Hurley 
{The Author) ; Guide to Youghal and the Blackwater, by David Comyn (Messrs. Purcell 
& Co.) ; Youthful exploits of Fionn, translated from the Psaltair of Cashel by David 
Comyn (M. H. Gill) ; The Reliquary, vol. i., No. 3 ; Folk -Lore : Royal Society of 
Literature of the United Kingdom, 1891. The permanent photographs given to the 
Society, during the year 1896, appear in the Report on the Photographic Survey in 
our Journal, December, 1896. T. J. W. 

On the motion of Count Plunkett, Fellow, seconded by Mr. Garstin, 
Fellow, the Report was unanimously adopted. 

The following nominations having been received by the Hon. General 
Secretary for the offices falling vacant in accordance with Nos. 16 and 17 
of the General Rules of the Society, the Elections were declared as 
follows : 


THE RIGHT HON. O'CoxoR DON, P.C., LL.D., Member, 1869 ; Hon. Provincial 
Secretary for Connaught, 1876; Fellow, 1888; Vice- President, 1886; 
Patron, 1896. 



WILLIAM JAMES KNOWLKS, M.R.I. A., Member, 1872; Fellow, 1886 ; Hon. 
Local Secretary, Antrim, South. 


THOMAS DREW, U.K. A., F.R.I.B.A., Member, 1888; Felloiv, 1889; Vice- 
President, 1889-94 ; President, 1894-97. 


THE REV. J. F. M. FFRENCH, M.R.I.A., Member, 1876 ; Fellow, 1889 ; Member 
of Council, 1894; Hon. Local Secretary, Wicklow, South. 



EDWARD MARTYN, D.L., Member, 1891 ; Fellow, 1896 ; Hon. Local Secretary 
for Galway, 1892 ; Hon. Provincial Secretary for Connaught, 1894. 


WILLIAM R. MOLLOY, j. p., M.R.I. A., Member, 1870; Fellow, 1871; Member 

of Council, 1892-94. 
DEPUTY SURGEON-GENERAL KING, M.A., M.H., M.R.I. A., Member, 1883 ; 

Fellow, 1888; Member of Council, 1891-96. 
JOHN J. DIGGES LA TOUCHE, M.A., LL.D., M.R.I. A., Fellow, 1889 ; Member of 

Council, 1892-96. 


His GRACE THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, K.G., P.C., M.A. (Cantab.), D.C.L., 
Lord President of the Council ; Vice-President of the British Archaeo- 
logical Association, Fellow, 1872 ; Patron, 1895. 

The Rev. Professor Stokes moved, and Deputy Surgeon-General King, 
Felloic, seconded the following Resolution, which was passed unani- 
mously : 

" That the Society regrets to have heard of the death of the RKV. DR. STUBBS, 
Senior Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, who was a regular attendant at all its 
Meetings and Excursions, and requests the Rev. Canon Stoney, the Rev. Mr. 
ffrench, and Dr. Frazer, to represent the Society at his funeral to-morrow." 

The Rev. Canon Stoney said that as the Giant's Causeway was an 
antiquity of Ireland, and an attempt was being made to close it and 
keep it from the people of Ireland, he would like to know if it would be 
in the power of the Council to vote a sum of money towards the project 
for keeping opt-n this interesting monument. Similar grants had 
been made in England. 

The President said it was his belief that it would be in the power of 
the Council to vote a small sum for the purpose, if there was a strong 
expression of opinion that such a thing should be done. It would, he 


was sure, be a national misfortune if the Giant's Causeway were filched 
from them. 

The Rev. Canon Stoney then proposed a resolution directing the 
attention of the Council to the desirability of subscribing a sum, to be 
agreed upon, towards the movement for having the Giant's Causeway 
kept open to the public. 

Dr. Frazer, who seconded the motion, said he thought that this 
would be a proper step for the Council to take. He thought the gentle- 
men in .Belfast who had kindly undertaken to fight this battle on behalf 
of the public were deserving of the cordial thanks of this Society. They 
should all strongly protest against any restrictions of the rights of the 
public in connexion with the Giant's Causeway. 

The motion was carried. 

The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council : 

By MR. KNOWLES " On portion of an Ancient Harp from the Crannoge of 

Carncroagh, Co. Antrim." 
By DR. FRAZER " Irish Gold Ornaments." 
By the REV. MR. LETT" The Dorsey, Co. Armagh." 
By MAJ ou- GENERAL STUBBS, R.A. " On the Monastic History of Dromiskin,. 

Co. Louth." 

The Meeting adjourned at 5.30 p.m. 

The Members of the Dinner Club, with several other Members of 
the Society, to the number of 41, dined together, at the Shelbourne 
Hotel, at 6 o'clock. 


After Tea, in the Council Room of the llo\ al Dublin Society, the 

Society again met at 8 o'clock, p.m. ; 

THOMAS DREW, K.H.A., F.K.I.B.A., outgoing President, in the Chair. 

The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council. 

By the REV. STERLING DE COURCY WILLIAMS "The History of Durrow, King's- 

County." Illustrated with Lantern Slides. 
By COLONEL VIGORS "Notarial Signs Manual." 
By MR. KNOWLES " Survivals of the Palaeolithic Age among Irish Neolithic 


The Meeting then adjourned to "Wednesday evening, the 24th of 
1'ebruary, at 8 o'clock. 


An adjourned Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday 
evening, 24th February, 1897, in the Royal Dublin Society's House 
(by permission), Kildare- street, at 8.15 p.m. ; 

The President, THE RIGHT HON. O'CoNon DON, in the Chair. 

The following Vice-Presidents, Fellows, and Members were 
present : 

Fellows : Rev. J. F. M. ffrench, M.K.I. A., rice - President ; Lord Walter Fitx 
Gerald, Vice- President ; Thomas Drew, PV..H.A. Vice- President ; Col. Philip D. Vigors, 
J.P., V ice- President ; llobert Cochrane, Hon. General Secretary ; Robert Lloyd Wooll- 
combe. LL.D., M.K.I. A.; Thomas J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.T.A. ; Henry King, M.A., 
M.B., M.U.T.A. ; E. P. Wright, M.D., M.U.I. A. ; Wm. R. J. Molloy, J.P., M.K.I. A. ; 
James Mills, M.R.I. A. ; George Coffey, B.E., M.R.I. A. ; Judge Kane, LL.D., M.R.I.A. ; 
G. A. P. Kelly; Andrew Robinson, C.E. ; R. Langrishe, J.P., Kilkenny; P. J, 
Lynch, C.E., Limerick; J. G. Robertson, Architect; Dean of St. Patrick's ; J. J. 
Digges La Touche, LL.D. 

Members : H. F. Berry, M.A. ; Joseph H. Moore, C.E. ; Miss K. L. King ; Francis 
P. Thunder ; Richard J. Kelly, B.L. ; Valentine Dunne ; Richard J. Dunne ; J. 
Charles; Rev. W. W. Campbell, M.A. ; Mrs. Shackleton; William C. Stubbs : H. A. 
Cosgrave; Mrs. E. W. Smyth; A. H. Braddell ; Frederick Franklin; M.Edward 
Conway ; J. Robertson ; Newton B. Ashley ; S. A. Quan-Smith; John Carolin, J.P. ; 
J. B. Cassin Bray; Miss Edith Oldham ; D. J. O'Donoghue ; P. J. M'Call, T.C. ; 
J. Poe Dalton; C. J. M'Neill ; Joseph Gough, &c. 

There was a large attendance of Visitors. 

0' Conor Don, on taking the Chair, said : 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, My first duty this evening must be the very 
agreeable one of thanking you for the honour you have conferred on me 
in unanimously electing me as your President. This duty ought 
probably to have been performed at an earlier date, but other engage- 
ments left it out of my power to be present at your Annual Meeting 
when my name was first brought before you. The compliment paid to 
me by this selection was as unexpected as 1 fear it was undeserved ; for 
although I have been a Member of this Association for over a quarter of 
a century, circumstances have hitherto prevented my taking that active 
part in your proceedings and deliberations which I should have wished 
to do, and which might have entitled me to be thought of when 
the time had arrived for the election of a new President. Having 
thus no personal claim to the high position in which you have placed me 
I must look for some other reason for my selection, and I may find it in 
the fact that I have been, for many years, one of the representatives on 
your governing body of the distant province of Connaught, and that in 
selecting your Presidents yOu desire to show that the Society now 
embraces every portion of this country. As we all know, this Associa- 
tion was originally founded mainly in connexion with the city and 


county of Kilkenny; it next extended to the south-eastern portion of 
Ireland, and subsequently, within a very few years, it took within its 
influence and labours the whole of our country. Notwithstanding this, 
naturally, for many years the majority of its Members were connected 
with that portion of Ireland where the Association was founded, and 
your first Presidents, and the acting Members of your Council were 
mainly taken from residents in the eastern and south-eastern districts. 
The Society has, however, now become a national one. You have, I 
believe, Members from every county in Ireland, and the interest in your 
work is propagated and maintained in every portion of the island, 
through the provincial meetings and excursions which annually take 
place. I may then safely assume that in selecting your President on 
this occasion from the ancient kingdom of Connaiight you desire to show 
the extent to which your Association has become national, and the 
compliment you have paid to me I willingly accept on behalf of my 
native province. Apart altogether from the merits or demerits of the 
individual whom you may select, there is, however, one disadvantage 
connected with the selection of your President from a distant portion 
of the country, and that is, that his attendance at your Meetings cannot 
be of that regular and constant character which the head of an Associa- 
tion like this ought to give. I feel this particularly in my own case. 
My other avocations, and the fact that I reside so little in Dublin will 
prevent me, I fear, from taking part in your proceedings, and presiding 
at your Meetings as often as your President ought to do, and I must in 
the very beginning prepare you for this, and ask for your forbearance. 
It would give me the greatest pleasure to attend here regularly, and I 
know that I should find the pursuit and study of your archasological 
investigations most engrossing; but circumstances will not permit this, 
and I fear that whilst your President hails from Connaught, he must be 
represented by deputy at many of your Meetings ; but whilst absent in 
person I can assure you that he will be with you in spirit, and that any 
assistance he can render to the Association will most willingly be given. 
When notified that I had been elected as your President my first 
thoughts turned towards my duties on taking the chair, and I hoped to 
have been able, in an Inaugural Address, to have laid before you a short 
account of this Association since its infancy, of the progress it had made, 
of the good work which it had accomplished, of its objects, and how 
they had been attained. This, perhaps ambitious, programme I have 
been obliged for the present to lay aside. Probably a more fitting 
opportunity may soon be given for its realisation. 

Just now, beyond returning you my thanks, I shall be very brief in 
my observations. I would, however, ask you to remember the objects 
for which this Association was formed. They were clearly defined in 
the beginning, and have been ratified repeatedly since then. They were 
threefold, viz. : To preserve, examine, and illustrate all ancient monu- 


inents of the history, language, arts, manners, and customs of our 

I will not now stop to examine, in detail, how these objects can be 
best accomplished. T wish to deal merely with one of the most effective 
means towards obtaining the end which we have in view, and that is the 
dissemination of knowledge amongst the peasantry and ordinary popula- 
tion of the country, in regard to those ancient monuments. I regret to 
say that I fear such knowledge, instead of increasing, is on the wane. 
It may be true that at the top of the social and literary ladder archaeo- 
logical knowledge has made, and is making, great strides, and that 
amongst learned men more is known of the origin and true use of the- 
ancient monuments scattered over the land than in former days, but 
amongst the population at large I fear the reverse of this is the case. 
Strange as it may seem, education, popularly so called, seems to be 
driving out all local traditions and all local knowledge of the different 
interesting and wonderful remains connected with the past history and 
manners and customs of the former inhabitants of this island. Some 
generations ago every child in a parish knew of the existence of the old 
forts and raths and crornleachs, of the ruined castles and abbeys, within 
that parish. Some history, some legend, some tradition, or some fairy 
tale was attached to each. To every generation, as it grew up, the 
traditions of the past were handed down, mixed up, no doubt, with 
fabulous and mysterious stories, but still traditions with some ground- 
work of truth traditions that kept alive an interest, a wondering 
respectful interest, in these ancient remains. In the long winter 
evenings the children, gathered round the fires in the humble cottages 
of the people, were entertained with marvellous stories of the past, with 
histories of the giants of former ages, and of the wars and battles waged 
in their own particular locality histories and stories often intermingled 
with the sayings and doings of the fairies, or the " good people," and all 
connected in some shape or form with the tangible ruins and remains 
within the district. Such stories, or such gossip, containing more poetry 
than prose, yet kept alive ancient traditions, and preserved a local 
knowledge which unfortunately is now fast dying out. At the present 
day, in some parts of Ireland, 1 may say there is scarcely any knowledge 
even of the existence of those ancient monuments in the localities where 
they are to be found. 

Our country almost everywhere is studded over with most interesting 
landmarks of its past history, either forts, or raths, or pillar- stones, or 
ancient castles, or ruined churches, beautifully carved crosses, towers, or 
sepulchral remains, yet if a stranger were to ask the present generation 
of the inhabitants of some of these districts where he could find a par- 
ticular monument which he wished to examine, he would obtain little or 
no guidance from them. The child every day passes these monuments 
going to and coming from his national school, he never gives a thought to 


them, lie hears nothing of them at school, and he knows more about the 
situation of the rivers in South America, or the mines in Western 
Australia, than he does of the national monuments existing within a few 
hundred perches of his father's door. The evenings are now spent in 
preparing the school work for the next day. The teachers, as a rule, 
know nothing about the remains of the past, and the national school 
children, that is to say the whole rural population, are now growing up 
in absolute ignorance of the very existence of any monument requiring 
explanation. The children, no doubt, see these forts and raths and 
sepulchral remains and ruins, but they see nothing in them to inquire 
about. They pass them as they would pass a field of grass, giving as 
little thought to their origin as they give to the wonderful mystery of 
how the grass grows, or the trees and shrubs put forth buds and leaves 
in the spring and early summer. All the old stories and traditions and 
history of the past are dying out, and local knowledge of the local events 
of even two or three centuries ago is almost gone. Well, I cannot help 
thinking that this is a great misfortune, and that through it one of the 
most potent means of preserving, examining, and illustrating our ancient 
monuments is fast slipping out of our hands. Cun we do anything to pre- 
vent this, and if so, might not some of our energies be usefully employed 
in the attempt ? We have heard a great deal lately of all that may be 
learned by watching sharply and imitating the example set by the Danes. 
Denmark has been represented as a country very much like Ireland in 
regard to the avocations of the people, and Danish butter and Danish 
bacon have been driving our produce out of British, and even out of Irish, 
markets. It is not alone with regard to agricultural pursuits that we 
may learn something from our northern neighbours. Pig-sticking and 
milk -skimming are not the only pursuits in which apparently their example 
may benefit us. I was much struck lately by reading an account given 
in the very first number of your Journal si the care the Danes have taken 
in preserving a local knowledge of their ancient monuments, and of the 
success which has attended their efforts. With your permission I will 
read a few extracts from the observations contained in this Journal. They 
are as follows : " In the course of an admirable address, delivered to the 
members of the lloyal Irish Academy, by that eminent Danish antiquary, 
Mr. J. A. Worsaae, it was stated that amongst the other methods used 
in order to awaken the people of Denmark to a sense of the importance 
of national antiquities, the lloyal Society of Northern Antiquaries in 
Copenhagen had published illustrated tracts explanatory of popular 
antiquities, with instructions as to the best way of preserving them, 
many thousand copies of which were spread gratuitously over the face 
of the country, amongst the clergy, schoolmasters, and peasants. This 
measure has been attended with the most ample success. The importance 
and interest of the ancient monuments of Denmark are now universally 


acknowledged, and the formation of a museum of national antiquities un- 
equalled in Europe has been the result." Your Council at that day, 
nearly fifty years ago, went on to say : "It was much to be wished that 
this admirable example had long ere now been followed in this country. 
The Kilkenny Society feels that it would ill discharge one of the chief 
ends of its formation did it not endeavour, as far as its limited means and 
humble sphere of operations will admit, to diffuse amongst the people a 
spirit similar to that so successfully excited in Denmark, and by the 
means there found to be so effective." " Neither let it be said that such 
subjects as fairy lore and the traditions of the peasantry are trivial and 
unimportant ; on the contrary, the most eminently learned men of this 
and other nations have acknowledged their great value in connexion with 
the study of the early history of mankind, and in assisting to unravel 
the tangled web of primeval mythology." Being at that time only in 
their infancy, they go on to suggest a number of most searching and 
useful queries to be distributed throughout the country with the object 
of obtaining all possible local information as to the existence, situation, 
and condition of the various ancient monuments scattered over the king- 
dom. Nearly fifty years have passed since the lines which 1 have read to 
you were penned, and since those queries were drawn out for distribution. 
During those years a vast amount of information has been collected. Most 
valuable papers have been from time to time prepared and read at the 
various meetings of the Association, but the information contained in 
these papers for the most part lies buried here, there, and everywhere in 
your volumes, and if anyone wants to find out what information the 
Association has succeeded in obtaining with regard to the historical 
monuments of any particular portion or district of the country, thousands 
of pages have to be gone over, with perhaps an unsatisfactory result in 
the end. Have we not now arrived at a period when something more 
might be done to utilise the information already gathered together, and 
to make it more generally diffused amongst our people ? It seems to me 
that if our funds permitted it, much might be done by a reprint of many 
of these papers to which I have alluded, locally arranged, so that all 
dealing with a particular district or locality might be placed together ; 
and if such were published in pamphlet form and distributed through the 
teachers to different schools in country places, a lively interest might 
be created in the monuments daily seen by the pupils, and local knowledge, 
which is so slight at present, might be revived. I throw this out merely 
<is a suggestion for the consideration of those better informed than I am 
as to the possibilities of carrying it out. But certainly I am of opinion 
that some steps should be taken to revive that local interest which is fast 
disappearing, and which if not revived will soon be extinct. I said in 
the beginning this evening that my remarks should be brief, and I must 
keep to that engagement. We shall soon, I trust, be celebrating the 
jubilee of this Association, and let us endeavour in the short time that 

JOUR. K.S.A.I., VOL. VII., PT. I., 5'1'H SER. H 


will elapse before that event to do everything that we can to show that 
the Association has accomplished some of the objects for which it was 
founded, and that it can worthily and with pride enter on such celebration. 
The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council for 
publication : 

"The Tomb of Baine and the Inscribed-stones at Knockmaney, Co. Tyrone." 
Illustrated with Lantern Slides. By Mr. George Coffey, M.R.I. A., Fellow. 

" St. Maiy's Cathedral, Limerick : its Plans and Canopied Tombs," by Mr. T. J. 
"Westropp, M.A., M.K.I. A., Fellow. 

The Meeting adjourned until the 19th of April, 1897, at Kilkenny. 

WEDNESDAY, 13th January, 1897. 

LEAVING the railway station, in a few minutes ST. MARY'S CHURCH was 
reached. The present church, founded 1807, occupies the site of 
an older church, which took the place of the Carmelite Monastery, of 
which a small portion is still standing. The oldest tombstone is dated 
1525, and bears the names of Delahoyd and Hill. A very well-preserved 
portion of the old town-wall of Drogheda bounds the churchyard on the 
southern side. On the eastern side, and overlooking " the Dale," the 
portion of the wall representing "Cromwell's Breach" is seen. 
" Cromwell's Mound " stood on the opposite side of the Dale. 

Not far from St. Mary's is "the MILLMOUNT." A martello tower 
stands on an ancient tumulus, usually classed along with Dowth and New 
Grange, and believed to be "the grave of the wife of Gobban." It is 
conjectured that Turgesius, the Dane, made this his headquarters (in the 
ninth century). Here Cromwell put the garrison to the sword, llth 
September, 1649. 

THE CASTLE OF DROGHEDA, erected in the twelfth century, shortly 
after the English invasion, stood in the "Bull King." In 1234 a 
murage charter was granted. Further subsidies were granted in 1279, 
1296, and 1316, for repairs of walls and towers. 

On the north side of the town, and close to " Sunday's Gate," is the 
" MAGDALENE STEEPLE," remnant of the Dominican Abbey of St. Mary 
Magdalene, founded in 1224 by Lucas de Netterville. 

Here, in 1395, the four Ulster chieftains, O'Neill, O'Donnell, 
O'Hanlon, and Mac Mahon did homage to Richard II. In 1494 
" Poynings' Law " was enacted here by the Parliament of the Pale. 

In the COURTHOUSE there were seen :- 

number : the largest, ti modern round steel seal, worked by a lever, has 
a portion of the arms of the town, with the legend, "Municipal 
Corporation of Drogheda." The second is one beautiful piece of corne- 

1 By the llev. Herbert Sandford, M.A., the Rev. E, B. Fitzmaurice, O.S.F., and 
the Rev. Alexander Hall, K.A. 

I 1 


lian, about 3 inches long by -inch square ; it has the whole of the arms 
of the Corporation of Drogheda, with the motto: "Deus Praesidium. 
Mercatura Decus." The engraving of this seal is exquisite. It is small, 
yet every line and letter of arms and motto are most distinct. The third 
and smallest seal is likewise one piece of cornelian ; it has the cres t of 
the town (a crescent, with a star between the horns), and the ino tto, 
" Deus Praesidium," etc. 

2. THE MAPS. These are two. The better one, dated 1778, made 
by Taylor and Skinner, is very clear in every detail. The second one, 
which may be a century older, is the celebrated " Newcomen " map, 
which D' Alton has roughly sketched in his "History of Drogheda." 

3. THE SWORD (Civic). This in itself is not remarkable as a work of 
art. The blade is fastened by rust into the scabbard, which is of leather, 
with silver-gilt mountings, bearing, at intervals, the arms of the Order of 
the Garter, with the motto " Honi soit qui mal y pense." The boss of the 
hilt is of silver gilt ; the bar is a piece of silver gilt, with some wretched 
attempts at line-engraving. No date can be assigned to this sword, but 
the right of the Mayor of Drogheda to have it borne before him, dates 
back to the year 1463 or thereabouts, when Edward IV. was king. 

4. THE MACE. This bears its date upon itself in the letters W R, 
which mean, of course, WilJielmus Rex, or William III. This mace, 
which is one of the finest in Ireland, is of very pure silver and of Irish 
manufacture. The ornamentation about the knob is in repousse work, 
and along the shaft in bad engraving. Portions of the mace which were 
broken, probably by some former careless mace-bearer returning to the 
Tholsel after some banquet at the Mayoralty House, were cleverly replaced 
in lead by some local smith, whether silver, black, or tin smith, history 
sayeth not. 

5. THE CHARTERS. These are two : One, by King James II., in the 
year 1687 ; the other by King William III. soon after the Battle of the 

ST. PETER'S CHURCH is approached through very massive and handsome 
wrought-iron gates of modern date. The churchyard is an old cemetery 
containing several interesting tombs, notably, those bearing the nam es of 
Goldynge, Darditz, and Elcock. The church itself (1748) is, externally, 
rather distinguished for massiveness than beauty, the architecture being 
of the mixed style characteristic of many of the churches of that date. 
The interior of the church is fine, with pillars, galleries, and wainscoting 
of oak. It contains several objects of antiquarian interest. 

The Communion Plate is very fine, having been presented by Sir 
Henry Tichbourne in the year 1667. The most interesting monuments 
in the church are those of Francis Leigh, the Right Hon. Henry 
Singleton, Rev. John Magee, and Bishop Pullen. 

Lunch was served at 2 p.m., in the Mayoralty Rooms (by permission of 
the Mayor), who was present as a guest, and in the afternoon, before leaving, 
the Members had tea in the Rectory, kindly provided by Mrs. Sandford. 







earliest mention of Dromiskin, or, as it would be more correctly 
spelt now, Drumiskin, is the establishment there of a church, or 
monastery, by St. Patrick : 

" Extruxit etiam ecclesiam, postea celebrem, quae Druim-Inisclainn, 1 ap- 
pellatuv, in regione de Delbna ; in qua etiam duo ex ejus discipulis, nempe Da- 
Luanus de Croebheach et Lugadius ^Enghusio, Natfraichi filio, Mumoniae Rege, 
natus." 2 

to which Colgan appends this note : 

" Nobile Monasterium de Druim inis clinn (Canonicorum, ut puto, Regula- 
rium) est in ea Comitatus Luthensis parte quse hie Delbna appellatur, et est 
juxta civitatem Pontanam" 

a remark which, evidently, misled Archdall, Lanigan, and others, as to 
its position, which they assigned to Drumshallon, within four miles of 
the municipal bounds of Drogheda. 3 

1 Druim-Ineasglainn . . . The place is now called in English Drumiskin, but 
always Druminisklin by the natives of the Fews and Cuailgne, who speak the Irish 
very 'fluently. " Ann. Q. M.," A.D. 788, Note. 

2 Trias Thaum. Sept. Vita XII. The name Delvin is now limited to a barony in 
the north part of tbe county Westmeath. 

3 The word "juxta," used by Colgan, might be applied to a place fourteen 
statute miles distant. He evidently means it was somewhere near the civil limits of 

JOUlt. U.S. A. I., VOL. VII., I'T. II., OTH SKK. 



The neighbouring- abbey of Louth maintained its ecclesiastical posi- 
tion much longer than did that of Dromiskin. It may appear improbable 
that two churches, eacji in tended. -to-^ena centre of missionary work in a 
c ountry on ly diml^ illuminated by a glimmer of Christianity, should have- 
been established and built about the same time, at Dromiskin and at Louth, 
within six miles of each other, but it is really not so. The fertile plain 
of Muirtheimhne was a granary for the marsh and forest country on its- 
west, which grew ' comparatively little corn, and for the mountainous 
districts to the north, which mostly reared cattle. The beauty of its 
gently undulating surface attracted the notice of the apostle as he 
travelled northwards from Munster, after his seven years' sojourn there. 
Dromiskin lay close to the high road leading to Ulster, along the shore 
of Dundalk bay. It seems evident that the founding of a church at 
Dromiskin must be assigned to this time, for the first presiding bishop or 
abbot of the establishment was Lugaidh, son of ^Enghus, King of 
Munster, who had been baptized by St. Patrick, at Cashel, while he was- 
in the South of Ireland. Colgan mentions another disciple of the saint 
as being at Dromiskin at the same time, Dalua, or Molua of Creevah, 1 
but of him we know nothing further here. Lugaidh is numbered among 
the saints of Ireland. He died A.D. 515 or 516, and his festival is 
November 2nd. 2 

Many suppose that the monastery at Louth was senior, in point of 
time, to that at Dromiskin ; but, as St. Patrick seems to have left Ard 
Patrick 3 for Armagh, while Mochta was engaged in building it, there is 
every reason to conclude that Dromiskin abbey was then already built, 
and the fact that a son of the royal house of Munster was appointed to 

1 "Do-Lue of Croibech, and Lugaid, son of Oengus, son of Natfraech, it is they 
who, of Patrick's household, are in Druim Inisclaind in Delbna." " Tripartite Life,'* 
p. 77. Colgan Latinizes tlie name as Da-luanus. 

2 Colgan, in giving a list of those saints who had enlightened Ireland by the- 
sanctity of their lives, mentions Lugadius, and says he hud two festival days May 
12th (Menologium Geneal. Martyr. Tallaght : Marian 0' Gorman) ; and November 2nd 
(Marian O'Gorman), the latter being the day celebrated at Drumiskin. " Acta SS.,"" 
p. 162, Note 1. 

3 This may, I think, be gathered from that part of the "Tripartite Life " (Trias. 
Thaum., chaps. 65- 67) where it is stated that St. Patrick came to the people of Fer- 
Ross (Carrickmacross), and proposed building a church at Druimmor, near to which a 
church, afterwards called Cluain Chaoin (Clunkeen), was subsequently built, when an 
angel admonished him that not there, but at another place towards the north, com- 
monly named Macha, the Lord was pleased that his church should be. But that as 
Clonkeen was a pleasant spot, a foreign saint, native of Britain, would eivct one 
there. " On hearing this, Patrick gave thanks, and retired to a certain hill not 
far distant, towards the east, ' where he founded a church, called Ard Patrick.' " While- 
there, at "the monastery of Ard, St. Mocteus, by nation a Briton, built a monastery 
in a neighbouring place, commonly called Lugnjha. . f . They were wont to meet 
each other often near a certain flagstone, called Leach Mocth, and to discourse of 
things relative to God." St. Patrick, in obedience to a second celestial messenger, 
left Louth for Armagh, consigning to the care of St. Mochta twelve lepers. So far 
the "Tripartite" account. Nothing is said .about the monastery at Dromiskin, but 
this seems to show that it was then an established centre of work. It never, how- 
ever, was as large as Louth, under St. Mochta, seems to have become. An ancient 


rule over it, seems to show that it was intended to he a place of some 
importance. There could not, however, as far as the records tell us, 
have "been much difference, in point of time, between the founding of 
the two monasteries. 

The next abbot at Dromiskin, of whom we have any account, though 
he was not the next in succession, was Ronan, son of Berach. Berach 
was a disciple of St. Dagceus, bishop of Inis Chaoin (Iniskeen), about the 
middle of the sixth century. 1 A miracle, performed by him, similar to 
Elisha's, in 2 Kings iv. 42-44, as we are told, caused his master to say 
he was unworthy of such a pupil ; and on his leaving, Dagceus gave him 
a short staff (Bacull gearr), and a bell, which, under the name of Clog- 
beraigh, was preserved, as a relic, at Cluan da lochia. 2 However this 
may be, after leaving Iniskeen, he entered into the monastic state at 
Glendalough, and died Abbot of Cluain-Cairpthe, 8 in Roscommon. 

St. Ronan was a more remarkable character than his predecessor, 
St. Lugaidh, of whom we have but little more than his name and royal 
pedigree. His name occurs in history ; he was venerated for a long 
time after his death, and is still remembered by a holy well at Dromiskin 
bearing his name. He is said to have suffered an indignity at the hands 
of Suibhne, son of Colman Cuar, prince of Dalaradia, whom he denounced; 
in consequence of which Suibhne went mad after the battle of Magh 
Rath (Moira). 4 If, according to Tighernach, this battle was fought in 
A.D. 637, St. Ronan must have been abbot before that year, and the period 
of his rule must have been a long one. 

In the year 664 a pestilence, which broke out first in England, 5 made 

poem, quoted by the Q. M. (A.D. 534) and by Colgan ("Acta Sanct.," page 734), 
describes it as very wealthy : 

" Not poor was the family of Mochta, of Louth's fort, 
Three hundred priests and one hundred bishops along with him, 
Sixty singing elders composed his royal noble household, 
They ploughed not, they reaped not, they dried not corn, 
They laboured not, save at learning only." 

Another reading for Seanoir, elders, is Searclaun, youths. Ard Patrick is 1200 yards 
S.E. ot the Abbey. It never was a parish, and the church, a small building, the walls 
of which are only a foot or two high, completely hidden now by vegetation, on the edge 
of an abrupt slope on a hill, is evidently very ancient. 

We must recollect that a monastery or an abbey does not represent a sixth-century 
fact, as we understand the mediaeval term. A roughly-built stone church of moderate 
dimensions, a refectory, cells, built of stones or mud, for the brothers, multiplied 
as their numbers increased, and an oratory for their superior, enclosed with a 
stone wall, constituted, piobably, the whole. The illustration 011 next page, of the 
Oratory of St. Mochta, close to the Louth Abbey, gives a fair idea of such a building. 
It is, I grieve to say, still unenclosed, and cattle make sad havoc of one of the most 
interesting relics of St. Patrick's time. Lord Louth told me he would endeavour 
to have it railed in, bnt the farmer on whose land it is should not require either 
inducement or instruction to have this done. 
"ActaSS.,"pp. 348 and 374. 

! Trias Thaum. Now Glendalough, in the county of Wicklow. 

3 Now Kilbarry, parish of Termonbarry. Lanigan, xiv. 6. 
" Battle of Magh Rath," note, p. 175. 

5 Lanigan, xvii., note 162, quoting Bede, L 3, c. 27. 

I 2 

St. Mochtv's Oratory at Loutl). 


its appearance in Ireland. Irish writers call it Buidhe Chonnuil, or the 
Yellow Jaundice. Among its numerous victims, St. Ronan's name is 
recorded. He died, November 18th. 1 His relics, which we may presume 
had been carefully preserved at Dromiskin, were, one hundred and 
thirty-two years afterwards, placed in a shrine of gold and silver. 2 But 
the Danes were even then coming into Ireland ; forty -three years after 
that they had begun plundering in Louth, and it must have fallen into 
their hands soon after. 

The names of only five other abbots are recorded in the Annals as 
belonging to Dromiskin, viz : 

Muirchiu, . . , . . Died 826. 

Tighernach, son of Muireadhach, . ,, 876 [878]. 3 

Cormac, son of Fionamhail, . . ,, 887. 

Muireadhach, son of Cormac, . . ,, 90S. 4 

Maenach, son of Muireadhach, . . ,,978. 

The last-mentioned must have lived in very troublous times, depend- 
ent as he was for his existence upon the Danes, who seem to have held 
the place for many years. He was probably in office in the year 968, 
when both Dromiskin and Louth, then in their hands, were attacked and 
plundered ; first by Muircheartach, son of Domhnall ua Niall, king of 
Ireland, and then by Murchadh ua Flaithbheartaigh, surnamed Glunillar 
(of the eagle-knee). 

The subsequent history of Dromiskin as a monastery does not appear 
in any of the Annals. No more abbots are recorded. Its position 
rendered it specially liable to be overrun and plundered. The buildings 
could hardly have been otherwise than in a ruinous condition by the end 
of the tenth century, and the monks who outlived the troubles probably 
did not consider it advisable to restore them, and we may suppose 
dispersed themselves among other places which afforded them better 
shelter and more security. Whatever revenues this abbey had become 
possessed of lapsed, as we will presently see, to that of Louth, which 
managed to preserve its ecclesiastical possessions till all such foundations 
were dissolved. 

The accompanying plan, p. 106, will show the relative positions of the 
Cloigthc ach or bell-tower at Dromiskin, and the remains of the old church, 
which stands on a part of the ancient abbey, probably the chancel end. 

1 " Acta SS.," p. 141. 2 " Ann. Q. M.," sub anno 796. 

3 "Extenso dolore pausavit." "Ann. Q. M." 

4 He was killed in the refectory of Dromiskin along with Gairbhith, son of 
faelmoidha, Tanist of Conaille Muirtheimhne by Conghalach, lord of that district. 

" this Abbot it was said : 

"Muireadhach, who does not lament him, ye learned, 

It is a cause of human plague, it is a cloud to sacred heaven, 

Great loss is the illustrious man, sou of Cormac, of a thousand charms, 

The great and well tested relic, who was the lamp of every choir " 











fe DARVtR 



Maps of the Parish of Droinislcin and places adjoining. 




Not long ago, some men in digging for a grave came upon some masonry 
which, from the description given to me, seemed to be part of a wall at 
the junction of the chancel with the main building, but it was covered 
up before I could get down to examine it. A spot connected with 
associations of the great Apostle of Ireland is, naturally enough, sought 
after as a burial-place by all who can establish even the most distant 

Round Tower, Dromiskin, Co. Louth. (From a Photograph by Miss Chamney.) 

right to interment there. So that it is not likely that any excavations 
will bring to light much of the ancient building. 

The tower, of the ninth century, is unique in its proportion, being 
not more than about 55 feet high, with a diameter of nearly 17 feet, 
and a height sufficient to overlook the bay and surrounding country. 
Above, the four large openings command views, northward towards 



Dundalk ; southward, and across the bay eastward, from which points 
Danish foes might be expected; and westward towards Louth. A little 
below the western one, facing W.N.W., is a small angular-headed 
opening like that in the Tower of Kells, figured at p. 414, Petrie's 
" Round Towers of Ireland." The conical top had lost some few 
stones, which were replaced by the Public Works Department in 1879. 
A cabin built against it was removed about 1840, and a doorway had at 
that time been broken into it, and it was used as a dwelling-place ; but 
when my father came as rector to the parish, he evicted the tenant, and 
the opening was since then built up. The doorway, 4 feet 3 inches in 
height, was originally flanked by two pillars, but no trace of these has 
been found. A fragment of a spiral pillar in the graveyard, part of the 
original building perhaps, does not belong to the tower. Two projecting* 
stones, on either side of the doorway, level with the spring of the arch, 
must have once been carved, but they are too much weather-worn to 
judge what form they bore. 

Next to the tower, the most ancient object is a broken cross, of 
which an illustration is given. Only the arms remain. It is of granite, 
brought, I should think, from the quarries, still worked at Goraghwood, 
a junction on the line of railway, north of Dundalk. It was said to 
have been brought from the seaside at a place formerly known as Baltray, 
which will be presently adverted to. This is probable, as there was a 

burial-place there many 
hundred years ago. I 
cannot but think from 
the figures carved upon 
it, which represent war 
on one arm, the chase of 
a deer on the other, that 
it was set up to mark 
the spot where Aedh 
Pinnliath, son of Mall 
Caille, King of Temhair, 
and Monarch of Ireland, 
was laid to rest : '* He 
died at Druim - inas- 
glainn, in the territory 
of Conaille, on the 12th 
of the Kalends of De- 
cember, on the 6th day 
of the week." 1 This 

. , . n , m would have been the 

Doorway of Dromiskin Round lower. 

21st of December, 8/9. 

The cross certainly was not put up for an abbot, and Hugh of the fair beard 


1 "Chronicon Scot.," p. 167. 



is the only very eminent warrior of whose death here we are told. What 
we know of him shows that his character was a devout one, and a cross 

Front of Cross, Dromiskin Churchyard, Co. Louth. 

the appropriate monument for him. 1 I offered a reward for the other 
portions of the cross, but unsuccessfully. It lias for three or four 
generations been used as a headstone by a family of the name of Lawless 

Keverse Side of Celtic Cross, Dromiskin, Co. Louth. (With broken parts restored.) 

in the neighbouring parish of Killincoole. The Public Works Depart- 
ment offered to set it up, but nothing more than this fragment could be 

1 His victory over the Danes at Cill ui-n-Daighre (Killineer) is described as due to 
his piety ("Wars G. G.," p. Ixxxviii) ; and his eldest son, Domhnall, went on a 
pilgrimage in 906 (" Ann. Q. M.," hut 910 by Ann. Ult.). 


found ; the family which had appropriated it did not seem very anxious 
about it, and the proposal fell through. 

I have put down on the map of the abbey and its vicinity two spots 
where there may have been cells of the monks. Only an examination 
of them by excavation, they being all now underground, could ascertain 
the truth of this. I proceeded on a merely verbal and hearsay descrip- 
tion of what were evidently small square stone buildings, some con- 
nected together by a passage. 

Round the larger centres of church-work other smaller centres 
gathered themselves. Independent though, in some instances, they may 
have been, they naturally became, in time, portions of a common district. 
It would be difficult, if not impossible, to assign a date for the formation, 
or to fix the exact limits, of a diocese or a parish. They were not 
created by the act of any one body, or of any one person, but grew up by 
degrees. Some clue, however, is given in the records of title of abbeys 
and churches to the tithes and other ecclesiastical dues of different 
places. They indicate a connexion which has existed between them 
from a very early date. 


Nearly a mile from the village of Dromiskin there yet remains 
the portion of a wall, 3 feet thick, and many hundreds of years 
old. It forms part of the out-building of a farm-house, belonging to 
a Mrs. M'Ginnis. It is part of a building said to have been once a 
chapel; legend called it a " penitentiary." It may be seen on the 
Down Survey Map, as a ruined castle, and it may have also served as a 
watch-tower to give notice of the approach of a Danish fleet sailing into 
the bay. The field adjoining it was certainly a place of burial, bones 
having been frequently turned up by the plough. Here, if old reports 
were true, once stood the granite cross before described. This place was 
once known as Baltray. 1 Its ecclesiastical dues are recorded separately 
from those of Dromiskin, to which, however, they belonged. 


Nearly three miles north-west from Dromiskin, in a picturesque 
spot in Rossuuakay townland, and overlooking the river Fane, 2 
stands the remains of what is marked on the Ordnance Map as an 
" Abbey," once a parish, but as far as can be known, not a separate 

1 i. e. Strand-town, called "Seatowne" in an Inquisition taken at Termon- 
feckin, 6th September, 20 James I. ; and in another taken at Gernonstown, 6th 
September, 1694. Guild, et Mar. 

a The name "Fane" for this river is modern. Below it was sometimes called 
"Dunduggan river" (see note, page 112). It seems to be derived from Affane- 
Ath-mheadhon. (See Joyce's "Names of Places," 1st Series, p. 355.) Three prin- 
cipal roads from Dundalk crossed the river, leading to Louth, Ardee, and Drogheda. 
The " Middle Ford" appears on Taylor and Skinner's Map as " Affane Bridge." 


cure. Rosmacha was always, from the time it ceased to belong to the 
priory of Louth, wholly impropriate. Its original status appears rather 
in the name "Urney" (Urnaidhe, a prayer-house), by which it is 
recorded in an Inquisition, 13 James I. The existing remains are 
the eastern side, and part of the gables of a building, nearly 80 feet in 
length. A large open fire-place near the centre seems to indicate that it 
was a refectory, capable of containing a large number of persons. It 
certainly was not a place of worship. There was, however, a church 
and burial ground a short distance north of this building. No name has 
been recorded as having ever been in charge of the parish. It may, 
therefore, be concluded that here was a place of prayer, originally con- 
nected with the monastery of Dromiskin. 


About three miles along the shore, S.S.E. from Dromiskin, the rivers 
Glyde and Dee uniting fall into the bay of Dundalk, at the village of 
Annagassan. 1 The small townland lying between the Glyde and the 
shore is " The Linns" ; till a few years ago part of the parish of Dro- 
miskin, though separated from it by that of Gernonstown (Castlebelling- 
harn), and to it the ecclesiastical dues belonged from a very early period. 
While the site of the village was called Casan-Linne, another spot, close 
to or identical with the meeting of the waters, is mentioned frequently 
in the "Annals, Q. M.," as Linn Duachail, the demon's pool. 2 Early 
legend gave the place an evil reputation as the haunt of a mischievous 
demon named Uachall. 3 Here, however, St. Colman, son of Luachan, 
of the house of JSiall of the Nine Hostages came : a man eminent, not 
only on account of his descent, but also for his sanctity, which in legend 
gave him the credit of subduing the demon. 

It is said that he founded a monastery here. No trace of it remains, 
not even a legend as to its position. Only a holy well in the townland 
of Salterstown, about two and a-half miles further along the shore, and 
in the old impropriate parish of the same name, named in the Ordnance 
Map Tober Hullamog, 4 exists to attest his former residence here. He 
died March 30th, 699. 

1 Ath-na-gCasan, Ford of the Paths." Joyce, 1st Series, p. 372 ; 2nd Series, 
p. 408. 

2 The late Bishop of Down, Dr. Reeves, identified this place with Annagassan. 
Dr. O'Donovan at first assigned it to Magheralin, county Down. The connexion of 
the Linns with Dromiskin has not baen made so evident, even the Ordnance Maps and 
Name Ho >ks record it as in Gernonstown parish ; but as the rentcharge, amounting to 
12 15s. 2d., is at this moment (1896) calculated in the income of the Rector of 
Dromiskin, and the people of the townland claim burial on the site of the monastery, 
the connexion of the two places, back to monastic times, does not admit of doubt. 

3 Quod erat nomen doemonis in Cassan Linnequi nocebat multisante Colemannum. 
" Acta SS.," p. 793; note 10. 

4 Persons still occasionally make pilgrimages to this well for the cure of detective 


The names of the six following abbots of this place are recorded in 
the "Annals": 

Siadhail, Abbot of Linn, . . Died 752. 

Anfadan, Abbot, . . . 758. 

Suairleach, Abbot, , . . ,, 770. 

Thomas, Bishop and Abbot, . . ,, 803 [808]. 

Clemens, Abbot, . . ,. 826. 

Caemhan, killed and burned by the Danes, ,, 841 [842]. 

Now it is an important and remarkable fact that the first four of 
these names are not contemporary with any of the abbots recorded, as of 
Dromiskin, but that they, with* St. Colman, fill up the gap between the 
deaths of St. Ronan, in 664, and of Muirchiu, in 826. This would seem 
to imply some connexion between the two places ; the names of the 
fourth and fifth being Latin ones, and not Irish, is to be noted. 

Two years before the martyrdom of the last abbot, Kevin, the 
Danes had constructed a fortress at Linn Duachail, 1 whence they made 
raids into all the country round ; and here they retained their footing 
till the year 925 [927], when they left it. During these eighty-six 
years they seem to have obliterated every trace of a religious institution 
in and about Dromiskin, except what the ruined walls could show. 

The places of which we find the tithes were afterwards in the hands 
of the Prior of St. Mary, at Louth, seem to include all that belonged to 
the abbey at Dromiskin, and the order in which these are set down in 
two inquisitions taken during the reign of James I., shows clearly enough 
what ecclesiastical possessions must have been held by the latter. They 
are as follows : 

Inq. 4 James I. 

Dromiskin. 2 


Drumleck. 2 

Newragh. 4 


Milltown. 2 6 

Newtown. 2 7 

Walterstown. 2 

Inq. 13 James I. 



Dromker. 3 

Newory. 4 

le Lynn (waste). 

Tarpol. 5 


Baltra (waste). 

Moreton, or Bosgravile's Rath. 8 Moreton (waste). 

Mill of Dundogin.- 

Dungogin. 9 

Walterstown, with 15 acres of 
glebe in the Urney. 

1 Probably the one now known as Lis-na-rann. 

3 Inq. 34 Henry VIII. has these only. The tithes, Mary-gallons, and altarages of 
Dromiskin and Newtown are expressly added. 

3 Evidently intended for Drumleck. 

4 Newrath on the Ordnance Map. Neagra, pronounced like Nyagra, was the Iri>h 



It thus appears that though the monastery of Dronriskin ceased as 
such, the ecclesiastical dues of these places passed either by gift or by a 
natural process of gravitation into the hands of the prior and monks of 
St. Mary of Louth. 

Dromiskin, with a considerable extent of land about, became one of 
the manors of the archbishops of Armagh, to whom the right of presenta- 
tion to the parish belonged down to the year 1870. 

form within my recollection. After the battle of Criona, A.D. 248, Tadhg Mac Cian 
received from Cormac Mac Art a territory, afterwards called Cianaclita, extending from 
the river Liffey as far as " Glais Neara, near Druim-in-eas-cluinn." This, I hold, is 
the present Newrath, surviving modern corruption, and the mispronunciation of Irish 
which Dr. O'Donovan said (" Ordnance Name Book") was habitual in Louth. He 
could say so now for a very sufficient reason. [The same corruption of the same 
name is found in Wicklow.] 

5 Townland of Killincoole, now a group of houses bordering on Dromiskin parish, 
once, perhaps, included in it, Inq., 9th April, 1624. Nic. Gernon gives the name 
Terpott. Tarpod is the present pronunciation. 

6 Probably the present townland of Milltown Old. 

7 Probably the present townland of Milltown. 

8 Moretown is the present Mooretown, a name derived from tbe family of Brent 
Moore, last representatives of whom were the late John and William Armitage Moore. 
Bosgravile is a corrupted form of Baskerville, a family who held it and Dunduggan. 

9 Otherwise Dundugan. The mill was close to the road (see map) on the river. 
A tumulus, bearing the same name, about half a mile up the river, is figured in 
Wright's " Louthiana," Book i., plate v. There was also, in 1622, an impropriate 
cure of Dundugan somewhere hereabouts, but ils limits cannot be ascertained, as it 
never had any other status, and does not form a townland of itself. 



HPjEE Crannoge of Carncoagh is the same as that frequently described 
as " Lisnacroghera " in the Journal of this Society; but, strange 
to say, some mistakes, have been made regarding this crannoge. In 
the first place there is no townland in the district known as Lis- 
nacroghera, and if any one went to the neighbourhood in question 

and inquired for 
would either be told 
place, or, perhaps, 
whom the inquiry 
the sound, might ask 
Lisnacrogher. The 
is sometimes called 
Lisnacroghera may 
be spelled, but in 
documents ; and on 
name and townland 
spelling is Lisna- 
again the crannoge 
Lisnacrogher is only 
land. How these mis- 

Li snacroghera " he 
there was no such 
the persons from 
was made, guided by 
him if he meant 
bog in that townland 
" Croghery bog," and 
be the way it should 
all legal and public 
farmers' carts where 
have to appear the 
crogher. But, then, 
is in Carncoagh, and 
a neighbouring town- 
takes occurred I cim- 
they uudoubtedl y are, 

not tell, but mistakes 
and should be corrected. I paid little attention to this crannoge 
during the lifetime of our lamented friend and fellow member, Canon 
Grainger, except when he took me there himself; as he called it his 
crannoge, and was very jealous of anyone interfering with it. It appears 
to be exhausted of its treasures now, but in neighbouring tenements of 
bog an occasional " find " turns up. Two objects were found during the 
past year, one of which I believe is a portion of a harp. Just as we find 
many country fiddlers making their own violins in a homely sort of way, 
so these early inhabitants of Carncoagh must have made their own harps 



at their own crannoge fireside, as the marks of the knife by which it was 

wrought into shape are very visible on several parts of it. It was found 

in the next tenement of bog to that in which the crannoge is situated, 

but quite close to it. The portion found, if I am correct in my view, 

is evidently the top of the instrument, and is 13 inches long, by 

If inches broad, and fully 1 inch thick. It has a peg 

wrought at one end for fitting into a hole on top of one 

of the sides, and a hole at the other to admit a peg from 

the top of the third leg. There are 13 holes for the 

strings. The peat-spade of the finder cut into it in the 

centre causing it to be nearly severed, and it has shrunk 

very greatly in size since it came into my possession, 

which was immediately after being found. I kept it for 

a considerable time in a solution of alum and water, during 

which time it remained in its original shape and size, and 

I had a drawing of it made in that state which is shown 

in fig. 1. I also give an imaginary restoration which is 

shown in fig. 2. 

In the Introductory volume of O'Curry's " Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient Irish," a harp is shown 
(see fig. 72, on page dxviii.) It is taken from a manu- 
script of St. Blaise, considered to belong to the 9th century. 
The author says, so far as there is any certain evidence 
at all on the subject, the precise form of instrument now 
called a harp, seems to have originated in the British 
Isles. The figure given in 0' Curry is plain in the part 
corresponding to that found at Carncoagh, but as the 
legs of the former are ornamented those of the latter 
may have been so likewise, and therefore it may not 
have been so poor an instrument as one would think judging from the 
portion found. The specimen figured by 0' Curry is represented as having 
twelve strings. I have requested the owner of the tenement of bog to 
be on the look-out next season for the remaining portions. 0' Sullivan, 
in the Introduction, refers to a rude specimen of a harp of the ninth 
century sculptured on the cross of Ullard, and figured by Dr. Ferguson 
in his Essay. 

A second obj.ect was found during the past season, this time in the 
neighbouring townland of Lisnacrogher. It is the butt of a spear of 
bronze with 9 inches of shaft remaining in it. I had this object also drawn 
while the wood was damp and of full size. It is shown in fig. 3. 
It was perfectly cylindrical and smoothed all over, showing that it had 
been cut out of a large branch or trunk, and that the rings of annual 
growth had been cut through as we would see in an ashen spade-shaft 
in the present day. Several similar objects were procured by Canon 
Grainger, and have been figured and described in the Journal by Mr. 
"W. F. Wakeman. (See vol. vi., Fourth Series, p. 393.) 

Fig. 3. 



(Continued from page 369, Vol. VI., 1896.) 


IV"OTTGH:A.VAL (Ord. Sheet 9). Along the desolate ridges between 
Noughaval and Ballyganner lie a group of forts so numerous 
and implying so much labour that we may conclude that an actual 
city and considerable population occupied this lonely site. 1 

" Their raths are not dwelt in 
Their ancient cathairs 
"Whereon great duration was wrought 
They are waste . . . like Lugaid's House." 2 

Six " forts" and two cromlechs run in line nearly N. and S. towards 

Fig. 1. Plan of Noughaval and Ballyganner. 

the summit of Ballygunner-hill. Prom Cahernaspekee, and the last of 
these, five more lie eastward with four cromlechs. Small " caves," cairns, 
circles, and hut-sites abound ; and near the N. end are the venerable 

1 Ten fine forts stand near St. Abb's Head, Scotland, where only three farm- 
houses are now inhabited. Proc. Soc. Ant., Scot., 1895, p. 171. "The battle of 
Mugh Leana," p. 79, also mentions a group of " three strong duns . . . three lofty 
inurs of assembly, and three strong cathairs." 

'- "Calendar of Oengus," p. 18. 


church of Noughaval 1 with two crosses, the " O'Davoren's chapel" and 
the well of St. Mogua with its uncouth and ancient ash tree. 

At the south end are the huge cromlech, castle, and three cahers of 
Bally gamier. The ridge has a wide view over Kilfenora, while Liscan- 
nor Bay is visible through a gap in the hills, from the gate of Cahercut- 
tine. The whole site abounds in beautiful crag flowers. 

Fig. 2. Cahercuttine Fort aud Cromlech, from south. 

CAHEB.KYLETAAN (105 feet x 120 feet). A straight-sided fort, walls 
4 feet or 5 feet high and 10 feet thick, of large slabs; it has a cross 
wall and some prostrate pillar stones, but no trace of a gateway. 

Fig. 3. Plan of Entrance, Cahercuttine. 

CAHKRCUTTINE (137 feet x 130 feet). A well preserved fort on the 
summit of the ridge, commanding a view of most of the other cahers of the 

, the latter word one of our oldest terms for a monastery, 
" Tripartite Life," p. civ. A " Mughain, virgin, of Cluain Boirenn," is given under 
Dec. loth, in Calendar of Oengus. A description of Noughaval Church appears 
in the " Report of the Society for the Preservation of Memorials of the Dead 
.(Ireland), 1896." 





group and those of Boon and Bally kin varga. Its wall is 11 feet 4 inches 
to 12 feet 6 inches thick, and up to 10 feet high, very well built, of large 
stones, with two faces, the inner having a plinth 9 inches wide. 1 The 
gateway had comer posts and large lintels, removed to admit cattle, the 
main lintel was 8 ft. 6 in x 2 ft. x 1 foot ; the passage, 5 ft. 8 in. within, 
widens outward ; it faces S.S.E. 2 ; near it to the west is a fine flight of 
six steps, 3 feet 9 inches x 10 inches x 4 inches to 6 inches tread and 
2 feet deep. This fort is a veritable garden of ferns, harebells, and cranes' - 
bills. In the field to the west are a small cromlech 8 ft. x 6 ft., a ring wall 
of large slabs 24 feet diameter, with walls 3 feet 6 inches thick, and a 
miniature souterraiii. A cairn, 3 semicircle, and pile of large blocks occur 

Fig. 4. Steps and Gate, Cahercuttine. 

in the same field, while in that south of the fort are another cairn and an 
overthrown cromlech 7 feet x 12 feet. A small oval fort stands about 
200 yards to the east. It is featureless and defaced, with coarse walls 
9 feet thick, and an enclosure about 85 feet long, tapering to the south. 4 

CAHERWALSH (162 feet x 156 feet), an irregular enclosure of large 
stretchers, 9 feet thick. It is late, and much levelled, and several house- 
sites remain in the garth. A slab enclosure, nearly 16 feet square, stands 

1 A similar feature occurs at Morbihan, Brittany, "Revue Archeologique," 1895,. 
p. 64, and at Cahergrillaun, in the parish of Carran, county Clare. 

3 Canon Philip Dwyer describes this caher of " Knickknocktheen" (Knockcottine), 
in 1876, as having an entrance with a " flat single stone lintel" in excellent preserva- 
tion. "Handbook to Lisdoonvarna," p. 57. 

3 Small cairns abound near the stone fort of Cair Conan, Cornwall (Roytil Inst. of 
Cornwall, 1862, p. 56), also at Chun Castle in same shire. 

4 Compare plans, Journal, 1896, p. 147, fig. 19 to 23. 


outside the fort to the west. There seems to he part of a small caher 
farther south, hut it is evidently rebuilt. 

CAHERNASPEKEE (105 feet), a circular caher, its walls 8 feet thick, 
with a terrace " veneered" with flat slabs, and much dug up by rabbit 
and treasure seekers. The gate faced the south, in which direction lie 
an oblong garth, coarsely built, a small cairn, and a ring of stones, the 
latter perhaps was set to mark out the ground for an intended fort. 

We now turn eastward, and meet two rude enclosures, with a grassy 
valley between ; the western surrounds a much defaced oblong slab-hut, 
and is "veneered" with most fantastic water-fretted blocks. Beyond 
these is a very fine cromlech, 25 feet x 6 feet, of three chambers, the 
central marked by four pillars, the eastern pair being 5 feet high ; they 
supported a lintel now fallen. 

Fig. 5. Plans of Forts near Nougbaval. 

CAHERANEDEN (100 feet), a fort fairly built of large blocks, often 
5 feet long, stands eastward on a low ridge, whence it is named. The 
wall is 8 feet thick, with very small filling ; the face towards the south 
is removed, and only three courses remain along the ridge. An oblong 
slab-hut stands to the east; it is 12 feet x 6 feet, with a little annexe 3 feet 
square. A green road, 1 formed by the removal of the top strata of the 
crag, leads from the caher southward to a fallen cromlech ; two of its 
slabs are 9 feet 6 inches x 6 feet. 

We then ascend a slightly rising ground to the east ; on the summit, 
near a large strangely-shaped boulder, are a late and badly built, oval 
iclosure (140 feet north and south) a small ring wall surrounding a 
>rt of cairn, and lower down the slope a CAHER (111 feet). A large 

1 Cormac's " Glossary " gives Ramhat " an open space or street which is in front 
of the fort of Kings " ; every neighbour was bound to clean it. 




cromlech stands inside, partly embedded in its wall. Probably the 
followers of some chief laid him (like Joab) "in his own house in the 
wilderness." 1 

Eastward in the valley a perfect cromlech stands in a levelled cairn. 
Turningfrom it, towards Ballyganner hill and castle, we pass a curious rock 
basin, forming a well, and reach the small and broken castle embedded in 
the ring of a caher (115 feet) ; the wall of the latter is 12 feet thick, and 
in it stands a late-looking house-site, 41 feet x 24 feet, and two other 
enclosures. Two cahers on the hill top, near the seventh cromlech (one 
slab of which is 18 feet 6 inches x 6 feet), and a large caher on the 
southern slope, are greatly broken and nearly levelled ; nor are three or 
four others between it and Lemeneagh, nor Cahermore and Caheraclarig, 
in Sheshy, near Caherscrebeen, in much better condition. The unusual 

Fig. 6. Caheraneden Fort and Slab Hut. 2 

number of early remains in this district, and the pains taken by the 
present staff of the Ordnance Survey to mark the same accurately on the 
large scale maps, lead me to give a fuller account and list than I should 
otherwise have thought of doing. 

CAHEUMACNAUGHTKN (Ord. Surv. Sheet 9), 127 feet x 130 feet. Two 
miles north from Noughaval stands this fine caher, noteworthy as being 
the place where our great scholar, Duald Mac Firbis, studied the Brehon 
law under Donald O'Davoren, who was hirasolf (in the earlier years of 
Elizabeth's reign) author of a glossary of Irish terms. 3 We have also 
the rare but welcome aid of a full description of the place when it 

1 "A fort, in this again a colossal sepulchre." " Silva Gadelica," ii., p. 131. Hely 
Button, in 1808, when describing Ballyganner, mentions " the remains of a stone rath 
in which part of a covered passage is still visible." "Statistical Survey of Clare," 
p. 317. 

2 The forts in the background are 1. The oblong garth; 2. Cahernaspekee ; 
S. Cahercuttine ; and 4 (extreme right), Caher, with side enclosure. 

3 O'Curry, "Manners and Customs," iii., p. 322. O'Donovan sensibly asks (in 
the " Ordnance Survey Letters," E.I. A., p. 187) "who built Caher mac Naughten? 
Did the Firbolgs erect all the Cahers in Bun-en ? Never." (See " Ordnance Survey 
Letters," vol. i., for ensuing deed. MSS., R.LA.) 


formed the centre of the O'Davoren's " town " in 1675. The sons of 
Gillananeave O'Davoren in that year made a deed of family arrange- 
ment which their father confirmed as his will. 

"The following is the partition of the ' keannait,' or village of 
Cahermacnaughten, viz., the site of the large house of the caher within, 
and the site of the kitchen-house, which belongs to the house within the 
caher, and the site of the house of the churchyard on the west side of the 
caher and all the gardens, extending westward from the road of the 
garden of Teig roe mac Gillapheen (not including Teig roe's garden), and 
the house site hetween the front of the large house and the door of the 
caher, at the north-west (sic) side and the large house which is outside 
the door of the caher." The " green of the hooley," water supply, 
and several townlands are also distributed. We find a very similar 
arrangement recorded in the " Tripartite Life of St. Patrick." A "caher" 
' fortified monastery being surrounded by a vallum, and having a "tech 
rnor " or " great house," a church, an " aregal," a kitchen, a " pranntech" 
or refectory, a guest-house, and a graveyard. 

The caher consists of a nearly circular wall 10 feet high and thick, 
nearly perfect, and of massive blocks, many 4 feet 6 inches x 1 foot 
3 inches, the longest being laid as headers, bonding into the filling for 
> feet. The gate faces E.S.E , and is a late medieval porch, two side 
walls with roof corbels ; it has a batter of 1 in 8 ; this is not apparent in 
the dry stone wall. The foundations of the houses rise but little above 
the dark earth and rich grass of the interior. A large house (48 feet 
N.E. and S.W. x 15 feet 6 inches internally, the walls 3 feet thick) 
occupies the southern segment ; another building with three rooms lies 
in the northern. There are traces of two other small huts inside and of 
some others outside the caher, but no " churchyard " is visible. A well 
lies a few hundred feet to the S.W. 

CAHEBYHOOLAGH (Cathair Ui Dhualachta, O'Douloughty's fort, probably 
the " caherwooly " of 1641) lies in a state of great dilapidation on the 
western edge of the townland of Cahermacnaughten. 

KILFENORA (Ord. Surv. Sheet 9). 

BALLYEINVARGA ("of the head of the market"), 135 feet x 155 feet. 
This very fine fort, possibly the " Cathair Fhionnabhrach," reserved to 
the King of Cashel in the "Book of Eights," appears in O'Brien's 
Rental, 1 about 1380, as " bmle cin mapsaft." It is first described by 
Eugene O'Curry, 1839, as "a very large caher . . . around which were 
formerly a great number of stones forming a circle about it." S. F. 
(? Ferguson) notices it thus : " Close to Kilfenora is one of those stone 
plashed cyclopean fortresses . . . Caherflaherty. Its dimensions are not 
comparable to those of the great Arran citadel, but the arrangement of 

1 Trans. R.I.A., xv. (1828, p. 37). 



the ramparts and the distribution of the stone caltrops in the space 
between the body of the fortress and the outer circumvallation are the 
same." 1 Lord Dunraven's description is equally misleading, as he omits 
any account of its cfievaux de fHse, monoliths, and hut sites, and says 
its wall is double and its passage curved, which is not the case ; he 

Fig. 7. 1. Cahermacnaughten. 2. Glenquin. 3. Ballykinvarga. 4. Boon Fort. 

only calls it "one (fort) near Kilfenora." Mr. T. Foote also alludes to 
it in a letter to DuNoyer, 1862, " a fort that has pointed stones planted 
upright all around it." 2 

1 Dublin Univernti/ Magazine, Jan. 1853, vol. xli., p. 505, < Caherflaherty "is, I 
suppose, the name " Caherlahertagh "; besides this mistake we have " the outer cir- 
cumvallation " which never existed. The writer seems not to have seen the 6-inch 

2 " Ord. Survey Letters, Clare," vol. i., p. 287. Dunraven's " Notes," vol. i., p. 18. 
" Du Noyer's Sketches," B.S.A.I., vol. vii. 


When perfect it must have been a beautiful specimen; now the 
vandal country lads, rabbit -hunting and tearing blocks out of its wall, 
must soon bring it to complete ruin. It is well built of large blocks, 
3 feet to 5 feet long, and where most perfect to the east, is 15 feet high. 
The wall consists of three sections ; the central 4 feet thick, the others 
5 feet ; it probably had another terrace, 4 feet 6 inches thick, as it is 
19 feet 6 inches thick in other parts. The gate faces S.S.E., its lintel, 
7 feet 9 inches x 1 foot 4 inches x 3 feet, resting on side walls and 
corner posts j 1 its outer face was blocked ; and, as I saw it, the space was 
occupied by a colony of hedgehogs. A walled and sunken passage led 
eastward through the cJievaux de frise, probably, as in the Greek and 
Esthonian forts, 2 to compel assailants to advance with their shield arm 


Fig. 8. View of Ballykinvarga Cater, near Kilfeuo'-a. 

away from the wall. The inner enclosures extend in a fairly regular 
band round the western edge, where the wall is 7 feet high. They recall 
the still more even compartments in Castle Chun. 8 The chevaux de/rise* 

1 The (alleged) poem by Flan Mainistrech given in the " Book of Fenagh," p. 121, 
mentions "the pillar stone in the principal door of the cathair, 1 ' circa 1050. Caher 
gates were sufficiently familiar to furnish illustrations, even in legendary literature, 
e.g., " The Hunt of Sliab Truim," p. 115, for a " piast (monster) with ears as large as 
the gate of a caker" 

2 At Tiryns, but not at Mycenae. Also at Mohne in the Baltic. 

3 Compare plans, page 147, Nos. 7, 8, Journal, 1896, and 1893, page 288. Possibly 
these were botn enclosures for wooden huts and to pen cattle. Juchna the Firbolg 
kept herds of cows in his /.* (" Silva Gadelica," ii., p. 131), and each of the stone 
forts, stormed and burned near Ventry, harboured 150 men, besides women, children, 
horses, and dogs. ('< Cath Fintraga," edited by Dr. Kuno Meyer, p. 5.) 

4 (Jhevaujc de frise also occur at Dun Aenghus and Dubh Caher, Aran 
(Dunraven's "Notes," I. pp. 6, 10. Our Journal, 1895, pp. 257, 258, and 266); 
Dunamoe, Mayo (Journal, 1889, p. 182); Pen Caer Helen, Caernarvon ("Archseo- 
logia Cambrensis," series iv., vol. 12, p. 345, and vol. 14, p. 192, with tine views), 
" large stones, with sharp slate splinters, set between" (" Archaeolog. Journal," 
xxv., p. 228. The writer considers this fort earlier than an adjoining Roman 
camp). Cademuir and Dreva, Peebleshire (Proc. Soc. Ant., Scot., 1866, pp. 21, 
24). The "monumental theory," in "Pagan Ireland," p. 186, is very improbable. 
" Archseologia Cambrensis," 1870, p. 286, describes one at Castel coz, Finistere, 
France, a pre-Roman fort on a headland. 



is in two sections ; the inner, about 46 feet wide, thickly set with pillnrs 
about 3 feet high, with smaller spikes between, and still nearly impas- 
sible, save to the south. A second band extends for 50 feet more, but 
is less thickly set with stones ; it has a border mound set with large 
blocks, 1 one nearly 7 feet x 2 feet 7 inches x 1 foot. 2 A Inrge hoard of 
silver coins "of Edward II." were found at the foot of a pillar and, 
much more precious to the occupants, a streamlet wells out on the 
southern side. 3 Several groups of blocks remain in the adjoining field. 

Fig. 9. Gateway, Ballykinvarga Caher. 

I am not satisfied that any one was a cromlech. A small rude fort,, 
overthrown for 95 feet, crowns the ridge 235 feet to the N.E. Two 
curved walls cross its garth, and a two-doored cloghaim stood in the 

1 This feature occurs in a prehistoric fort, or " baueiberge,"in the Island of Mb'hne, 
in the Gulf of Riga, where also a passage runs slantwise to the gate. 

2 In old Irish works note " a pillar-stone on the green before a rath" (Tain Bo 
Cuailgne). Fergus fights a battle in this very district of Burren from " cloch comuir 
to the stone of meeting by the three mounds of walled fortresses " (Poem of Seanchan, 
circa A.D. 647, in " Book of Lecan "). Pillar-stones were erected to celebrate victories, 
and cairns heaped to commemorate slaughters (" Leabhar na h-Uidhri," p. 86), &c., &c. 

3 This is not unusual, e.g. Inismurray (our Journal, 1885, p. 98), Hillsborough, 
Devon (Gentleman's Magazine, 1865, Part n., pp. 715, 716), and several Cornish 
i'orts (Royal Inst. Cornwall, 1863, p. 60). "We also find it in old M F liters as Adamnan, 
where Columba prophesies the well near a fort will be defiled with blood ; and 
" Colloquy of the Ancients" for a hidden well on the south side of a fort (" Silva 
Gadelica," p. 195, also pp. 103, 131). Capt. O'Callaghan Westropp (Member] suggests 
that the well was excluded to preserve it from pollution. 



northern loop. From its roughness and choice site it may be the older 
fort of the two. There must have been some danger apprehended from 
this direction as an addition seems to have been made to the cJievaux de 
frise at the same side. 

Five more cahers stand within 2000 feet east of the great fort. 
KiLCAMEKN is quite levelled, and is now a burial place for children. 
It stands on a knoll, and has a few rude pillars and cairns, and two 
ancient graves marked out by a kerb of great slabs, like the sides of 
a cromlech ; the western is 6 feet long, the. eastern 9 feet, and traces of 
,a third adjoin . Tobercameeii well lies in the depression southward, and is 
dry in summer. Beyond, on a grassy knoll, a few scattered stones mark 
another small fort. It had a sharp angle to the S.E., and 12 hollows 
pit its eastern slope. 1 A circular fort, also in CAHERMIFANE (100 feet), 

Fig. 10. Pillar-stone and chevaux-de-frise, Ballykinvarga. 

has a well-built wall, with two faces, 8 feet high and 9 feet thick. They 
are, I think, hammer dressed 2 in places to take angles of other stones. 
The gate faced S.E., and had corner posts and lintels 7 feet long ; near 
it, to the south, two steps remain in the inner face of the wall. 

CAHEKLAHERTAGH (130 feet), on a low hillock, near the road. About 
5 feet of the finely built wall rises over the heaps of fallen blocks, its 
top level with the garth, which was divided into three by a T-shaped 

1 Possibly hut sites, as at Caherconree, Kerry (Ulster Journal, viii., p. 118) ; Eildon 
Hill (Proc. Soc. Ant., Scot., 1895, p. 128, and " Blackhill," p. 143) ; and early British 
villages (Brit. Archseol. Assoc., 184<>, p. 155; Prehistoric "Annals of Scotland," and 
Soc. Ant., Normandy, 1835, p. 317). They also occur in Pen-y-ddinasahove Llandudno 
and Penselwood on the borders of Dorset, Somerset, and Wiltshire, where many 
hundreds occur round a circular fort. 

I believe that traces of the hammer occur at Cahermore-Koughan, Ballykinvarga, 
and Caherminane, all border forts of Burren. 


wall ; an oval cloghaun stood in the north section. There is no trace of a 
gateway. 1 Beyond the road is a cromlech, the top slab now removed. 

BALLYSHANNY (137 feet x 132 feet), much defaced, and standing on 
a rocky knoll to the west. The wall is 7 feet thick. There are some 
traces of a souterrain inside, and of steps, probably leading up to a gate, 
on the south-east. 

CAHEREMON, near Kilfenora, described by Petrie as "a fine remain," 
is now levelled with the field; it was of no great size. 

DOON- (296 ft. x 310 ft., or, with fosse, about 350 ft. each way, Ord. 
Surv. Sheet 16). A fine fort, 2 on a hill 450 feet above the sea ; it is of 
pear-shaped plan, surrounded by a fosse cut in the shale, with a regular 
curve and batter to each side, 25 ft. to 20 ft. wide, and 5 ft. deep. A fence 
crosses the fort, and west of it the ramparts are better preserved, and in 
parts faced with stone, rising 20 feet above the fosse, and 12 and 15 feet 
over the field. They have three gaps : the middle one has a mound 
across the fosse ; the southern faces a rectangular block of shale, probably 
for a plank. The only feature to the east is a flight of seven steps, cut 
in the rock ; the entire circuit of the rampart is about 970 feet. From 
this bold outpost of the Old World we see Liscannor Cliffs and castle, 
and the boundless sea, with its fringe of dazzling foam ; Kilfenora, one of 
the earliest villages of Clare, and Lisdoonvarna, one of the latest ; the 
castles of Smithstown and Lemeneagh, recorded by the Four Masters ; 
and the inland barriers of Callan and Glasgeivnagh, with Elva, the 
legendary battlefield of the Firbolg with the great King Cormac 
mac Airt, closing the view on the north. 

This Paper having far outgrown my original design, I must for the 
present omit the forts of more northern Burren, and conclude it by a 
brief statement of the facts which more especially forced themselves on me 
during my researches. (1) The key to the origin of our Irish forts lies 
as much in their congeners over the rest of Europe as in our own records. 
(2) The Firbolg legend, hitherto so unreservedly adopted to account for 
their origin, is (if not entirely mythical) only of value for two or three 
forts. It does not even touch on the cahers- of Kerry, Cork, Mayo, and 
Ulster, still less on the British and Continental examples. (3) The 
evidence (so far as it goes) shows that such structures were built and 
rebuilt from a period long before the introduction of Christianity to 
(probably) the 14th century. (4) Very few of our forts were defen- 
sive in a military sense. (5) Their arrangement on lines and in groups 

1 This is not uncommon in the forts of Clare, and even occurs in the ancient stone 
fort on a peninsula near Sebenico, in Dalmatia (" Land of the Bora," p. 56). 

2 Mac Liag's poem, as translated by Ossianic Society (vol. v., p. 287), says : " They 
placed Daelach at Dael, Aenach constructed a dan in his neighbourhood." Two 
tributaries of the Daelach rise at the foot of this ridge, so perhaps this fort is the " Tech 
nEnnach," see supra, our Journal, 1896, p. 143. 


also occurs all across Europe. (6) The question of masonry depends on 
geological, not racial conditions. (7) The features are stereotyped by the 
materials. (8) There seem to be traces of the work of the hammer but 
not of the chisel. (9) Wood was probably used for steps and lintels in a 
few forts. 1 (10) Water supply was deliberately excluded from the fort 
for sanitary reasons. (11.) This and most other features existing in 
our forts appear in the body of Irish literature as commonplace pheno- 
mena of the buildings of the earlier middle ages. 

It is greatly to be hoped that some of these cahers 2 may soon be vested 
as National monuments, not for rebuilding but for their preservation ; 
this is of urgent need, for indescribable destruction is carried out every 
year. It is a reproach to us, as a nation, that we treat these priceless 
ruins as mere valueless jetsam of the sea of time. We make the forts 
our quarries and cattle-pens, the cromlechs our hovels and pig- styes, 
defacing and destroying for our sordid gains or mischievous pastimes. 
Would that we could utilise our pride in that past, whose glories we 
exaggerate, to the more practical purpose of preserving its relics, which 
we are helping, by direct injury or inexcusable apathy, to sweep with 
unsparing hands into the limbo of forgetf ulness. 3 

1 Cahermackirilla and Cahergrillaun, near Carran, have ancient gates too wide for 
stone lintels : and Mullach, in Dabrien, has recesses in its wall and terrace only 
suitable for short ladders. See also Journal, 1896, pp. 153 and 157. 

2 Ballykinvarga, Ballynllaban, Caherahoagh, Cahercornniane, Cahercuttine, Caher- 
muc.naughten, Cahershaughnessy, Cashlaungar, Glenquin, Moghaue, and Langough ; 
all of the greatest interest. 

3 I here thank Dr. George MacNamara (Local Secretary] , my sister, Mrs. O'Callaghan 
(Member], and the Rev. J. B. Greer, who never grudged giving their time, researches, 
or personal trouble to enable me to work up the Clare forts, Dr. W. Grazer (Vice- 
President], Mr. Standish Hayes O'Grady, and Mr. "W. Borlase, of London, who gave 
me many valuable suggestions and references, and Captains Pery and Sloggett of the 
Ordnance Survey, who gave me tracings of the plans of the forts of Doon, Bally - 
gunner, and Cahercuttine. 



F SUPPOSE most of us are familiar with the quaint lines which are in- 
scribed on an old tombstone in Melrose Abbey : 

" The earth goeth on the earth 

Glistering like gold, 
The earth goes to the earth 

Sooner than it wold. 
The earth builds on the earth 

Castles and towers, 
The earth says to the earth 

All shall be ours." 

These words which harmonise so well with their surroundings in 
Xelrose where one is afraid almost to touch the soft stone for fear of 
hastening the decay which is proceeding so rapidly, seem likewise to 
suit the subject with which I have now to deal. The old buildings 
which formerly helped to make Burrow famous have long since passed 
uway, so that scarcely a vestige of them now remains. Petrie thought 
that he had sufficient evidence to prove that formerly there was a round 
tower there, and he believed he had the authority of Adamnan to support 
this theory. 1 But it is at this time made a question as to whether 
such a round tower ever existed. The castle built there by the celebrated 
Sir Hugh de Lacie has long since crumbled away, so that even with 
respect to it a question has been raised, and some have even ventured to 
assert that the murder of Sir Hugh was not perpetrated in Burrow at all, 
but at another castle which stood about a mile away, and which is known 
by the name of Shancourt Castle (of. O'Connor on Durrow Parish in 1837, 
and Lanigan's "Church History"). Even when we come down to 
modern times we find that the old house which stood on the demesne 
where the Stepneys lived when they were proprietors of Durrow, has 
been destroyed by fire. 2 

oee reme s itounu lowers, p. doi ; also Aaamnan s JL,ne 01 
cap. xv. : " De Angelo Domini qui alicui fratii, lapso de monasterii 
in Roboreti Campo, opportune tam cito subvenerat." Apparently very s 

2 O'Connor, in las correspondence about Durrow, tells how one 

1 See Petrie's " Round Towers," p. 384 ; also Adamnan's "Life of St. Columba," 

ciilmine rohuidl 
3ry strong evidence, 
one John Daly, of 

Kilbeggan, related to him, when on his death-bed, that "about sixty or sixty-two 
years ago" (i.e. about the year 1780), " extensive; ruins of the castle of Durrow were 
extant immediately to the north of the moat, but that these walls were pulled down 
by the Stepney family to build a mansion-house, which still exists, but much enlarged 
and amplified, by the present proprietor, Lord .Norbury." This house, which O'Connor 
speaks of, was afterwards destroyed by fire, one wall of it only remaining, where it 
was connected with the amplifications which O'Connor speaks of as being effected by 
Lord Norbury, which amplifications now form the present mansion-house of Durrow 
Abbey. I regret to say that the Stepneys have a bad record in archaeology, as they 
also demolished the tine Cistercian Abbey of Owney, to build AbingUm House, 
county Limerick. 


O'Connor, in his Ordnance Survey Correspondence written in 1838, 
t(41s how he visited Durrow, and " viewed it with anxious care border- 
ing upon pain," but could find nothing there but St. Columba's Cross, 
and the Holy "Well. Having read such a description one is almost 
precipitated into a feeling of pessimism like that which is expressed on 
the tomb of Alderman John Bowers of Gloucester fame, who, notwith- 
standing the fact that he had nine sons and seven daughters, has these 
words recorded on his tomb: " VAYNE, VANITIH ALL is BUT VATNE." 
And yet notwithstanding the devastation wrought by the hands of man, 
as well as by the hands of time; though the round tower is almost 
a myth ; l though the last vestige of the monastery has long since been 
obliterated, and the strong castle of the valiant Norman been levelled 
with the ground, there is still in the records of the past, and in the 
few remains which still exist, something to cause the visitor who views 
Durrow with anxious care some feelings of pleasure, even though they 
be mingled with pain for the glories of the past that have faded, and 
are no more with us. 


1 shall, however, begin first with Temple Kieran. Some of us visited 
it last summer, in connexion with the Durrow Excursion, on August 3rd, 
1896. It is situated about three miles from Tullamore, and an equal 
distance from Clara, and it lies at a distance of about a mile and 
a-half as the crow would fly from the site where the monastery once 
stood at Durrow. I have called the place by the name given on the 
Ordnance Survey Maps, but why it is so called I have never been able to 
find out, and 1 firmly believe that the place is there misnamed. No one 
in the neighbourhood calls it by this name, or knows it by any other 
name than Tihilly, or as they pronounce it Teely. This, too, is the name 
by which it is called in the church books for nearly 300 years. In 
Archdale's " Monasticon," Tytylle is mentioned in connexion with an 
inquisition made in the twelfth year of Queen Elizabeth. It formed one 

1 In O'Connor's Ordnance Survey Correspondence for Westmeath in 1837, the 
following strange story is referred to as having occurred in Rosdeala, in the parish of 
Durrow, in the 1 1th century : " A cloigtheach of fire (he says) appeared at night, and 
round it flew, and on the top of it perched, a number of birds, and among them ap- 
peared a bird of extra size, under whose wings the smaller ones, scared at the sight of 
the glowing pillar of fire, hid their heads. These birds, after having amused themselves 
with this fiery pillar (as butterflies fly around a lighted candle), were observed by the> 
astonished inhabitants to fly from it suddenly, and to perch on the branches of the 
oaks of a neighbouring roboretum, of which the large bird tore the largest of them 
from the roots, after which he seized upon a greyhound and, flying with him to a 
sublime height, let him suddenly drop down, and killed him. Soon after these birds 
(devils, to be sure) and the fiery pillar disappeared. This phenomenon is set down in 
the ' Book of Ballymote ' as one of the thirteen wonders of the world, and is referred 
toby 'John Dalton, Esq., ablest antiquary in Ireland,' as a proof that the round 
towers of Ireland were fire pillars." See also "Annals Four Masters," 1054, and. 
" Chronicon Scotorum," 1052. 


of the townlands in the parish of Burrow, and consisted of two mes- 
suages, four cottages, 24 acres of arable land, 60 of pasture and bog, and 
29 of wood and copse. Its valuation was 26s. Sd, 

Tradition in the neighbourhood speaks of Tihilly as being quite as 
old a place as Durrow, but it must be many years since there was any 
religious house here, or since its ancient church was used. No inter- 
ment has been made in the graveyard for many years ; its fence has been 
long since levelled. A holy well was once here, but it has been filled 
up. The old cross with its quaint figures and beautiful ornamentation is 
left uncared for and broken. One of the old inscribed tombstones, 
of which I give an illustration, I found in three pieces, lying in 
different parts of the field which once was a churchyard. There is 
near at hand the remains of an old mill which, no doubt, was long ago 
connected with the establishment, and just behind it is a high mound full 
of human bones, which I was told were supposed to be the bones of 
people slain in a battle, but my informant (who seemed to be about forty 
years of age) added that the battle took place long; ago, before she was 
born ! Now as regards the old church I regret to say that it is very 
much defaced, so that there is- not much to go upon to fix its date. 
Two features, however, are interesting ; one is the great size of some of 
the stones which are used ; one very long one, which I measured, was 
over 12 feet in length. Another interesting feature in its architecture 
is the fact that its walls have two faces, one for the inside of the build- 
ing, and the other for its outside. So that this long stone which I 
speak of as on the outside face does not appear on the inside of the 
building. The church itself was about 40 or 45 feet long, and 15 feet 
wide. Near its west end stands, in a very dilapidated condition, an old 
cross. The shrine-like head and the south arm have vanished, but the 
north arm, with fragments of the ring, remains broken from the head. 
This cross was about 7 feet high, 14 in. broad, and 7 in. thick. The 
following are the figures carved on it : The Crucifixion, with lance 
and sponge ; Adam and Eve, and the forbidden fruit; a griffin ; and on 
the corresponding panel two birds with their necks entwined in a 
very peculiar way. Indeed, each of the sides displays panels with 
skilfully interlaced monsters, and very classic fretwork the back of 
the head, however, was only ornamented by a circular boss, and the 
base is also quite plain. 1 Now, as regards the tombstones, I have 
only been able to find two, and unfortunately the inscriptions are almost 
gone, only a trace of some letters remaining. The crosses, however, are 
exquisitely cut, and the design is particularly beautiful on the one which 

1 Since writing the above, I have "been told of some very interesting examples of 
carvings of animals with interlaced necks. On a pre-Norman fort at Oughtmama, 
in the county Clare, stags are shown in this way ; and at Limerick Cathedral there is 
a representation of animals, in a like position, on some late oak seats belonging to the 
15th century. It also occurs in some English romanesque churches as, e.g. Canter- 

Fig. i._View of Cross at Tihilly, King's County, South, East, and North faces. 


is broken. I may mention that I found another stone which evidently had 
once been a tombstone, but all engravings of any kind which ever had 
been cut on it were worn away. A story is told in the neighbourhood to 

Fig. 2. 

(1) Tombstone in Tihilly Churchyard. (3) Tombstone found in ploughed field. 

(2) West face of Tihilly Cross. ' (4) Detail of south face of Cross. 

the effect that at one time a great number of these old Irish tombstones 
existed, but the owner of the mill required a new kiln for drying his 


grain, and so he took these stones which seemed so suitable for his 
purpose, and broke them up and laid, as he thought, a good and durable 
floor. But lo ! a strange thing happened ! He lighted his fire, but the kiln 
would not work. At length his neighbours persuaded him to take up 
.the floor, and leave back the hallowed stones in their place, and obtain 
fresh stones suitable for his purpose. This he did, and then the kiln 
worked again as usual. 

Now all these legends and facts taken together convey something to us. 
The fact of the old church, neglected and in ruins, the desecrated grave- 
yard, the holy well filled up, the sacred cross left to be a scratching post 
for the cattle that graze around it all seem to tell us that this is not only 
an ancient place, but one well nigh forgotten so much neglected that 
many, many years must have elapsed since any religious house or church 
existed there, since all its hallowed associations are gone. I find notices 
of Tihilly, however, from the following authorities: In Dr. Todd's 
edition of the " Martyrology of Donegal," p. 179, occurs, under June 
25, the following notice : " Telle, son of Seigin, of Tigh-Telle, in West- 
rneath. He is of the race of Colla-Da." Reeves also, in his edition of 
Adamnan's "Life of St. Columba," p. 21, in a note, says " St. Fintan 
founded Teach-Telli, now Tihilly, near Durrow " ; and he then refers 
us to Codd. Marsh, fol. 127, b. b., where we get an account of St. Fintan. 
Colgan also, to whom Bishop Reeves refers, speaks of Tihilly. telling us 
how the Holy Virgin, Cera, used to live there. Lanigan, in his " Eccle- 
siastical History," also refers to St. Fintan (vol. iii., p. 129). He tells 
us that the Holy Virgin, Cera, who was said to be the daughter of Dubhe, 
and of an illustrious family of Muskerry, in the now county of Cork, 
applied to St. Fintan for a situation on which to establish a nunnery, and 
he is said to have assigned to her the place where he had been himself, 
afterwards called Teach-Telli. This St. Cera died in the year 670. Her 
memory is commemorated on January 5th. 

In the "Annals of Clonmacnoise " we are told of the death of "St. 
Moylerwayn, in the year 884, who was Abbot of Dysart Dermott, 
Killeaghie, and Tihellie," and respecting his reputation it is added that 
""he prophesied many things." From Rev. D. Murphy's edition we also 
learn that, in 741, M'Mdeferty, Abbot of Tihilly, died, but, in a note, 
the editor says Tihilly is near Clonmacnoise. 

In the " Annals of the Four Masters " we are told that Teagh-Telli 
was burned in the year 670. On this O'Donovan gives the following 
interesting note: "Teagh-Telli, i.e. the House of Telli, the son of 
Segienus, who was contemporary with St. Fintan of Taghmon, in county 
Wexford. In O'Clery's 'Irish Calendar' the festival of St. Telli is 
marked 25th of June ; and it is stated that his church, called Teagh- 
Teilli, is situated in Westmeath." I may remark, in passing, that Tehelly 
is not more than half-a-mile, at the furthest, from the border of West- 
meath, although it is in the King's County, so that this is not a very 



serious geographical mistake. 1 " In the Gloss on the Feilire JEnguis," 
O'Donovan adds, "it is described as in the vicinity of Daurmagh, now 
Durrew. Archdale says it is Telltown ; but this is very incorrect, because 
Telltown is not in Westmeath, but in the celebrated place in East Meath 
called Tailtin by the Irish writers. Lanigan ("Eccles. Hist.," vol. iii., 
p. 130) states that Tech-Teille is in the now King's County, but he does 
not tell us where. It is the place now called Tehelly, situated in the 
parish of Durrow, in the north of the King's County." 

In 723 2 we read of the death of Rubyn, chief scribe of Minister. He- 
was the son of Bryan of Tihill, and was a good preacher and divine. 

In 865 we are told of the death of Cosgrach, scribe and anchorite, of 
Teach-Teilli. In 884 of Maelruain, Abbot of Desert (castle) dermot, 
and Cill Achaiadh, and Teach Theille, and in 898 that of Scannall, of 
Teach Teille. 

The last notice I can find is in 936, when we read that Robhar- 
tach, of Teach-Teilli, died in the same year that Dubthach, successor 
of Columcille and Adamnan, in Ireland and Alba, died. 

These notices, it is true, are brief; but they, nevertheless, give us 
some information. Tehilly evidently did good work in its day as a centre 
of light and learning. Like many other religious houses, it had its 
anchorite cell. In its day its scribes, no doubt, gave the world manu- 
scripts like the " Book of Durrow." It sent forth missionaries who were 
not only full of zeal, but men of erudition, whose theological training 
gave good material on which, to base their fervid eloquence. 


And now I think it is time for me to pass on to the second ancient 

graveyard in my parish. The 
first object of interest which 
meets us there is the old church, 
which continued to be used for 
divine service until about sixteen 
years ago, and which stands on 
a site full of historic interest. 
Over the west door, as you enter, 
you see a curious little head 
carved in stone, which may pos- 
sibly be old. There are, also, 
over the door some imitations of 

Fig. 3. Cross on gable of Durrow Church. 

loaves of bread, &c., in stone, which, however, are too Georgian in their 

1 How little importance may be attached to a mere geographical mistake may bo 
inferred from the fact that, in our Museum of Irish Antiquities in Dublin, I saw a notice 
last year, underneath the Durrow crozier, which informed visitors that Durrow is 
situated in county Meath. 

2 A.D. 724, in "Annals of Ulster," " Rubin Mac Conad scriba Muman jft 
Brocain (de) Thaigh Theille qui magister bonus Evangelii Christi erat." 


appearance to allow us to attribute any great age to them. On the east 
gable is a very curious cross, with a representation of the crucifixion on 
it (fig. 3, p. 134). It is very short; the legs seem to be broken across; 
and it may possibly have once stood in the socket of an old cross which 
is outside the graveyard in a plantation, to the S.E., and which is 
known as "the headache stone." I have taken the measurements of the 
base of the cross and the socket of the headache stone, and the two 
correspond exactly. I, therefore, think it not unreasonable to suppose 
that this cross may have been placed there originally, and, after it had 
been broken, was removed to its present position at some time when 
the church was being restored. 

"We have also, I think, good reason for concluding that the present 
church stands on the very site that a church has stood on for over a 
thousand years. Probably the foundations are the same foundations as those 
which were first laid there for a stone church consecrated for the service 
of God. The " Chronicon Scotorum " tells us that, in the year 833, the 
terrnon of Durrow was burned to the church door. If the church was then 
built of wattles or wood, one can hardly think it would have escaped. 
The " Annals of Lough Ce " again tell us that the stone church of Durrow 
\vas broken into in the year, 1018, and Molloye, King of Fearceall, who 
seems to have sought there the right of asylum, was taken out of it by 
force and afterwards slain. The " Annals of Clonmacnoise " give a 
record of the same deed of violence, but make the date of the profanation 
of the sanctuary of Durrow five years earlier 1013. 

In Archdale's " Monasticon " we are told of an inquisition held on 
28th December, and the twelfth year of Queen Elizabeth, i.e. 1570, 
which found that the Abbot of Durrow was seized of the abbey and the 
village of Durrow, containing the site of the abbey, being half-an.-acre, 
on which were a church, hall, and other buildings. It is interesting to 
observe, with reference to this, that the church and churchyard, at present 
enclosed by a wall, just occupies about the same space ; also that, beside 
the old church, there is a space where no interments have been made, 
but which is taken up with broken fragments of stone and pieces of 
mortar, which seems to testify that some structure once stood there. The 
graveyard seems to be raised above it by reason of frequent interments ; 
but it is strange to find that, in a graveyard which is so much over- 
crowded, this space, which was available, was never used. 

In my account I have skipped over a period of five hundred years ; 
but 1 need not, I think, at the present time, draw your attention to the 
many notices of Durrow given by the annalists during this time, which 
show that it continued all along a centre of religious life and learning. 
I pass on to more recent times. 

Prom its hall-mark I find that the chalice belonging to our com- 
munion plate bears the date 1631-1632 ; this brings us on sixty years 
further ; and it seems natural to think that some restoration was effected 



in the church when this piece of plate was given to it. The period just 
antecedent to this date seems, indeed, to have been the time when things 
in Burrow were at their worst. 

In 1623 we are told that the "Book of Durrow" was kept in tlio 
possession of an ignorant peasant, who used to pour water upon it. which 
was given as a cure for cattle which were ill. 1 The "Book of Durrow'' 
was, at this time, taken possession of hy Henry Jones, who was then 
Bishop of Meath, and presented to Trinity College, Dublin. 

After the lapse of seventy years more, \ve find another interesting 
reference to the church of Durrow in Bishop Dopping's return to the 
Lord Lieutenant in the year 1694. After stating that Durrow was n 
cure with a salary of 20, which, at that time, was not paid " by reason 
of ye waste of ye country," he goes on to say that there is a church ami 
chancel, which was lately in repair, but much out of order by reason of 
" ye troubles of Sir George Herberte." My vestry-book carries on the 
history of the church from this date forward ; telling the story first 
of its dilapidated condition, and then of its gradually being provided, 
year after year, with the requisites for the proper conduct of Divine 
Service, until, the year 1880, when the Hon. Otway Toler, the 
father of the present proprietor of Durrow Abbey, built a new church 
and provided a new graveyard, for the use of members of the Church 
of Ireland, in memory of his father, Lord JS'orbury. This was the 
Lord Norbury who, on January 1st, 1839, was murdered at Durrow ; as 
a mural tablet in the old church informs us, " when he was spending 
his large means for the benefit of the people amongst whom he had 
fixed his residence, and when all his useful projects and beneficent 
intentions were suddenly cut off, not in the ordinary course of God's 
providence; for, as a man falleth before wicked men, so he fell." 2 

But I must not take up too much of your time with the old church 
of Durrow, lest I should pass over other objects of interest that are 
in its immediate vicinity. The records of the churchyard of Durrow 

1 See "Annals of Clonmaonoise," where, speaking of " The Book of Durrow," the 
writer says : " He [St. Columba] wrote 300 books with his own hand. They 
were all New Testaments. He left a hook to each of his churches in the kingdom, 
which hooks have a strange property, which is, that if they, or any of them, had sunk to 
the bottom of the deepest waters, they would not lose one letter, sign, or character 
of them, which I have seen partly by myself of that hook of them which is at 
Dorow [Durrow], in the King's County; for I saw the ignorant man who had the 
same in his oustodie, when sickness came on cattle, for their remedy, put water on the 
book and suffer it to rest there a while ; and saw also cattle return thereby to their 
former state, and the book to receive no loss." 

2 The Most Rev. Dr. Healy, from his language in comparing the character of Lord 
Norbury to that of Hugh de Lacie, seems to confuse the Lord Nor bury who was 
murdered, with his father, the celebrated judge. In illustration of the kind and 
charitable disposition of the second Lord Norbury (who was murdered), an amusing story 
is told in the neighbourhood of an old shoemaker, whom his lordship used to employ to 
make boots for his poor people, and who, after his death, used to say with much 
emphasis : "Them that shot Lord Norbury, shot me through the heart." 




involve the history of the principal families connected with it. 
Let me first, then, call your attention to a rude old tombstone 
which lies on the threshold of the entrance to the old church. It bears 
the following inscription : 


Underneath, the coat-of-arms is half cut ; but, for some reason, is left un- 
finished. Perhaps the sculptor himself died before he had accomplished his 
work. Perhaps the next-of-kiu of Francis de Renci were dissatisfied with 
the work, and would not have it completed. I have, however, obtained 
an illustration of it, as I think it both curious and interesting. You will 
observe the curious formation of the stags on the crest, the initial 
W. across the foremost of them ; also the curious knot and lozenge- 
shaped shield. To a theologian, also, the inscription will be of interest 
as showing that the relatives of Francis de Renci, of Tinicros, were 
thoroughly orthodox in their belief in the divinity of our Lord. I have 
not been able to find out, though I have been at some pains to do so, 
who this Francis de Renci 
was ; but there can be little 
doubt that he was a relation, 
perhaps son, of the celebrated 
Sir Matthew deRenzi, to whose 
memory there is a mural tablet 
placed in the church at Ath- 
lone, which tells us that the 

" Right Worshipful Mathew de Renzi, Knight, departed this life 
the 29 Aug., 1634"; also that he was "Borne at Cullen (sic), in 
Germany, and descended from that famous renowned warrior, George 
Castriott, als. Scanderberge (who, in the Christian war, fought 52 Bat- 
tailes, with great conquest and honour, against the Great Turke)." 
If our de Renci, of Durrow, had any of the talent of his illustrious 
kinsman, his tombstone fitly occupies a prominent position in Durrow 
amongst the remains of the illustrious dead who rest there. For this 
Sir Matthew de Renzi laid claim to be "a great traveller, and a general 
linguist." He " kept correspondency with most nations in many weighty 
affairs, and, in three years, gave great perfection to this nation by com- 
posing a grammar, dictionary, and chronicle, in the Irish tongue.' 7 
Then, again, the mortal remains of a number of heroes must have 
been laid to rest in the cemetery at Durrow, though we cannot identify 
the exact spot. The annalists telt us of many celebrities who died at 
Durrow, though they do not say in so many words, that they were 
interred there. But there are others to whom I must refer. The 
" Annals of the Four Masters" tell us that, in 758, Domhnall, son of 

Fig. 4. De Renci Arms. 



Murchadh of Diarmid, after he had been King of Ireland, died. He was 
first King of Ireland of the Clan Colrnain, and he was buried with honour 
and veneration. Of him was said : 

" Until that Domhnall was brought to Dearmhagh 
There was no avenging conflict or battle on the plain of Breamhagh." 

The death of another Domhnall, who was son of Magilla-Patrick, is 
mentioned in the " Annals of Lough Ce," which tell us that he was 
killed in Dearmhagh of Columbkille by the Conchobhair Failghe in the 
year 1582. In connexion with this I wish to show you an illus- 
tration of an old tombstone which I found in Durrow a couple of years 
ago. The top is broken off it, and unfortunately I have been unable to 
find it. The tombstone, however, has an interesting cross on it, and an 
inscription so much defaced, that I have not been able to make it out 

Fig. 6. Tombstone, south of Durrow Church. 

further than to get the letters D, o, M. It is merely a conjecture; but 
as from examining the inscription it does not appear to be part of tlir 
word Domini, I think, perhaps, it may belong to this Domhnall. It 
would not be surprising to find that he was buried in Durrow, since the 
Annalist tells us he died there, nor would it be very wonderful to find 
his tombstone still remaining since the year 1582. 

In 1068, the " Annals of the Four Masters " tell us that Murchadh, 
i.e. of the Short-Shield, Ua Brian, son of Donchadh, son of Brian 
Borumha, royal heir of Munster, was slain by the men of Teathbha in 
revenge of their having been plundered and preyed, and his head was 
taken to Clonmacnoise and his body to Dearmhagh. This record will, 
no doubt, remind you of the murder of the celebrated Hugh de Lacie, 


who, we all know, was slain at Durrow by the foster-son of Fox, "in 
revenge of Columbkille." He, too, it would seem, was, fora time, buried 
in the cemetery of Durrow ; but, as we are told (<?/. " Graves' Annals " 
and other authorities), in the year 1195 the Archbishop' of Cashel and 
Dublin removed it from the Irish territory, and buried the body in the 
Abbey of Bective in Meath, and the head in St. Thomas's Abbey in 
Dublin. Something similar is also recorded of another celebrity. In 
1452 Farrell Roe Oge, the son of Farrell Iloe, son of Donough, son of 
Murtagh More Mac Geoghegan, a captain of great repute and celebrity, 
was killed and beheaded at Cruagh-abhall (now Croughool, in the parish 
of Churchtown) by the son of the Baron of Delvin and the grandsons of 
Pierce Dalton. They carried his head to Trim, and from thence to 
Dublin for exhibition ; but it was afterwards brought back, and buried 
along with his body in Durrow Colum-Chille. 1 

Once more the same authority records the fact that, in 1448, Dermot, 
the son of Owen, son of Mahon O'Daly, ollave of all Meath, a learned 
poet, died, and was interred in Durrow Coluui-Cbille. 

I have traced for you, as briefly and concisely as I could, the history 
and continuity of the Church at Durrow since its foundation by St. 
Coluinba; but ere I conclude I must likewise say something of the 
history of the great families which have been connected with the lands of 
Durrow. To refer you once again to the annalists, we are told by them 
that, in or about the year 685, Hugh Mac Brenayn, King of the country 
of Teffia, died, and they add, it was he that granted Durrow to St. Columb- 
kille. 2 

Now, it is worthy of note that this illustrious prince was not content 
with presenting St. Columba with a site for his monastery, but that he 
and his descendants seem to have always taken an interest in its welfare, 
and regarded it as a kind of right and duty to watch over, help and 
protect, the monastery of Durrow. Thus the Sinnach. or Fox, who 
brought about the murder of Hugh de Lacie, was a descendant of the 
muii who presented Durrow to St. Columba. No doubt that murder had 
its agrarian as well as its religious aspect, and was prompted quite as 
much by reason of the jealousy of The Fox, that property which had 
belonged to his ancestors should pass into the hands of the Norman de 
Lucie, as for any religious reason ; but if there was this agrarian motive, 

1 The Mageoghegans were, in former times, the custodians of the Durrow Crozier, 
which is now to be seen in the Museum of Irish Antiquities iu Dublin. 

- The original name of Durrow was itosgrencha. It received its name of Durrow 
from St. Columba, on account of the number of oak trees which were found in its 
woods. It is interesting to find an evidence of the conservatism for which the Irish 
have ever been famous, in sticking to the old names of places, in the fact that one 
portion of the demesne is still called Grancha, so that the older name is still preserved 
iu the place, notwithstanding the origin of its change of name, and the fact that this 
change of name is associated with Durrow's patron saint. 



there was the other as well ; and no doubt the historians are correct 
when they assert, as a reason for it, that it was in revenge of Columkille. 1 
In the old churchyard of Durrow are two very remarkable inscribed 
tombstones. One of them, at least, is very well known ; it bears the 
inscription, op bo Qi^ibiu. I give an illustration of it to remind you how 
beautifully the work is executed. Indeed, we can see that the note in 
Dr. Petrie's book of Christian inscriptions is true, and that "the cross is 
of singularly beautiful design, and that no other has been found exactly 
similar in form." The other tombstone, of which I also give an 
illustration bears the inscription, -f op bo Chachalcm. When I became 
incumbent of Durrow parish some years ago I found it after some trouble, 


Fig. 6. Aigide's Tombstone, Durrow. 

as it was nearly buried, being almost entirely covered to the depth of 6 
or 8 inches with mould. A curious mistake with reference to it is pub- 
lished in more than one book, which, I suppose, owes its origin to one 
who seldom made a mistake of the kind I mean Dr. Petrie, who, we 
read, saw the stone in 1845. In his book of "Christian Inscriptions," 
edited by Miss Stokes, in Plate No. 31, it is represented as a fragment 

1 The same motive is ascribed by several writers for the murder of Lord Norbury in 
1839. But the parallel between the murder of Lord Norbury in 1839, and that of Hugh 
de Lncie in 1186, does not, in this respect, hold good. It is true, indeed, that they were 
both building castles on Durrow when they were killed, but I hardly think anyone in 
the neighbourhood would assert that Lord Norbury 's murder was in revenge of 
Columkille. The character of the Lord Norbury who was murdered, was, I under- 
stand, the very opposite of that of the tierce de Lacie and people in the neighbourhood 
will still tell you how, when he was murdered, not Lord Norbury only, but the 
country, was slain. He seems to have been widely esteemed fer his genial disposi- 
tion and kindly manners, as well as for his liberality. On referring to the newspapers 
of January, 1839, I find that the accounts then given of Lord Norbury correspond 
exactly with the traditions of the place. The Evening Packet, speaking of him as a 
large employer, says that by his death 1000 people were deprived of their means of 
suppoit. The Morning Post asks, " Why should any human being desire to imbrue 
his hands in the blood of Lord Norbury ? why, especially, should any of the neigh- 
bours of the noble lord \vish to put an end to a life spent in doing good ? " 



of a broken stone ; and in the notes on page 56, vol. ii., we read " A 
fragment, six inches in length, 1 is all that now remains of this monu- 
ment." 2 The Most Rev. Dr. Healy, in his book on " Ireland's Ancient 
Schools and Scholars," falls into the same mistake. On page 305 he- 
says, writing about Durrow " There are also two ancient inscribed 
stones, one unfortunately broken, but the inscription remains, + o? b 
Chachalom. This fragment is now only six inches long." I have an 

Fig. 7. Cathalan's Tombstone, Durrow. 

illustration of the stone here, and the stone itself may be seen, I am 
happy to say, at Durrow in as good a state of preservation as one could 
expect. It measures something like 2 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. I am 
particularly interested in the well-being of these stones, because of an 
interesting note of Dr. Petrie's in his " Round Towers," which connects 

1 From the fragment of the stone given in Miss Stokes' illustration it is evident that 
she meant two feet six inches. 

2 It is right to notice also that the plates in Dr. Petrie's " Christian Inscriptions " 
do not give an accurate representation of the knots, either on the Aigidiu or Cathalan 


them with the history of D arrow parish, and also with some of our 
King's County families. On page 326, writing of an inscribed stone 
found at Clournacnoise, op t>o Cat^cm, he says " This is probably that 
Tadgan who was chief of Teffia, from whose eldest son, Catharnach, are 
descended the ancient family of O'Catharnaigh of Kilcoursey, now Pox." 
But he observes further on (page 328) " It is probable that this ancient 
family ordinarily had their burial-place at the great rival monastery of 
Durrow, which was anciently within their own territory, and originally 
endowed by their ancestor, Aed, the son of Brendan, who died in the 
year 589. One of this family, Flann O'Tadhgain, was erenach of Durrow, 
where he died in 1022 a clear proof of the continued influence of this 
family in this monastery. And it is worthy of observation, that of the 
two monumental inscriptions yet remaining above ground in Durrow, 
both apparently belong to chiefs of this family ; of these, one bears the 
name Cathalan, who was probably the son of Catharnach, from whom the 
name of O'Catharnaigh, the true family name of the Poxes, was derived." 
" The second," Petrie says, " may be ascribed with greater certainty to a 
chief of this family named Aigidiu." In Lyons' " Grand Juries of West- 
meath," a very interesting account of the Pox family is given, in which 
he tells us that the descent of this family from Niall of the .Nine Hos- 
tages, monarch of all Ireland, is traced in a MS. which is in Trinity 
College, Dublin. And he then gives at full length a translation oi it, 
which is in the " Irish Arenas ological Miscellany." The pedigree is 
traced down from Niall of the Nine Hostages to 1536, when Breasal 
Pox was living. This account tells us how the family of O'Caharney, 
who afterwards took the name Sinnach, or Pox, were originally chiefs 
of all Teffia, and previously to the English invasion far more powerful 
than the Mageoghegans, but how shortly after that event they were sub- 
dued by the de Lacys. It goes on to show how their territory was then 
confined to one small barony, which originally was named Hunter Tadh- 
gain, but which is now called Kilcoursey, taking its name, I believe, 
from some member of the de Courcy family. He then gives a list of 
the names of the heads of the family in regular succession. The first 
on the list is, of course, Niall of the Nine Hostages. The second is 
Maine, fourth son of Niall, and ancestor of the men of Teffia, who died in 
425. The fourth is Brendan, king of Teffia, who (he says) granted the 
site of Durrow to St. Coluinba in 550, and died in 569. The eleventh 
is Tadhgan, a quo Munter Tadhgan the name given to the country of 
the O'Caharneys, or Poxes. The sixteenth on the list is Cathalan, whose 
inscribed tombstone we have here; and the seventeenth is Catharnac, 
from whom corner O'Caharney, the real name of the Poxes. 

.Now as these authorities testify to the continued influence and close 
connexion of the Pox family with the monastery of Durrow, so can 1 
with even greater certainty testify to their influence and interest in 
the church at later times. On the 18th of October, in the fourth year 


of Queen Elizabeth, we are told that Nicholas Herbert obtained a grant 
of Durrow Abbey for a term of twenty-one years, at the annual rent of 
10. In after yeiirs, Major Patrick Fox, of Foxhall, married the last 
representative of the Durrow Herberts, i.e., Frances, daughter and 
heiress of Sir Edward Herbert, Bart. This Patrick Fox died in 1734. 
His name is found several times in our vestry-book ; and the interest 
taken by the Foxes in the church is shown from the account of the 
Diocese of Meath made by Bishop Mant in 17.33. It tells us that the 
church was out of re-pair, " but ye said Mrs. Fox pulled it down and 
rebuilt it at her own expense." To me, however, it seems strange, that 
while our vestry -book keeps regular minutes during those years, that 
yet there is no record of the fact, or reference to Mrs. Fox's munificence. 
We have, however, two pieces of plate, a paten and a flagon, which were 
presented to the church by Francis and Mrs. Frances Fox in 1732, 
just at the time, I suppose, that the church was restored. Our chalice, 
1 have already observed, dates back to the years 1631-1632. We do not 
know who presented it ; but with reference to it I have the following 
interesting minute in the vestry-book: "We, Patrick Hynes and 
James Bamber, churchwardens for the parish of Durrow, do acknow- 
ledge to have received from the churchwardens for the preceding year 
the utensils belonging to the said church, viz. : one silver chalice, one 
bible, one common prayer-book, one worked carpet, one velvet cushion, 
with case to it ; 2 diaper table cloths, two damask napkins, the commu- 
nion table, with drawer to it, and lock and key. May 24th, 1717. 5>1 

I fear my Paper has already extended itself to undue limits, so that I 
cannot speak at any length of the great names connected with Durrow in 
modern times ; but there is in Durrow churchyard one other historic 
monument to which 1 must at least allude before concluding. I can hardly 
now attempt to do more than show one or two illustrations of it, and allude 
to some of its most interesting features. I, of course, speak of the High 
Cross. At the outset one cannot help expressing regret that so little 
did antiquaries concern themselves with it in the past, that no one 
seems to have ever noticed or taken any record of the inscription with 
which its base was covered, but of which a few letters only can now be 
deciphered nor did anyone ever know that such an inscription existed 
until about a year and a-hulf ago, when Miss Margaret Stokes was examin- 

1 On the death of Mrs. Frances Fox, the last of the Durrow Herberts, Herbert 
Rawson succeeded to Durrow, in light of his descent from Bridget Bygoe, daughter of 
Jsir George Herbert, and sister of Sir Edward Herbert, second baronet. His son, Philip 
Ravvfcon, married Martha Stepney, who inherited, from her brother, Abington, in 
couniy Limerick, and took the name of Stepney in addition to her own. In this way 
Burrow passed into the hands of the Stepneys, in whose possession it remained until 
it was purchased by the celebrated Lord JSorbury. Professor Stokes has called my 
attention to the interesting fact that about the same time that the Durrow property 
passed into the hands of the Stepneys, of Abington, in the county Limerick, the 
Moore property at Tullamore also passed from the hands of a King's County family to 
the Burys of county Limerick. 

Fig. 8. View of High Cross, West Face and Sides. 

WHST FACK. i. Trinity, and The Dove. 2. (across the arms) Figure with bird and horn, sitting figure, cruc 
fixion, doubtful. 3. Christ mocked. 4. Doubtful. =;. Soldiers at the Tomb. 6. Inscription. 

SOUTH. i. Horseman. 2. Arm underneath section of circle (three heads with serpents twining round then 
3. Chief with dogs. 4. Perhaps Cain killing Abel. 5. Adam and Eve and f< rbidden fruit. 6. Griffins. 

ISoRTH. -i. Crouching figure. 2. Arm underneath section of circle (serpents twining round heads). 3. Perba] 
flight into Egypt. 4. Scroll work. 5. Wrestlers, perhaps Jacob and Angel. 6. Inscription. 



Fig. 9. High Cross of Durrow. 1. Detail of West Face, Northern Arm ; 2. Upper]Panel, 
South Face ; 3. East Face. 

EAST FACE. i. Ornamental, scroll work. 2. (across the arms) David with harp, The Last Judgment, David 
rescuing the lamb from^the lion. 3. Abraham's sacrifice. 4. Interlacing. 5. Doubtful. 6. Defaced. 


ing the cross ; and Mr. M. O'Connor Morris, when taking a rubbing of its 
base, made out some letters which seem to indicate that in the inscrip- 
tion on the west side the name Dubthach. occurs. In connexion with 
this it is interesting to observe, that in the year 1010 " The Annals of 
the Four Masters " tell us that Dubthach, son of Tamain, erenach of 
Durrow, died ; and this date would correspond with the time which is, 
I think, generally regarded as about the best period of Irish art. And 
perhaps it may not be unreasonable to suppose that it may have been in 
his honour or by him that the cross itself was erected. Miss Stokes (I 
think very rightly) holds that these crosses were not strictly sepulchral, 
and that some of the inscriptions name the rankers, as at Monasterboice 
and Clonmacnoise. On the north side of the cross there is also some remains 
of an inscription ; but I have only been able to make out a few letters 
here and there. The " OR DO" is very plain, also the initial M seems 
sufficiently clear to make one tolerably sure about the first line. On the 
second line underneath, on the right hand side as you face the cross, one 

can decipher the last three let- 
ters on the line i, R, o, and on 
the third line underneath them 
again in the same position, the 
letters c, R, T. I have thought 
the prayer might be for Mael- 
moire, who was Abbot of Dear- 
mhagh, and was drowned in Eas 
Ruaidh in 971. My surmise 
seems to be strengthened by the 
old custom of erecting a cross, 
and asking for prayers for those 
Fig. 10. View of Interlaced Work. who have met their deaths by 

an accident. This very year a 

death by drowning occurred near Durrow, and I observe already a 
wooden cross has been set up in the place. 

Then, as regards the subject of the cross, it seems, as in the case of some 
others, on the one side to represent Christ suffering, on the other Christ 
triumphant. On the west side, as on one of the crosses at Clonmacnois, we 
have a panel which seems to represent the betrayal and seizure of Christ, 
and the soldiers guarding the tomb. On one arm of the cross there is a 
person blowing a trumpet, with some bird in his hand ; perhaps repre- 
senting the trumpet to be blown at Christ's second coming, and indicating 
the uncertainty of the time, in the allusion, to the Son of Man coming 
perhaps at cock-crowing or in the morning. Another panel which inte- 
rests me very much shows a group of three figures. The person in tho 
centre stands and appears to preside over a book which is held by the 
others, who are seated on either side of him ; over the head of these 
seated figures an angel is represented.; There is, a panel at Clonmacnoise 


very similar to this, but the angels over the heads of the side figures are 
wanting. There is also another panel on Muiredach's cross at Monaster- 
boice which very much resembles it. It is curious, too, how an element 
of the world, with its pomps and pleasures, seems to enter into the 
thoughts of the designer, and connected with such sacred pictures as The 
Death of Our Lord and His Triumph at the Last Judgment, The Fall of 
Man and Our Redemption, we have the Irish king, with his shield and 
sword and his wolf hounds at his feet, 1 and the knight on horseback, 
equipped and ready for the field of battle. An interesting type of The 
Redemption is represented in the Lamb delivered by David from the 
Lion, and also an equally interesting example of an artist giving a piece 
of local colouring to a Scriptural picture where we find David playing on 
a six-stringed Irish harp. 2 It is difficult for us to imagine the beautiful 
finish of our tenth and eleventh century crosses when they left trie 
sculptor's hands. Traces of delicate beaded work and embroidery are 
apparent on the robes of some of the figures (and even on the mouldings) 
of this cross, although the surface has been worn down at least one-eighth 
of an inch (as shown by the projecting veins of quartz, &c.) The head 
and segments of its circle are uneven, but the former does not lean over 
as shown in some sketches, and even photographs. Besides these remains, 
a block of fine interlaced work, possibly a fragment of a third cross, lies 
not far from the High Cross, and in the graveyard wall, near the latter, 
is the head of a window of one round-headed light with bold mouldings, 
and a rose of late design. 3 


1 A very similar figure appears on the west cross of Monasterboice. 

2 O'Connor, in his correspondence about Durrow, in 1838, particularly alludes to 
this. " The cross at Durrow," he says, " is elaborately sculptured in the same style 
as the cross at Kells and Moone, but the cross at Durrow exhibits a figure wrath I did 
not observe on any of the others, viz., a man playing on a small six-stringed Iri^hbarp, 
which rested on his left knee. This perfectly agrees with the figure of Mr. Petrie's 
Shrine of Madoc." Those who are familiar with the Cross of Kells will see that 
O'Connor's faculties of observation were not very keen. 

3 The illustrations of the Crosses of Durrow and Tihilly are from measured drawings 
and rubbings made on the spot. The tombstones are from rubbings only, but have 
been compared and corrected by Mr. "Williams. T. J. WESTROPP. 


stand for King of Teffia : 

I. Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch 

of All Ireland, 
ii. Maine, ancestors of the men of Teffia. 

called Tirmany, died 425. 
HI. Brecan. 

iv. Brendan, K. T. (who granted the 
site of Durrow to St. Columb- 
kill in 550, died 5G9). 
v. Aedh (Augustus, Hugh), K. T., liv- 
ing, 590. 

vi. Blathmac, K. T., died 691. 
vn. Congalagh. 

vm. Calla, or Conla, K. T., died 738. 
ix. Braite Bee, K. T., died 764. 
x. Maelbeannachta. 
xi. Tadhgan, a quo Munter Tadhgan, 
the tribe-name of the O'Cahar- 
neys',or Foxes', country. (Tadh 
is Thaddeus, Thady.) 
xii. Bee. 

xiii. Conchobar. 
xiv. Breasal. 
xv. Cenrnachan. 
xvi. CATHAI.AN. 
xvn. Catharnac, a quo O'Caharney, the 

real name of the Foxes, 
xvin. Fogartagh. 

xix. Ruaidhri, or Rory (Ruadh is red- 

xx. Tadhg Sinnach O'Caharney, 
K. T., slain 1084, by Melagh- 
lin Mac Connor Melaghlin . 
xxi. Ruaidhri. 

xxn. Niall, Chief of Teffia, 1233. 
xxin. Mac Leachrainne. 
xxiv. Connor, K. T., slain 1226. 
xxv. Congalach. 
xxvi. Ruaidhri. 
xxvu. Niall. 

" By comparing this Pedigree with that of Mageoghegan (as given in 
the same manuscript), we must conclude, from the number of generations, 
that this Niall was contemporary with Congalach More Mageoghegan, 
who nourished in the 13th century. He was probably the Niall 
Sinnach, or Fox chief, Munter Phadgan, who was killed in the battle 
of Athenry, 1316. It is quite clear that there were four or five 
generations between this N"iall and Breassal, who made the covenant " 
(of which Lyons gives a full extract), " in 1536, with Mageoghegan." 






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HPHE three drawings befor^ us represent three inscribed- stones, which 
have engaged the attention of some of the leading specialists in 
deciphering such mysterious matters, and as it appears to me that there 
is still room for further investigation as to these inscriptions, I have 
ventured to bring them under the notice of the Society. 

Fig. 1 is a representation,' from a rubbing, of the inscription on what 
is known as " the Baginbun: Stone." The size, and other particulars 
of it, will be given later on. j 

Fig. 2 represents the stone itself. 

Figs. 3 and 4 represent a stone built into the wall of an outhouse in 
the yard of Fethard Castle, which is situated about one mile from where 
the Baginbun stone is. Both are in the county Wexford. 

The stone shown in fig. 5 is at Carew Castle, in Pembrokeshire, 
South Wales, and is taken from a rubbing kindly sent me by Mr. Romilly 

About two years since, considerable discussion was carried on in the 
pages of the Academy respecting the interpretation of the very curious 
lettering on these three stones, and as opinions were expressed much at 
variance one from another, I shall endeavour to bring before you the 
several opinions of those who took part in this discussion, leaving to the 
judgment of each person, on fully weighing the evidence, to adopt the 
views of the writers, or to propound new ones of his own. 

That a resemblance exists between the lettering of the three stones 
is self-evident to anyone who views them together. 


Mr. Romilly Allen considers the Baginbun inscription the most 
modern of the three, placing the Welsh inscription as the oldest, and the 
Fethard Castle as intermediate, giving certain reasons connected with 
the formation of the letters for having formed this opinion. 

The first letter I shall notice is one dated London, 6th October, 
1894, and signed " Edmund M'Clure." In it the writer gives the 
printer of the Baginbun inscription, as given by Mr. 11. A. S. Macalister, 
of Cambridge, in his letter of the previous month, credit for having 
printed it '* upside down"! and having thus arranged it to his liking, 
he considers the majority of the letters as "intelligible," with the 
assistance of the inscriptions on the Kilmalkedar stone in this country, 
and of those in Westwood's " Lapidarium Walliae." 



He reads the first letter as a compound one (having reversed the 
inscription), as ORA, and the two following as DI. 

The last letter of the line, he says, is the Kilmalkedar B. 

He calls the first letter of the second line an L, after the same stone, 
and then an o and a B. 

The third line he reads thus 


the whole reading 


says the meaning seems easy if we could determine the name LOB 
[LOBAR] or the LOIBA of the " Martyrology of Donegal." He considers 
it has " no aspect of a forgery," and the agreement of many of its letters 
with those on the Kilmalkedar stone (conjectured to be of the 6th or 
7th century), makes it an object of great interest. 

He adds that " the dash in the o may also be i in the o of LOB, giving 

Mr. Macalister, of Cambridge, who appears to have opened the 
correspondence about these stones, speaks of Baginbun as traditionally 
the landing-place of Strongbow, while " Bannow Bay possesses the true 
claims to that distinction." He names the ancient trenches on Baginbun 
Head as being pointed out by the inhabitants as Strongbow's work, 
while they are generally believed by antiquaries to be of much more 
ancient times. 

Of the inscribed. stone, he says : " On the top of the sea-cliff will 
be found & prostrate stone lying partly buried in the earth. The upper 
surface of this stone measures 45 by 33 inches, and bears inscribed upon 
it an inscription in three lines, of which the following is a copy from a 
careful tracing" : 

Fig. 1. The Baginbun Inscription, from a rubbing. 

He draws attention to the jumble of extraordinary nondescript characters 



here brought together Greek, Roman, Irish, WM-Runic, &c., and' 
classes it with the inscriptions on the Lennon cromlech, and the Lough^- 
crew stones, county Meath, as " a hopeless puzzle." He then alludes 
to the idea of its being a " fraud," intentional or unintentional. 

He draws attention to a slight error in the inscription as printed in 
the first letter of the second line, where the horizontal hooked character 
should be oblique, I thus, and furnished with a dot. He says he ha& 
compared the printed copy with his original, and finds it otherwise 

In a subsequent letter, dated November 3rd, 1894, Mr. Macalister r 
in referring to certain points mentioned by me in a letter, dated 18th 
October, 1894, with reference to the Baginbun stone, and to his printed 
copy of the inscription on it, says : " I took four rubbings ; I also went 
over my transcript, comparing it, letter by letter, with the original" ;. 
and he feels certain that the short line in the fifth letter of line one does 
not go the whole way across the circular portion of the character. He 
a( Jds : " Two of my rubbings show a distinct bar between the horizontal 
stroke and the circle of the third letter of line three." 

He expresses doubt about the first letter of the third line of the 
Fethard stone, and writes it a T ; it is, no doubt, a c, judging from my 
own observations and from Du foyer's drawing, taken some thirty -three 
years since, when the inscription was in good preservation. 

Professor Nicholson, of Oxford, in commenting on this inscription, 
which he described as "more uncanny even than the Newton stone," 
says "all that is needed for the inscription's elucidation is a moderate 
acquaintance with early mediaeval writing (especially Celtic), and a 
proper knowledge of the language," and then he gives the following 
as the reading : 




and says : " Except the Q'S, which are fortunately unmistakable, almost 
every form used may be found on plate 53 of vol. ii. of Petrie and 
Stokes's ' Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language.' 

" The v in line one, tailed like a Y, resembles the v's on the Newton 
stone. The right-hand stroke of this v is also made to serve as the first 
stroke of the M, to which there is an exact parallel in the final VM of the 
Newton stone. . . ." He adds : 

" I am confident that line two begins with an A. I take AOI to be a 
genitive of AUE, ' grandson.' 

" The three oi's in the inscription are all like the Greek 0, i.e. an o 
with an i inside it. . . ." 

Whether the E in line 2, is E, or a combination of E and i, he says, 
is doubtful, and he thinks the reproduction is imperfect here, but says 
both VEQ and VEIQ are correct. 


"In line three the N is H -shaped, like one on the Newton stone, and 
has a dot underneath to show, like the modern Irish hyphen, that it 
' eclipses ' the following consonant^ and the stroke on the top of the D is 
apparently another aspirating apostrophe, and the final Q has over it the 
aspirating sign |_." 

He sees no reason that the meaning should not he " Little son of 
Sib, grandson of Maq Oil, five days old." 

For further remarks on this inscription. I must refer you to Professor 
Nicholson's letter of the above date. He attributes the stone to " not 
earlier than the end of the 9th century," and draws attention to 
Hiibner's mistake in publishing this as a duplicate of the Carew Castle 

In a further communication, dated October 1st, 1894, he gives what 
he calls approximately correct transcripts of the Fethard and Welsh 
inscriptions, which will be noticed later on under their respective heads ; 
and in another letter he gives the following amazing decipherment and 
translation, from a Scotch University town : 

A<Sico/cw e< c(f>vp et Iltor <&OIVL. 

" I hasten on towards north-western [parts], Pytheas, a Phoenician " ! ! ! 

In reviewing these letters and others, I brought under notice certain 
minor differences which I observed in Mr. Macalister's print of this 
inscription, on comparing it with my rubbing of the inscription, and 
first, the diagonal stroke near the second letter of the top line is so 
indistinct and irregular, that I doubt its being any part of that letter, 
but rather a natural flaw, or mark, in the stone. 

In the fifth letter of this line, the stroke Mr. Macalister represents as 
going only half way across the bottom portion of this letter, appears to 
me to go apparently across the whole space. 

Mr. Macalister corrects his first drawing of the first letter of the 
second line. To me there appears here to be the outline of an Irish a 
(A). In the sixth letter of this line the bar extends, as I have 
shown it, from side to side of the circle, and not as represented by 
Mr. Macalister. 

I did not observe the mark Mr. Macalister gives over the third letter 
of the last line joining the bar over it, with the circle under it ; and in 
the sixth and seventh letter, as given here, there appears to be a line 
joining these two letters by continuing the loop-line till it meets the 
sixth letter ; nor have I found any depression to justify the turn to the 
right at the bottom of the sixth letter, as given in Mr. Macalister's 
drawing. I have marked what I consider as the doubtful parts of the 
inscription in dotted lines ; and while one is sorely puzzled over the 
jumble of nondescript letters, I would yet be very sorry to endorse 


Mr. Macalister's opinion that the reading and interpretation is "a 
hopeless puzzle." 

Hiibner, in giving the Baginbun inscription as a duplicate of the 
Welsh one, probably confused it with the Fethard stone. As to either 
of the county Wexford inscriptions being forgeries, or meaningless, the 
idea appears to be too absurd to be entertained for a moment. As I said 
in my letter to the Academy, I would as soon consider the famous 
Eosetta stone, in the British Museum, a forgery, as I would one or other 
of these. How such an experienced antiquary as our late distinguished 
Secretary, the Rev. James Graves, came to the conclusion that these two 
inscriptions were forgeries, I know not ; but I feel certain, were lie now 
alive, he would no longer retain such an opinion. I failed to discover 
in either inscription, in any one point, the smallest appearance of any 
modern work, or interference with the lettering. 

Fig. 2. Inscribed Stone at Baginbun Bay. 

The Rev. Mr. M'Clure's theory that the inscription, as given in the 
Academy of 10th October, 1894, is printed "upside down," appears to me 
to have no legs to stand on. By reference to a sketch of the stone which 
I have (see fig. 2), and also a photograph taken two years since by Fleet- 
Surgeon R. W. Brereton, K.N., and kindly given to me, it will be seen 
that it begins at the upper rounded edge of the stone, and ends about 
the middle, leaving room for about three additional lines of writing had 
they been required. The stone slopes gradually till it enters the earth, 
but its dimensions underground have not been ascertained by me. I 


may, however, say, that its weight must be several tons at least, and 
that I consider it is in its original position, and never stood upright. 
As to this stone being an Ogham-inscribed memorial, the idea may, I 
think, be at once abandoned. 

With reference to the letters of this inscription, the first letter may, 
I think, be described as " Gaulish," and the sixth as an Irish S ; while 
those like the Greek resemble the Welsh Q or QI. The last letter in 
the inscription must, I think, be a compound one, containing two or 
more letters. 

Like the Carew Castle stone, there is here also only " one dot" 
that shown in the third line while in the Fethard Castle inscription 
there are two, if not three. 

There are no signs of " tooling" on this stone excepting, of course, 
the lettering. The edges of the stone are rounded, not square. It at 
present stands about 10 feet from the edge of the cliff, which is here 
about 25 feet in height, and appears to be fast falling away from 
climatic causes. 

It would be interesting to have the earth cleared from about this 
stone, to enable a better examination of it to be made. At present a 
large portion of it is under ground. 

What appears to be a horizontal line may be noticed some 2 inches 
below the letters of the bottom line, and extending about 3 inches in 
length, with a " dot" near the right-hand end. 

Mr. Macalister mentions his having been told, when at Baginbun, 
about two years since, by an old man of 60 or 70, that he was aware 
" that some local magnate had engaged a stone-mason to sharpen up the 
letters" [of this inscription]. He may have engaged him, but, I think, 
an inspection of the stone is sufficient to show that no such work has 
been done. 

Lord Southesk gives an analysis of the letters in this inscription in 
a letter dated 1st January, 1895. He makes the first letter of the 
inscription to be an L, and compares it to the L in the early Irish 
inscription, " Lie Colum," at Gallarus ; he says z would be meaning- 
less. The second letter he calls M, preceded by an oblique stroke (that 
which, I think, is a flaw in the stone), to mark abbreviation and 

The 3rd letter he calls A; the 4th, Q, agreeing here with Mr. 
Nicholson; No. 5, G; Nos. 6 and 7, i and T, and says "similar com- 
binations of i and T are found in numerous examples." 

No. 8, beginning the second line, he calls damaged, but apparently 
i, if not, perhaps, an H, and considers it peculiar to this inscription. 

No. 9, E, occurs, he says, in Pictish (?), Welsh, and Irish inscrip^ 

No. 10, u ; No. 11, T, and adds this could hardly be anything else. 

No. 12, Q, same letter as No. 2. If not Q, it must be F, PH, or P ; 



No. 13, E; No. 14, N, unrepresented in the two other inscriptions. I 
cannot myself see why he calls this letter by a different name from the one 
at the beginning of this inscription, with which it appears to correspond. 
He says it might be L, but could hardly be z ; he calls it an N set on end. 

No. 15, commencing the third line, he Considers to be Q, and to 
correspond with c in the Carew inscription. 

No. 16, E, he thinks unimportant, the bar not crossing the circle in 
this letter. 

No. 17, T, perhaps D; but T corresponds, he says, with Carew and 

No. 18, H, a peculiar form; it resembles A reversed, and cannot, he 
thinks, be the Runic K. He asks is the point beneath it significant ? 

No. 19, T. " The tail is curled up into a circle, which seems a 
tendency in this inscription" (see Nos. 5, 17, and 22). 

Nos. 20 and 21 he reads i E, a compound letter; he says it corre- 
sponds with E in the Carew inscription, and with what seems to be an E 
in the Fethard inscription. 

No. 22, at the end of this line he calls GH, and says it is " hard to 
determine," and that Professor Nicholson's rendering seems most 


I shall next ask your attention for the Fethard Castle stone, 
represented in the annexed drawing, from a rubbing taken by me 
in 1894. It is, as I have already stated, built into the wall of 

Fig. 3. The Fethard Castle Stone. 

an out-house in the yard of Fethard Castle. It is about 3 feet 
above the ground level, and has lately been whitewashed with the wall 
around it. A hole (as shown in the drawing) has been drilled into it 
near the second letter from the end, apparently to allow the end of the? 
spindle of a grinding-stone to revolve in it. 


No doubt this ancient stone is no longer in situ, but I failed to find 
any information as to whence or when it had come to its present un- 
dignified position. 

The Castle of Fethard is about 40 yards from the present church, 
which was built on the site of an ancient church, or cell, and it is 
possible this stone may have had some connexion with the old church. 

We'stwood, in speaking of the Carew Castle stone, says: " It is 
remarkable that a not quite correct copy of this inscription has been 
found in Ireland on a block of sandstone at Fethard Castle, belonging to 
the Carew family" (the italics are my own). With our present informa- 
tion, I scarcely think he is justified in calling the Fethard inscription 
a copy of the Welsh one, and still less in his statement that Fethard 
Castle is or was the property of the Carew family. I have inquired in 
vain for any authority to support this assertion. A correspondent 
writing to me some time since, says : " I never saw it stated anywhere 
that Fethard was a Carew Castle, and I know no reason for saying so." 

The town of Fethard, it is true, is said to have been one of the 
earliest birilt towns of the Anglo-Norman colony in Wexford county. 
The castle belonged, at an early period, to the See of Ferns, in which 
diocese it is situated. 

Lewis says that the castle was built by llayrnund-le-Gros, and the 
place given to him by Strongbow ; but Mr. Gr. H. Orpen considers this 
an error on the part of Lewis, and that Fothard, a place in the barony 
of Forth, county Carlow, is the place Raymond received f rom Strongbow, 
and not Fethard in the county Wexford. On this subject Mr. Orpen 
writes : " Fethard was probably included in the grant to Hervey de 
Mont Maurice, consisting of two cantreds next the sea, between Wex- 
ford and Waterford. Hervey gave some of these lands, including, 
apparently, Fethard, to the monks of Christ's Church, Canterbury, who, 
in the year 1245, transferred them to the Cistercian Monastery De Voto 
[Tintern, Comerford]." 

Mr. Orpen considers it as "very probable" that this castle was 
erected by one of the bishops of Ferns. Hervey de Mont Maurice was 
not a Carew. 

In comparing this inscription with of Carew Castle, now before 
you, and marked No. 3, I notice the following differences : The first 
letter of the Fethard inscription (M) differs in the first stroke from that 
in the Welsh inscription, the third letter differs very considerably, and 
the fourth slightly, but both would appear to be intendel to represent 
the same letter. 

The first letter of the second line his generally b3on taken to be 
an E, but I think it right to point out that there is what appears to be 
a nearly horizontal stroke at the head which, if it really balongs to the 
letter, would cause it to resemble a T, like the third letter in this line, 


more than E. The present defective surface of the stone makes it very 
uncertain whether this stroke, or mark, is intentional or accidental. 

I would also draw your attention to the heads of the T'S in this 
inscription, they are all well curved, while those of the "Welsh stone are 
strictly horizontal and straight. 

There is a much larger space hetween the two T'S in the last line of 
this inscription than on the Carew stone, and the two " dots" in this 
line are altogether absent in the Welsh stone. The final letter in the 
Pethard inscription appears to he much hetter formed, and more distinct, 
than the corresponding letter in the Carew Castle stone. 

I would also draw attention to the fifth letter in this line on the 
Welsh stone it appears to be an E, while on the Fethard stone it partakes 
more of the character of an F. 

Fig. 4. The Fethara tttone. From a Drawing by the late G. V. Du Noyer. 

You will also observe the entire absence of the two parallel lines 
at the end of the second line in the "Welsh inscription, which are well 
defined on our stone. 

There is no " dot " under the third letter of the Fethard inscription, 
as is seen in the Carew stone. 

The late Mr. G. V. Du Noyer made a sketch of this stone about 
thirty-three years since ; it appears in vol. ix., p. 7, of his drawings in 
our Library, and it will be found to correspond most accurately with 
that now before you, taken from my rubbing. He makes the letter, at 
the beginning of the second line, an E ; the hole for the axle does not 
appear, showing that it has been made since 1863 when he copied it. 

Du Noyer's reading of this inscription, 1 I may as well here mention > 
together with those of Professor Nicholson and Mr. Komilly Allen, 
shows that antiquaries, like doctors, differ at times. 

1 Du Noyer evidently considered the inscription to be Anglo-Norman. The letters, 
lie says, are about 2 inches in height. 


Du Noyer gives 

MAQ . . . for Magister. 

GIT . . . ,, lies. 

GI ... ,, here (ici). 

TEE . . . ,, Trefoncier [the owner]. 

CET . . . ,, This T for tomb ; and 

FX ... ,, fecit. 

Professor Nicholson reads it thus : 


He divides the words as I have here given them, and appears to agree 
with Du Noyer as to the name of the occupier being inscribed, followed 
by that of the holding. 

Mr. Romilly Allen's remarks and interpretations are as follows : 

" The Fethard inscription has the same number of letters as that at 
Carew, namely, six in the first line, five in the second, and six in the 
third." He also draws attention to the curved tops of the T'S, "the 
conversion of two K'S into mongrel <'s, and the prolongation of certain 
vertical stokes." 

He attributes the Fethard stone to the 13th or 14th century, while 
he places the Welsh inscription in the 9th or 10th, and Baginbun to a 
still later date than that of Fethard, and he hopes the Irish antiquaries 
will follow up the investigation of these inscriptions, a hope in which I 
heartily participate. 

To quote him further, he says : " If the views put forward in his 
letter [3rd July, 1895] are correct, what are we to say of Mr. W. 
de Gray Birch, F.S.A., who, by some pala3ographical hocus-pocus, trans- 
forms the ' Margiteut ' of Carew inscription into Maquy-Gilteut = the 
son of St. Iltyd (or) of Kev. E. M'Clure, who turns it upside down, 
and sees in it a prayer for the soul of Forcus Boichil." He also refers 
to Professor Nicholson's, Lord Southesk's, and Du Noyer's readings. 

Lord Southesk considers that " all three inscriptions are identical, or, 
at least, are intended to convey an identical meaning," and he places 
them in point of date thus : " Baginbun, the fullest inscription, is the 
earliest ; Fethard, once nearly identical with it comes next ; and the 
Carew inscription the latest." Thus it will be seen he completely 
reverses Mr. Allen's opinion as to the respective ages of these inscrip- 
tions. He also considers "that subsequently to its appearance, the 
Fethard inscription was altered, so as to assimilate it to that of Carew." 

He reads the Fethard inscription thus : 

123 456 

MAQ [or P] G I T 

7 8 9 10 11 12 

E U T Q [or P] E 

13 14 15 16 17 18 

.G E T T E en 


He says, " Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, GITEUT, closely resemble the correspond- 
ing letters at Carew," which is very evident. The two " fine horizontal 
strokes, answering in place to the N at Baginbun, have no counterpart 
at Carew. Paint markings appear, he says, above .these well-defined 
strokes, but as these hardly seem significant, I am inclined to think that 
the strokes represent an abbreviation, caused by the erasure of a letter 
that once corresponded with No. 14 r N, at Baginbun." 

"With respect to the first letter of the third line, which, I think, 
certainly was a c, he says : there are " slight indications of a vertical 
line between the horns of the c, suggesting a minuscule Q." The two 
next letters, E T, agree with those on the Welsh stone. 

No. 16 [T] he says : " Preceding this letter there is a space, occu- 
pied by a point, which exactly leaves room for a form equivalent to 
No. 18 (H?) at Baginbun." 

No. 17 he calls E. 

The last letter he calls GH, and adds: tf moderate changes in its 
form would assimilate it to the final letter at Baginbun and Carew 
additions in the former case, subtractions in the latter." 

His lordship then reasons on the name as he reads it, " Giteut," and 
translates the inscription thus : 

" [Stone] of Mac-Giteut, chief of the Catti, or chief of the warriors." 
He mentions a Catti tribe in North Britain, and also one in Somerset- 
shire. Space will not permit me to refer further to his elaborate and 
curious remarks on this inscription. 

The representation of this inscription as given in plate 57 of either 
Westwood, or Hiibner, is not correct, as can be seen by comparing it 
with Du Noyer's drawing, or my rubbing. 

Professor Nicholson, in writing of this stone, says it " almost cer- 
tainly" reads 


He divides it into words as I have here given them. He says it is a 
march-stone, like the Abayne one, and consists of the name of the 
occupier, followed by that of the holding, and, as in the St. Vigean's 
.stone, the holding is called by the name of the family to whom it 
belonged, or had belonged. He also says, "The idea of the Irish stone 
being copied from the Welsh must, of course, be dismissed for ever, and 
the idea of its being a modern forgery is not worth a parting kick " ! 

Westwood thus speaks of it in his work, " Lapidarium Wallia3," 
p. 120, after mentioning the cross near the base of the shaft of which is 
the inscription, he adds : "In the lower part, on the west side, is a 
fexia enclosing a very classical fret, and below the middle are two 
transverse spaces, each measuring 11 inches by 6, the right-hand one 
being quite plain, and the left-hand one having an inscription, which 
has not hitherto been satisfactorily explained. . . . The letters are 



incised, whilst the ornamental patterns are in relief. The .letters of this 
inscription are very irregular, and seem to represent 




but several of them are so ill-shaped, especially the third in the top- 
line, the fourth in the second line, and the terminal portion of the third 
line, that nothing positive can be said of them " 

He then says that "not quite a correct copy of this inscription has 
been found in Ireland on a block of sandstone at Fethard Castle belong- 
ing to the Carew family." 

He gives the dimensions of the Eethard stone [23 inches by 13] and 
the inscription : 


CET . T . FX 

The lower sides of the terminal x being curved up to the left, the outer 
one uniting to the lower limb of the left-hand stroke like an 8. 


We shall now proceed to consider the Welsh stone, represented by 
drawin g No. 3, of which the annexed drawing is a copy, on a reduced 

Fig. 5. The Carew Castle Stone. 

Professor Nicholson says it almost certainly reads 


The above division of the words are his. He says : " The final H is 
formed as in the Fethard stone, but the R and first Q are of totally 


different type. A photograph will, doubtless, show another (aspirating) 
dot after the last T," &c. 

He adds: " This is obviously a monument (giving his name and 
that of the place in Ireland from which he came) of one of the same 
family, and being on the same property. Whether he was the same 
man mentioned in the Fethard stone [inscription] depends partly on 
whether MAQV = MAQ, or signifies some more distant relationship." 

He appears here to agree with Du N"oyer as to the name of the 
occupier being inscribed on the Fethard stone. 

He further says that "if the dot under the first v is not a mere 
natural mark in the stone, it is meant as a cancel-point, either to strike 
out the letter altogether, or to show that it was not to be sounded 
separately from the Q." 

Lord Southesk, in writing about this stone, reads the inscription the 
same as Professor Rhys and Mr. Romilly Allen, except in the following 
letters. He makes Mr. Rhys's R'S, in the first and third lines, p's, and 
the two last letters in the inscription he makes E and Y in place of r, and 
a blank, as given by Mr. Rhys, and says most of the letters are unmis- 
takable, only Nos. 3, 10, and 17, leaving room for doubt. The import 
of the angled form, at the back of No. 3, he considers uncertain ; it is 
absent in No. 10. Both of these letters have been read as R. He doubts 
the correctness of this reading, and remarks that the corresponding 
letters on the Bagiubun stone, and at Fethard, could not represent R. 
The upcurved form beneath the well-defined Y, at the end of this inscrip- 
tion, he says, " must have some significance." 

Mr. Romilly Allen, who also appears to have given much attention 
to these inscriptions, speaks of the identity of the three inscriptions, 
and that the abnormal forms of the letters have been evolved by succes- 
sive copyings by ignorant persons. How much of this theory we may 
accept or reject, I think, requires further consideration. He throws 
over the idea that this stone begins with the letters MAQ, and substitutes 
for them MAR. He says the deviations from the original (the Carew 
inscription) are greater in the Baginbun than in the Fethard stone ; 
hence he considers the Welsh stone to be the oldest, and that the 
Baginbun inscription has been copied from that at Fethard. 

He considers that Professor Rhys' s reading of this inscription is 
correct ; it is as follows : 

CETT P . . ., 

and interprets it to mean : 

"Margiteut Recett fecit," or " Meredyd of Rheged made it." 
Professor Rhys, in a former Paper, read this inscription as 

"Margeteud f[ilius] Ecettey " ; 



but he finds now he was wrong, and says " there are several marks and 
points among the letters which I am inclined to regard as meaningless, 
and as forming probably no part of the original." 'Recett' is more 
usually written ' Rheged,' and he calls it a district in Wales. He seems 
to find in the abbreviation at the end "the elements of Fejt," and adds it 
may be worth while considering whether it was intended for fecit rather 
than some French form of that verb. 

Finally we have Professor Sayce reading this inscription thus : 



and thus rendering it 

" Margiteut Decett fecit Crucem " ; 

and, I understand, he attributes it to the 9th century. 1 

I have now concluded my notes, &c., on these inscriptions. I trust 
sufficient has been said to show they are worthy of further consideration, 
and that that may be by some of those who hail from Ireland is not 
unreasonable to expect. Hitherto what has been done in the matter 
appears to have been done across the water. May I not hope that the 
next step towards the confirmation of one of the numerous and varied 
interpretations I have brought under your notice, or else that a new 
and truthful one may be suggested, at no distant date, by some 
Member of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

1 I may here observe that I forwarded the rubbings of the two Irish inscriptions to 
Professor \Vhitley Stokes, hoping that he would have given us the aid of his valuable 
help, but, I regret to say, he expressed no opinion on them whatever. 



- (Continued from Vol. III. (1893), page 320.) 



561. " "William, Count of Pembroke, grants to Church of Dublin, his 
rights in the lands of Inverheli." 

561. " William, Count of Pembroke, grants to William, Bishop of Glenda- 
lough, Clarthyaun, and Bogeryn, with ten carucatcs of land. 
"Witnesses, Hugh, Bishop of Ossory, and others." Possibly this 
was Begerin, an island in "Wexford Harbour, used A.D. 1172 as 
a prison by the Irish : cf. " Song of Dermot," ed. Orpen, p. 131, 
and " Crede Mihi," ed. Gilbert, p. 53. 


563. " "William, Count of Pembroke, gives to the Church of the Holy 

Trinity^ and to H., Archbishop of Dublin, five carucates of land 
in Pothered, called Strabo." 

564. " John de Curcy grants to John, the Archbishop, a carucate of land 

in Offaly." 

565. " "Walter de Sernesfielde grants to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 

the tithes of Crosgort." 2 

566. " Henry III. grants to Church of the Holy Trinity, in exchange for 

O'Conaghe, three carucates in Ballyscadan." The Crown gave 
eighty-nine acres in exchange in Baliscadan, formerly Paslowy's- 
town. This deed mentions the Paslews as tenants. 

568. " King John grants to the Church of the Holy Trinity, and to Henry, 

the Archbishop, the cantred of O'Konagh, and the town of 

569. " Hugh de Lacy grants to the Church of the Holy Trinity and to 

John the Archbishop, the town of Liskilli, with ten carucates." 
Archbishop Alan adds a note to, the effect that this place is 
situated in Meath. 

1 The reference is to the pages of the copy of the " Liber Niger," made by Dr. 
Reeves, late Bishop of Down and Connor, now in Trinity College Library. 

2 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre had been founded in the lands, called by the 
Irish, Crosgort. Where \vere this church and these lands ? 



570. " Richard de la Peche grants to the See and to John, the Archbishop, 

5 carucates in Odrone." 

571. " William, son of Adelin, on the king's part, confirms Daglun to 

Aldred Gulafre." 

571. "John de Clahule grants to the Church of the Holy Trinity and to 
the Archbishop, the lands of Thacney, or Taney." 

Alan adds a note here, in which he identifies this place with Dun- 
drum, county Dublin, and points out that the Fitzwilliams held land in 
Dundrum in the time of Edward III. Page 572 is taken up with a 
memorandum about the lands near Dundrum, which is important for 
Taney and its inhabitants, tenants, and proprietors, viz. Hacketts, Fitz- 
williams, and place-names in that neighbourhood, such as.Eenviles, in 
the time of Edward III. On the subject of John and Hugh de Clahule, 
the first Norman settler in Dimdrum and Taney, see Ball's "Parish of 
Taney," pp. 6, 7 ; and the Paper of Mr. James Mills on lt The Norman 
Settlement in Leinster," in this Journal for 1894, p. 161. The owners 
of the Pembroke estate printed, some time ago, an account of their title- 
deeds, but they keep this volume rigorously secluded from the public eye, 
refusing all access to them, even for literary purposes. "We are, there- 
fore, unable to see how the estates of the Clahules passed to the 
Fitzwilliams of this century. 

573. "Statute of Archbishop Luke about the prebendal Canons of St. 
Patrick's, who were about to swear allegiance to the Arch- 
bishop. Date, 1247." 

-575. " Walter, son of Aldred Gulafre, quit claims the whole right he had 
in Daclap or Daclan." 

575. " Eva, the Countess, heir of King Dermot, confirms a donation made 

to the Church of the Holy Trinity." 

576. "Richard de Burgh grants to H., the Archbishop, the cantred of 

Meneby, in Connaught." 

577. " John, the Archbishop, has instituted Turstin the Clerk into a 

moiety of the under written churches in that vacant diocese of 

-578. "Henry, the Archbishop, grants to Helyas Coytyf, one carucate in 
Derroth and Scovath in the tenement of St. Kevin." 

579. " The citizens of Limerick grant to H., the Archbishop, one of the 
forty carucates granted them by King John, and the Castle of 

580. " Laurence Utothan confirms to the convent of the Desert of St. 
Kevin, the land which is called Tirimeice." 

This deed gives the boundaries of the lands so granted, which maybe 
useful for Wicklow place-names. The Desert of St. Kevin was other- 
wise called St. Saviour's, and was in the Glendalough Valley. 




581. " R., Abbot of St. Mary's, and the whole convent grants to H., th& 
Archbishop, a rent of xx shillings in Dublin in exchange for the 
land which is called Rathuskena," 

Archbishop Alan, in an added note, identifies this land as lying 
between Ballyhachul (Ballybogldll), Balilugan, near Killyn, and 
Rolleston Lispodel. This deed and its notes are very important, as 
settling the locality of the first Norman settlers and their estates. It 
deals with lands in the modern parishes of Clonmethan and Swords : 
cf. Dr. Walsh's "Fingal and its Churches," pp. 237, 246. It gives, 
too, information about the state of affairs in Danish times, as, for 
instance, telling that St. Nicholas's Gate used then to he called Hasculf's 

583. " Division of the churches in the land of O'Kadesi between the Arch- 

bishop and the Prior of Llanthony, at Gloucester." Date about 
1200 A.D. This deed is very important for the history of Fingal 
and its state before the Norman Conquest. Among the churches 
mentioned are those of Palmerston, Garristown, Holy wood, Naul, 
&c. The district mentioned corresponds with the modern barony 
of Ealrothery West, whose chief was called O'Cadesi, or O'Casey. 
See Orpen's " Song of Dermot and the Earl," p. 324, and Dr. 
Walsh's " Fingal," p. 205. The claim of Llanthony upon the 
churches of this district is often referred to in the Repertorium 
Yiride of Archbishop Alan, Cf. O'Donovan, " Four Masters," 
A.D. 1017. The whole document gives us a glimpse into the 
state of Fingal in Danish times. 

584. " Peter, Abbot of Theokisbere (Tewkesbury), grants to H., the 

Archbishop, Theod de Ottach in the port of Lismori." 

See Sir J. Gilbert's edition of " Crede Mihi." [The document refers 
to a Charter from an Abbot of Tewkesbury, about 1215. He had got a 
grant of Irish property, but he did not care for Irish tenants, and so got 
rid of it and them.] 

586. " William of Cavesham grants to the Prior of St. Ulstan's ( ? Wool- 
stan's) the lands of Tristeldelan." 

586. "Here follows a list of the Obits of post-Keformation archbishops." 
The obits entered are 

(1) Adam Loftus, ob. April 5, 1605. 

(2) Thomas Jones, of Lancaster, consecrated Bishop of 
Meath, May 12, 1584, translated to Dublin, Nov. 8, 1605, 
ob. April 10, 1619. 

(3) Lancelot Buckeley, consecrated for Dublin, Oct. 3, 1619, 
ob. Sep. 7th, 1650, aged 82 years. These entries prove that 
the " Liber Niger" was used for entries down to the middle 
of the 17th centurv. 



587-590. " This is an original article by Archbishop Alan, setting forth 
the points which he noted as specially worthy of attention in 
his Metropolitan Visitation. The following are some of them 

(1) " The convent of All Saints (now Trinity College) is in 
the patronage of the Archbishop. Cf. Dean Butler's Preface 
to the * Register of All Saints,' p. vii. The Prior is appointed 
with the honour of an abbot." The Bull of Urban II. gave 
the appointment of Prior to the brotherhood. 

This is interesting, as showing that the Provost of Trinity College, 
or the official who corresponded with him, always occupied a high 
position in Duhlin. As a matter of fact the Augustinian Prior of All 
Saints ranked as a mitred ahhot, and had a seat in the Irish House of 
Peers, as had also the Augustinian Prior of the Holy Trinity, now the 
Dean oi' Christ Church. They were both spiritual peers. 

(2) Alan states that "the city of Dublin and its suburbs 
had, from antiquity, twenty parish churches, and eleven 
monastic churches, of which five belonged to the Mendicants ; 
while 'the parish Churches of St. George and St. Paul are 
united to the Priory of All Saints, but are accounted of little 

(3) " All Saints' Priory has seven impropriate churches." 

It should he observed here that Alan seems to use the word "im- 
propriate " in the modern sense. Dr. Ball, in his " Reformed Church," 
p. 89, distinguishes between impropriate and appropriate tithes thus: 
Appropriate tithes were those conferred or appropriated to monasteries ; 
Impropriate tithes those bestowed on individuals. Bishop Mant, in his 
" Irish Church History." vol. ii., p. 300, tells us that impropriate was 
a post- Reformation term. Alan's use of it seems to show otherwise : 
cf., however, Stopford's "Handbook of Church Law," pp. 59, 60; and 
Oswald Reichel's " Elements of Canon Law," pp. 214, 215. 

(4) "Alan gives an account of All Saints' Priory, its 
foundation, cells, &c., and of Hoggin Green." 

This article is important for the history of Dublin and of Trinity 
College, and should be compared with Dean Butler's Introduction to the 
" Register of All Saints." 

591. "Luke the Archbishop grants to Waleran de Welesley two mes- 
suages in Patrick-street." 

This is a very early instance of the use of the names Wesley or 
Wellesley. It seems that the Mornington family, in changing Wesley 
to Wellesley, were only recurring to the earliest form of the name. 
This Waleran de Wellesley was an itinerant Justice in the reign of 
Henry III. (See "Register of All Saints' Priory," ed. Butler, p. 136 : 
' cf. Dean Butler's "Introduction," p. xvi.) 

The language of this note shows that the omission of the prefix 
'.' saint " in the names of streets called after the saints is very ancient in 
Dublin. I am afraid that St. Patrick's was called " Patrick's" in 1296 
as well as in 1896. Reverence, however, never flourished among the 



592. " Nicholas de llenville granted to John de Kennedy lands in the 

suburbs of Dublin. 

593. " Alexander the Archbishop grants to John de Evesham a tenement 

in the suburbs of Dublin." 

594. " Thomas the Archbishop grants to Thomas Locus a messuage and 

24 acres in Tawney for 50 years." 

597. " William Brigi grants to Thomas de Hathingley and Nicholas de 

Sueterby six acres under the wood of Colon (Cullenswood)." 

598. " Peter, son of Edmund de Ledwyche, remits to Nicholas Brown, 

merchant, his right in Nekokestown and other lands men- 

599. " Concerning six acres in Culecroftyn." 
600-612. " Concerning the Deanery of Penkridge." ,_ 

This is a very long and important article. It treats of the Decanal 
Church, its prebendal stalls, and its taxation. Concerning the Deanery 
of Penkridge, see G. T. Stokes's " Ireland and the Anglo-Norman 
Church," pp. 265, 266. Penkridge is in Staffordshire. 

613. "Bull of Pope Alexander dealing with Penkridge, and a decree 
issued by Alan himself as touching the Deanery in March, 

615-619. " Inquisition made at Castle Kevin about the rights of the 
Archbishop in Castle Kevin in the 13th century." The names 
of the jurors on this occasion were, Thomas, Prior of St. Saviour's ; 
the Prior of the Great Church of Glendalough ; Prior de Eupe 
juxta Glendalough ; William, an Englishman ; Richard Law- 
less ; William Doggett ; Elias O'Toole ; John Crumpe, and 

This Inquisition is very important for the place-names and residents 
of Wicklow and the neighbourhood of Glendalough in the fourteenth 
century. The Crumpe mentioned as one of the jurors may have been a 
brother, or some other connexion, of Henry Crumpe, a monk of Baltin- 
glass, who was a great opponent of the Mendicants, and as such was cen- 
sured by Archbishop Courtenay, of Canterbury, about the year 1360 : 
cf. Ussher's Works, vol. iv., p. 303, Ellington's edition. It would seem 
that, as in the case of other Celtic foundations, the Augustinian rule had 
been here introduced under priors instead of abbots. This article shows 
that Glendalough had not been abandoned to desolation in tbe fourteenth 
century, though so described by the Archbishop of Tuam in 1214 : 
cf. Dean Butler's Introduction to "Register of All Saints," page ix; 
and Sir J. Gilbert's " Municipal Documents," pp. 140-162. 

620. " David de St. Michaele, and Agatha his wife, give Archbishop Luke 
lands in Tipper Kevin." 

The family of St. Michael seems to have possessed considerable 
possessions in the ancient estates of the See and Abbey of Glendalough : 
cf. (< Register of All Saints" (ed. Butler), p. 136. 



621. " John Count Moreton grants to the Church of St. Patrick, Trum 
Crumlin, as a prebend." 

621. " Matilda and Gladosa, daughters of Aldred Golaf re, quit claim to 

Henry the Archbishop the land of Daclan." 

622. " Kichard, son of John, grants to John de Sandford, five villatae, 

viz. Turlochogenath, Rathmolony, Corbally, Eiegkillbryde, and 
Clony, in Connaught." 

624-630. " This document is another inquisition similar to that made at 
Castlekevin, p. 615." It investigates the archiepiscopal rights 
at Ballymore Eustace in the times of Archbishop Luke, that is, 
between 1230 and 1240. It gives many illustrations of the 
life and customs of the thirteenth century, names of persons, 

630-634. "Inquisition at Clondolcan and Rathcoole." Interesting for 
names of jurors, place-names, &c. 

635. "Nicholas, son of John de Wyte, and Alicia, daughter of Laurence, 

son of Roger his wife, grant Eulk, the Archbishop, the land 
of William of "Worcester at Ballirothegane." Cf. the article on 
p. 377 for another notice of this place. 

636. " Yvo de Dunlewan grants to Henry de Wygonia, parson of Cre- 

velphi, the villa or town of Ballerothegan." 

637. " Sarah and Elena, daughters and heirs of Yvo of Dunlewan (or 

Dunlavin) grant to Archbishop E. the land in Ballirothegane, 
formerly held by William of Worcester." 

639. " Amivra, daughter of Laurence, son of Roger, grants to Arch- 

bishop E., land in Ballirothegane." 

640. " Mabilia, daughter of Philip, relict of Laurence, son of Roger, 

grants to Archbishop E. the claim she has in Ballirothegane by 
reason of dowry." 

640. " Nicholas Ruffus, and Agnes daughter of Laurence, son of Roger, 
his wife, grunt Archbishop E., land in Ballerothegane which 
William of Worcester held." There is a note in Alan's hand 
signifying that xii d was to be paid at Beltane, and at the feast of 
St. Philip and St. James (May 1st). 

642. "John Castleburghe, and Margaret, his* wife; Thomas, son of 

William, and Matilda, his wife, grant to F. Archbishop his 
claim on the service of Ardkipp, which William Le Bas their 
ancestor had by gift of L. the Archbishop." 

643. "E. Archbishop grants to Thomas Indas, son of Adam Indas, three 

carucatesof land in Ballymacronane alias Indastone. 

645. " John Hall remits to Nicholas Fitz Eustace of Donard his rights 
in Blakistone." 



646. " Robert Puphius grants Audoen Brune two carucates in Arclkipp 

which he held of the Archbishop." 

Audoen Brun appears in the ''Register of All Saints" (ed. Butler), 
p. 31, as a donor of rents to that convent. The grant was made probably 
before 1240. He may have been of the family of the clerk of Archbishop 
Comyn, to whom that prelate made various grants. 

647. "Maurice, son of Geoffrey, at the prayer of his nephew Richard, 

secures eight marks of rent in Donard to John de Sandford the 

648. " L., the Archbishop, confirms to W. Le Bas and to Dominic 

Hellerie, heirs of Audoen Brown, one carucate in Attekipe, 

saving the rights of Milo of Attekipe." This Attekipe is spelt 

a different way every time the name occurs. 
650. "Pleas about Ballymore." 
652. "L., the Archbishop, grants to Thomas Indas, son of Adam Indas, 

three carucates in Bally macron an." 
654-663. " Exemplification of the extent of Ballymore, made xix. 

This is a very long deed, filling more than ten pages. It is very 
important for the whole district, comprising Ballymore, Donard, Holy- 
wood, Dunlavin, Tipper Kevin, Rathsallagh. The place-names here 
mentioned can still be recognised. Rathsallagh, for instance, occurs, 
and we still find Rathsallagh House, near Dunlavin, and Tynte Park. 
It is, in fact, the name of one of the parishes forming the union of 
Dunlavin. Alan adds a great many notes on the names of this district, 
now forming the barony of Upper Tfdbotstown. Rathsallagh is often 
mentioned in the grants of Elizabeth : see Index to Fiants. 

663. "Lands which the Earl of Kildaro seeks by right of the Lords 

663. " Henry of Worcester grants to William of Worcester the town of 


665. "William Russell, son of Richard de Dunlavan, grants to F., the 

Archbishop, the lands of the town of Crake and Dunlavan." 

666. "F., the Archbishop, grants to Geoffrey de Marisco the land of 

Dounboke, saving the tenants' rights." 
667-670. " The Pleas of Blakestowne in the lordship of Ballymore." 

Useful for place-names in the lordship of Ballymore-Eustace. 

670. "Philip de Staunton, a knight, grants to F., the Archbishop, his 
rights in the towns of Walinge, Bally Ionian, and Corbali." 
43 Hen. III. 

Corbali is now Corbally, near Celbridge, mentioned in " Fiants of 
Elizabeth," Nos. 421, 3833 ; or else Corbally, county Dublin, mentibned 
in Nos. 1286, 1328, 1390, and 3126. 



671. " Robert, Prior of the Holy Trinity, grants to H., the Archbishop, 

two marks of Staglohe in Coillagh." 1248. 

672. "Richard Blund of Wicklow grants to F., the Archbishop, a bur- 

gage of Wicklow." This deed mentions Queen-st. in Wicklow 

town, and goes into detail about the locality. Its date was 

cent. xiii. 
>674. " The Bishop and clergy of Leighlin protest that the relaxation of 

proxies made by F., the Archbishop, when visiting, shall not 

be made to prejudice the rights of his successors." 1257. 
75. "L., the Archbishop, demits for xx years O'Konaghe in Munster 

to Maurice, son of Gerald." Alan follows up this with a note 

on the Kildare descent." 
677. " About the tenement of Robert Joyce in the parish of St. Michael 

on the Hill." This deed is dated in the third year of Edward II. 
77-680. "Agreement between H., the Archbishop of Dublin, and the 

citizens about Common lands used for pasture." 

There is a note here which seems lo show that there were then fields 
near the church of St. Nicholas Within. This might show the limits 
of Dublin about A.D. 1200. 

680. " Convention between H., Archbishop of Dublin, and the citizens 
as touching all questions at issue between them." 

682. " Citizens of Dublin quit claim to J,, the Archbishop, the lands in 

the city and suburbs, and make a convention between them." 

683. "Edanus, Bishop of Louth, quit claims to J., the Archbishop, the 

Church of All Saints." Alan refers in a note to the fact that 
Edanus was Confessor to King Dermot of Leinster. He had a 
controversy with John Coniyn about the Church and Priory of 
, All Saints. This deed is important for the history of the 
Church of Dublin in the twelf tli century. Cf. about Edanus, 
Bishop of Louth, Dean Butler's " Introduction to the Register 
of All Saints Priory," p. vii. 

684. "Adam, son of Hugh of Newtown, grants to F., the Archbishop, 35 

acres in Newtown." 

685. " Luke, the Archbishop, confirms to the burgesses of Rathcoole the 

liberties of Bristol and its burgages." See the article on Rath- 
coole in Lewis's " Topographical Dictionary." Date of this 
deed about 1240. 

686. The Canons of St. Kevin's Desert grant the under written lands to 

F., the Archbishop, for xx years." The Church of St. Saviour's 
was the Church so designated. The Prior of that Church signed 
this deed at Castle Kevin, Aug. 23rd, 1263. 

This deed is interesting, as showing that St. Saviour's Monastery 
was then flourishing. It would seem to have adopted the Reformed 
Augustinian rule: cf. the "Register of All Saints Prioiy" for much 
about the Gleiidalough churches, specially about St. Saviour's, in the 
Introduction, p. ix. 



687. " "William Waspeylle and Emily, his wife, quit claim to F;, the- 

Archbishop, about 410 acres in the town of Trussell, alias 
Wymbelton, near Gracedieu." 

688. " P., the Archbishop, on the presentation of the Prior and Convent 

of the Holy Trinity, institutes Philip of Cerney, Chaplain, into 
the Vicarage of Kilcullen." 

Alan has a long note on the history of this church of Kilcullen : see 
Index to " Fiants of Elizaheth " for numerous references to Kilcullen. 

689. " "William "Waspayle and Emma his wife confess that they are bound 

to give security to P., the Archbishop, for 34 acres in the town 
of Trussell, belonging to the heirs of Adam de St. John. Cf+ 
deed on p. 687." 

690. "Muriaurtach O'Tochell grants to P., the Archbishop, Garstlon,. 

Clondangan, Clonahadone, and Blenlared." 
692. " Richard de St. Martin certifies to the dean of St. Patrick's a letter 

of P., the Archbishop, granting the Church of Donoughmore in 

augmentation of the common fund of the Canons." 
696. Octoban, the Papal legate, orders the Bishop of Lismore and 

"Waterford to denounce the men of Dublin as excommunicated." 

The date of this interdict and excommunication of Dublin was 1267, 
when Octoban was Papal Legate. Cotton's "Fasti," vol. ii., p. 12, 
says, " In the time of Archbishop Fulk de Sandford, 1256-1271, great 
quarrels took place between the Ecclesiastical and Civil powers of 

698. " Henry of London grants to P., the Archbishop, a messuage in 


699. " Richard, the Archbishop, his Statute concerning the prebendaries 

of St. Patrick's." 

701. " Robert de Lynel confirms to William, Bishop of Glendalough, and 

to the Abbot of St. Thomas's, the Church of St. Nicholas near 
the Barrow." Alan adds a note that this was the last bishop 
of Glendalough. 

702. "William Marshal, Count of Pembroke, confirms to JL, the 

Archbishop, 5 carucates granted by Richard de la Peche." 

703. 4< The Prior and Canons of the great Church of Glendalough recognise 

that P., the Archbishop, concedes of his free grace pasture and 
fire out of the old wood." 

This deed throws light upon the .history of Glendalough in the 
thirteenth century. The- great church referred to in this deed was, of 
course, the cathedral pf Glendalough, which would seem to have 
adopted the Eeformed Augustiuian rule, like the Church of the Holy 
Trinity in Dublin, Durrow, and other ancient Celtic societies. The 
community of the great church does not seem to have retained any of 
the great wealth with which Glendalough was endowed about the year 
1200. This wealth was the dominant cause of the union of Glendalough 



with Dublin. A comparison of this deed with that relating to the 
canons of St. Kevin's Desert, on p. 686, prove that half a century after 
the Papal Legate declared that Glendalough was a den of thieves, and 
utterly waste, two, at least, of its monasteries were flourishing : cf. 
about the "Ancient Celtic Organisation of Glendalough," Ussher, 
opp. xi., 428, 435. 

704. " Henry, the Archbishop, grants to "W. Gaston, his servant, xvi acres r 

in exchange for the burgage which he had near the Palace." 

Alan here adds a long note, in which he points out that St. 
Sepulchre's Palace is situated in two parishes St. Patrick's and St. 
Kevin's, confirming the tradition that St. Patrick's was a parish church 
before it bei-ame a cathedral. In ancient times cathedrals had no 
parishes attached to them. This note is full of topographical details 
about the ground and streets round St. Patrick's, giving abundant place- 
names, tenants' names, &c. This should be compared with Alan's rental 
of St. Patrick-street, which Mr. Mills published, in 1889, in this 
Journal, from the original. 

705. " William Gascoing sells to the poor of St. John Extra Novarn 

Portarn, two burgages in the parish of St. Kevin." 

706. "Luke, the Archbishop, confirms to the poor of St. John of New- 

gate, two burgages." 

708. " Memorandum about the same two burgages." All these docu- 

ments about St. John of Newgate are very important for Dublin 
names and topography." 

709. " H., Archbishop, confirms to Reginald llamesber half a carucate in 

Killescopsantane, alias Kilnasantan." Alan has here abundant 
notes, with many important topographical details about the 
upper reaches of the Dodder." 

710. " Prior and Convent of St. John of Newgate demise to William,. 

the Archbishop, xxx acres at Kilnasautan for 50 years." 

711. "Maurice, son of Gerald, confirms burgages and liberties of Bristol 

to burgesses of Rathmore." 

The notes of Alan about Rathmore and its place -names are important. 
He notices at the end that the rectory of Rathmore was vacated by 
death, Nov. xvi., 1530. It is situated about 4 miles from Naas. 

713. " Walter, the Archbishop, institutes John O'Coynginto the rectory 

of Dromkee with the rectory of Castle Ade annexed." The 
date of this document is 1504. It terminates with a reference 
to the " Crede Mihi " as the " Ancient Register." 

714. " Convention between John de Sandford, acting for Fulk, the 

Archbishop, and Richard, son of Richard, about the custody 
of Thomas, son of Roger, of Ledwich, till he arrive at lawful 

716. " Richard Nists, and Johanna, his wife, sell to F., Archbishop, their 
right in the dowry of Johanna, formerly the wife of William, 
of Surdwale." 



717. " William, of Oldburne, grants Alexander, Archbishop, a messuage 

and ten acres in Haroldstown, in Ballymore." 

Could Oldburne here be a mistake for Oldbawn, near Tallaght, 
mentioned in "Fiants of Elizabeth," No. 4516? 

718. "Peter Harold, son of Geoffrey Harold, constitutes R. Westum 

and T. Sampson his attorneys for putting Geoffrey le Bret, and 
Isabella, his wife, in possession of three parts of the lands of 
G. Harold." 12 Edward II. 

This land was situated in Villa Elye Haroldi, at Coillacht, about the 
Three Rock, or Tibradden mountains. (See Index to " Fiants of 
Elizabeth, under Harold, for many references to these bounds and 
limits, specially Nos. 1591 and 5810.) The plain near St. Columba's, 
now called Harold's Grange, is still a relic of these limits and bounds. 
No. 1591 of the Elizabethan Fiants gives a description of Cruagh Rectory. 
The ruined Church still stands near Rockbrook. 

719. " H., the Archbishop, grants that when Richard de Wermenyff: 

departs, the church of Holywood, with the chapel of Grathe- 
lache and the land of Regredy, shall turn to the use of the 
Canons of Llanthony." 

720. " Concerning the Manor of Swords taken into the King's hand." 

722. "Adam le Petit grants to P., the Archbishop, his rights in the 

tenement of D erne skill." 

723. "Adam le Petit quit claims to P., the Archbishop, his right in the 

tenement of Derneskylle." 

724. "William Mareschallus, Count of Pembroke, grants to P., the 

Archbishop, his lights in the wood of Sannekeyun" (? St. Kevin). 

724. " Augustin, son of Michael M'Clerihach, grants to P., the Arch- 
bishop, Ballyocroylf, which he held by the gift of William de 

726. " Robert, son of Richard, grants to John, the Archbishop, a Knight's 
fee in Carabria," " where the Abbey of May stands." 

726. "John Gerrard, of Ballidude, quit claims P., the Archbishop, in 

xxxix acres, which he held in Tavelache, by demise from W. 

727. "P., the Archbishop, grants to Alan, of Mohaund, 68 acres, which 

Padinus O'Kenlisse held in Tavelaugh." 

728-737. " Extent of the Manors of Tavelaugh, and of Rathcoole, taken in 
the 19th year of Edward, son of Edward." There are two long, 
but most interesting documents touching the west of the county 
Dublin. They cover more than ten closely written pages, and 
are full of details about persons and places. In the names of the 
jurors we have lists of the principal residents of the the four- 
teenth century. Among the Tallaght jurors the name White 
occurs frequently. The Tallaght jurors report that almost all 



the buildings have been burned down. As to the lands, they 
report, that in time of war they 'are worth nothing, they are so 
near the Irish. Among the place-names in Tallaght manor are 
the following : Ballymacarran, Colagh (evidently the name of 
the wood, otherwise called Coillaght), Thastolman, Bullnuach, 
Bally slator, Keltipe, Ballironan, Kilmasentan, Rathminten. 
The names of the Rathcoole jurors are John Marshal, John 
Rollrune, "William Passavante, Adam Howe, (cf. "Keg. of All 
Saints," pp. 44, 49, 50), John Browne, Philip Browne, David 
Camilford, Robert Garthe, Walter J)evenish. Among the Rath- 
coole place-names are Flagges, Grenolmede, Fiveacres, Les- 
mourmede, The Curragh. It is curious that mauy of them have 
the French article Le before them. 

737-743. " A similar exemplification of the extent of Clondalkin Manor, 
dated xxx of Edward II." 

743748. U A similar extent of the manor of Shankill, made in the 
same year." The names of the Shankill jurors were 
John Danwe, Nicholas Comyn, William Crompe, John Kendale, 
John Browning, John White, Roger Comyn, Robert Crompe, 
Nicholas Douse, Richard Grloster, Walter Wreby, Henry Hunte, 
Robert de Porta, Walter Nagle. They report that there were 
no edifices, as all have been ruined by the Irish felons. Some 
lands were set at three pence an acre in time of peace, which, 
in time of war, are worth nothing. Other parts of the Arch- 
bishop's lands are waste, because too near the Irish male- 
factors, specially near Kilmacberin. They describe a grove 
of oaks as standing near Shankill, covering 30 acres, xv 
acres of pasture near Le Loughe, and another wood on Kil- 
macoil. They further report, that a certain island in the 
sea, near Dalkey, is let at I2d. a year, and 111 acres, called 
Rathingale. In Caraghe there are 12 acres of land, 15 acres in 
Bally skillane " Apud le Fyrres," and 9 acres in Colenaghe, 
which the English and the Irish tenants were accustomed to 
hold ; in Kilmacberin there were 60 acres of land held by 
betasii, or betaghs. They further report that Robert, the 
Englishman, held a carucate of land in Kilconwill, William 
Finglas held two carucatesin Ballyro'thye, which belonged to 
John Itellon. W. Fiuglas, Thomas Carryke, and Hugh 
Lawless held four carucates of land in Ballyronan. Robert 
Lawless held half a carucate in Waryneston, and a similar 
amount in Relote. Reginald de Barnwall held eleven carucates 
in Stagonil. The Prior of Kilmainham has one carucate of 
land in Carrickladane. The same Prior and the Prior of the 
Holy Trinity have one curacate in Killeger. Other place-names 



which occur in the Shankill extent are Stanelyn, Killregel, 
and Eallydonenaghe. 

748. " Extent of the Archiepiscopal lands in Kildare." 

749. " Extent of the Archiepiscopal lands in Meath." 

751. "Reduction of rent paid by John Fitz William, of Tallaght, for 
Tipperstowne, alias Rathmynlan." 

753. " Henry, the Archbishop, grants to Laurence Caretario, 12 acres 

in Tallaght." The witnesses' names are given in full, with the 
boundaries of the lands. 

754. " Alexander, the Archbishop, grants to Eichard de la Eotillere 25 

acres in Tallaght." 

755-757. "Reply of , the Archdeacon to the mandate of William de 
Rodiere,Y.G., about the patronage of the Church of Adderke." 
The date of this deed is 1328. It is interesting for its informa- 
tion about ancient church law and customs. 

758-760. "Inquisition about the Church of Adderke, in the diocese of 
Dublin, taken before W. de Roddyerde." 

William Roddy ard was Treasurer of St. Patrick's, and was elected 
Dean in 1312, and continued to occupy that position till about 1340. 
He was a good lawyer ; was a Judge of the Common Pleas and King's 
Bench, and was Chancellor, in 1320, of the University established in 
St. Patrick's. He seems to have been a man much engaged in business : 
cf. Cotton's "Fasti," vol. ii., p. 92. In Mr. Mills' "Norman Settle- 
ment," Adderke is called Athderg. The church was situated S.W. of 
Lucan. It is mentioned amongst the Churches of Taney Deanery in the 
" Crede Mihi," p. 137, as published by Sir John Gilbert. 

760. " A genealogical inquiry into the family history of the De Lacys." 
761-765. " Composition made between the Archbishop and the Chapter 
of St. Patrick." 

765. "Fromundus le Erun grants four marks of rent, in Carrickdolgin, 

near Shankill." This appears to be the same as the hill, 
popularly called the Chimney Hill, or Carrick Galiighan. 

766. " Office of Constable of Eallymore Castle, granted by Thomas, the 

Archbishop, to Thomas Fitz Eustace. 

(2'o be continued.) 

( 177 ) 


Siobhan na " Geela." Who was this lady ? An Ogham inscription 
at Emalough East, near Dingle, has been called the stone of Siobhan- 
na-Geela (Leac Siobdme, &c.) by the Ordnance Survey, Mr. Brash, and 
Sir S. Ferguson. 

Last summer, when examining this stone, I was positively assured 
by two inhabitants independently that this was not Siobhan' s stone. 
The true stone so called is a small pointed rock standing up a few paces 
from the ogham ; it is quite insignificant in appearance. The ogham 
lies on a strip of shingle (most unfortunately, below high-water mark) ; 
the Leac Siobchne stands in the sandy expanse below the shingle. A 
man called Fitzgerald, who lives close by, told me that the local name 
for the ogham is Cloc na cr-a^apc, a name no doubt suggested by the 
cross cut on the stone. But my friend Mr. Curran, of Ventry, gives me 
another and very interesting name by which the people call the stone, 
the Cloc bpupcuip. It is important to record the latter fact. This 
name is not a true ancient tradition of the person commemorated by the 
stone ; it has simply been picked up from oghamists, who, though widely 
divergent in their treatment of the end of the inscription, are all agreed 
in commencing with BRUSCCOS. The evolution of the secondary genitive 
bpupcuip from the ancient genitive BRUSCCOS is not without some philo- 
logical interest. 

As to Siobhan, I was told that she lived on the Iveragh side of Dingle 
Bay ; that her daughter was carried off to Corkaguiney by force ; she 
followed the fugitives, but was stricken with cholera (which was raging 
in Corkaguiney at the time), and died at the stone which bears her name 
a truly prosaic ending to a romantic story ! A somewhat similar story is 
told in the 0. S. Letters, which, however, I had no time to copy ; if I 
recollect aright, she was caught by the tide and drowned at this place, 
according to the version there given ; a much more satisfactory conclu- 
sion. Mr. Curran has, however, unearthed quite a different story, which 
he has kindly imparted to me. It is to the effect that Siobhan had a 
lover on the opposite side of the bay which lies between Emalough and 
Kinard, whom she was in the habit of visiting frequently when opportunity 
offered, regardless of the state of the tide. She used this rock to enable 
her to mount her white horse when she went to ride across that 
treacherous little inlet. (The stone in question is well suited for such a 
purpose.) Yet another tale is told by Brash in his " Ogham Monuments," 
under the article " Trabeg" (pp. 170-4). He says : " Tradition states 
-she was the sister of Donal-na-Geelagh who is in enchantment under one 
of the Killarney lakes, and that she was drowned while bathing near the 
dallan (i.e. the ogham), from which circumstance it takes its name." 


I have spelt the concluding portion of this name phonetically, as I do 
not feel certain of the correct form of it. O'Douovan made Siobcm na 
ngimleac ; the infection of the m seems to prevent our connecting this 
word with " ^imleac, s.m. one in fetters" (O'R.), and I do not see what 
other meaning it could have. Mr. Curran's version is Siobcm na 
geilleic, 1 which he refers to the white horse (^eall-eac) ridden by 
Siobhan. Further information about this mythic heroine would be 
valuable, and I hope some member will be able to supply references, or 
(better still) popular tradition concerning her from some other part of the 
country. R. A. S. MACAUSTER. 

Cup-and-Ring Sculptured Stones from the County Donegal. 
Mr. M'Nulty in forwarding two drawings, says : 

" I have discovered a few of these stones in this neighbourhood. I 
send you sketches of those on a rock-surface near this town (Raphoe), 
and on what I believe to be an overturned table-stone of a cromlech 
which I noticed near Castlefin, a few miles from Raphoe. 

" On another cromlech, still standing, I found the covering block to be 
marked with similar cups and rings ; the form of one of those on the 
natural rock is peculiar. Mr. "Wakeman, who saw a sketch of it, thinks 
it is a rare, if not unique, form. 

" I have seen many other marked stones, particularly a number in 
connexion with a stone circle at Tops, Raphoe." 

Primitive Burial at Rylane, County Clare. This townland, lying in 
the barony of Upper Bunratty, not far from the nearly obliterated 
Lough of Coolasluasta (see our Journal, 1895, p. 179), deserves the 
attention of archaBologists. Even its Giants' Graves were unmarked on 
the 1839 Ordnance Survey, and only for the happy chance of one of our 
members, Mr. Arthur Gethin Creagh, residing in its neighbourhood, the 
interesting "find" in the lake might have gone without record. He 
now writes to me of another discovery made in Rylane of a primitive 
burial-place, ' ' a few hundred yards north of the Giants' Graves." " It was 
about 10. feet long, but there does not seem to have been any end slab, 
the northern extremity being only closed with earth and small stones. 
The breadth is 2 feet 6 inches, and the end is circular, its sides, and those 
of the grave are neatly lined with small blocks where they do not con- 
sist of solid rock." It lies N.N.W. and S.S.E. " The whole grave was 
neatly covered with stout nagging, the circular portion having a roof of 

1 In this case grammatical strictness would, of course, require the name to be 
stated "Siobdn an geilleiG." Another conceivable (but unlikely) form is na 
geallaise, as though she were a lunar heroine. The objections to this are the 
pronunciation of the name, and the fact that T' ae > n t 5"ealla6, is the word for 
" moon " in Corkaguiny. 


overlapping slabs, and, as a security against fracture, a flat stone about 
15 inches high was placed in one spot where the thinness of the over- 
lapping flags rendered it necessary. 

" At the N.W. end of the grave lay the skull of its occupant in a 
fragmentary condition; portions of the under jaw also remained, with five 
or six teeth (probably of an old person as they were much worn), and a few 
vertebra?. Strange to say around the skull and jaw were marks of fierce 
fire, shown by the burnt earth, pieces of charred wood, and marks on the 
side stones. "We found no remains of any kind in the circular chamber, 
nor any metal or potteiy anywhere about the grave. On the top of the 
covering flags lay a portion of a horse's skull, and the bones of a goat 
(or pig) under 2 feet 6 inches of earth ; the floor of the grave was formed 
of the native rock ; none of the stones give any sign of having been 
cut or dressed. 

" Lying south of the grave was an oval space, not more than 14 inches 
below the surface, floored with scabbled limestones, 6 inches in depth. 
It was roofed with gritstone flags, and half of a gritstone quern lay in it 
in good preservation. This space lies 14 in. from the grave, and about 4 ft. 
higher than its floor. Besides the quern no other remains were found. 

" It lies about 500 yards from Maghera cross in the same field as 
John Donoho's house." (A. Gethin Creagh, Carrahane, Feb. 8th). 

The find took place on Feb. 4th. "When I visited it at the end of 
April it had been entirely demolished, and its stones stacked along the 
fence, the field being all in tillage. 

The Giants' Graves are much defaced, the eastern faces E.N.E., and 
has three (if not four) chambers, being 23 feet long, and 11 feet 7 inches 
wide at the west end ; the covering slabs of the west and third chambers 
remain. The largest slab (south side of third chamber) is 6 feet long, and 
9 inches thick, but nearly buried. 

The second one lies north-east from the first. It was evidently 
larger, but is now too hopelessly defaced to understand the plan. Like 
the first, it tapered eastward, its south side pointing to the east (by 
compass) ; a somewhat circular patch of stones, bushes, and mounds, 
with a few large blocks 5 feet to 6 feet long, alone remains. Near it is 
the nearly-levelled ring of a circular enclosure. Both are figured in 
Mr. Borlase's ''Dolmens of Ireland," vol. i., page 82. On the hill to 
the KW. is a well-preserved earthen fort, with a deep moat frequently 
containing water. 

I have found no mention of the townland in the medieval records of 
the district. T. JOHNSON WESTROPP. 

The Stolen Fountain and Rutland Monument of Merrion-Square, 
Dublin. What Mr. P. Kenny writes of as the PRINCIPAL GATEWAY OF 
MEREION SQUARE, is no gateway, but a public fountain, once a public 
monument, to the Duke of Rutland, dedicated to the public, and especially 


to the use of the poor, which must at some time have been illegally 
appropriated and suppressed by the Commissioners of Merrion-square, or 
some "authority." 

Reference to Dublin newspapers of 1787-8 would, no doubt, revive 
the memory of a benevolent Free Fountain Association in the Vice- 
royalty of the Duke of Rutland. Sir John Blaquiere was the moving 
spirit, and moved by the wretched condition of the poor of Dublin, and 
especially "by their want of the supply of free water, a necessary of 
life, which most of them could only obtain in miserable quantity, by 
buying it at the huxter's pipe," Sir John succeeded, with the Viceroy's 
hearty encouragement, in establishing free conduits and fountains 
throughout the city. Where are they now ? 

I know of the surviving remains of one only what is left of an 
elaborate architectural and monumental structure on the west side of 
Merrion-square. It was probably designed by Sir William Chambers, 
architect, who was at the time, 1787, architect of the new Front and 
Parliament Square Buildings of Trinity College, and of Lord Charle- 
mont's Casino at Clontarf. 

The Duke of Rutland met his premature death, and the projected 
Fountain of Merrion-square was turned into a public memorial of him. 
Carvings and bas-reliefs which adorned it have disappeared, and inscrip- 
tions have gone or been obliterated, but in 1805 this was surviving : 


A contemporary writer says that it was "embellished with some 
excellent sculpture in lasso -relievo, and busts of the Duke and Duchess 
of Rutland ; and 

" * Sad for her loss, Hibernia weeps to raise 

This mournful record to her Rutland's praise.' " 

Wright's Guide of 1821 says that at that time this monument, but 
thirty years after its erection, was little better than a ruin, and thus 
describes it : 

" In the centre is an arch, within which reclines the fountain-nymph 
leaning on an urn, from which water is represented as flowing in an 
uninterrupted stream into a shell-formed reservoir beneath. On the 
frieze of the entablature above is a beautifully-executed medallion, on 


which is represented the story of the Marquis of Granby relieving a 
soldier's family in distress; and on one side is an inscription setting 
forth the life and conduct of the Duke of Rutland, while on the other, 
above the orifice of one of the fountains, is this inscription : ' His saltern 
.accumulem donis et fungar inani munere.' " 

The stone and workmanship of the monument appears to have been 
very bad hence its ruinous condition. The vase-terminals which remain 
-are said to have come from Wedgwood's famous works at Etruria. 

Whatever the condition of the public fountain may have been in 
1821, it seems hard to understand by what authority such a public 
monument could be appropriated and enclosed and planted with shrubs 
to hide it. THOMAS DREW, v.p. 

[This replies to " A. P.'s" inquiry.] 

The Fountain at Merrion Square. With respect to Mr. P. Kenny's 
note as to the above in vol. vii., Part 1, of the Journal, which he 
-describes as "The Principal Gateway, Merrion- square" if he refers to 
the description of it in Whitelaw and Walsh's "History of Dublin" 
(p. 462), he will find that it was never a gateway, but was a fountain 
erected to the memory of Charles Manners, Duke of Rutland, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland (1784 to 1787). It would appear that although 
only erected in 1791, the fountain was in 1818 (when Whitelaw and 
Walsh's History was published), " cracked and bulged in several places." 

Prussia-street, Dublin. It may be interesting to some of our 
members to learn the origin of the name of the above street, which 
is explained by the following extracts from " Pue's Occurrences," 

" Thursday, January 24th. Being the birthday of His Prussian 
Majesty, who then entered into the 49th year of his age, the same was 
-observed here with great demonstrations of joy. A black stone flag, 
with the words ' Prussia- street' in gold letters, was put up on a house 
in Cabragh-lane, which for the future is to be called by that name." 

"Monday, March 31st. Last week an elegant metal bust of His 
Prussian Majesty, allowed by connoisseurs to have been extremely well- 
executed by Mr. Cunningham, who served his time to Mr. Van Nost, 
was erected, on the niche over the black marble in Prussia- street, at the 
sole expense of the principal inhabitants thereof." 

The King of Prussia, above referred to, was Frederick the Great. 
Van Nost was the designer of the statue of George II. in St. Stephen's 

It would be interesting to ascertain if the metal bust referred to is 
still in existence. There is no trace of it on the fronts of any of the 
houses now in existence in Prussia-street. ANTHONY R. CARROLL. 

JOUK. U.S. A. I., VOL. VII., PT. II., OTH 8F.K. 


Mr. Samuel Guilbride. This gentleman joined the Society in 1886 r 
and became a most ardent member. Of late the state of his health pre- 
vented his attendance at our meetings, or sharing in our excursions; andhe 
was little known as an archaeologist outside his own town and neighbour- 
hood : u but his known love for the antiquarian lore of his native land, 
and his strong personality in seeking out and preserving objects of 
interest, aroused a wide-spread regard amongst the people of his vicinity 
for everything of an antiquarian nature, and, in a marked degree, a 
desire for the preservation of such." He has left several Papers on the 
local antiquities of Newtownbarry, and a valuable collection. He died 
in February last, much regretted, at the age of 46. 

Wooden Vessel found at "The Boon," near Athlone. Mrs. Tarleton, 
Hon. Local Secretary of our Society in King's County, reports a find of 
some interest as having been made by Mr. George Enraght Mooney, 
near his residence " The Doon." It is a wooden vessel of the shape usual 
in iron pots, with one small handle at the side. It was found about 
8 feet under the surface of the bog, close to the interesting ancient 
paved way known as " The Pilgrims' Road," the remains of which 
can be traced through the bog, and which leads to the churches of 

The Duke of Tetuan " Tew persons know," says the New York Sun, 
11 that the sternest enemy of American interference in Spanish colonial 
affairs, the present powerful holder of the Spanish portfolio of Foreign 
Affairs, is an Irish chieftain in his own right, and the owner of a name 
famous in the history of Ireland. His Grace the Duke of Tetuan, Spanish 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, claims to be Lord of Donegal, in Ireland, 
and rejoices in the Milesian patronymic of Charles O'Donnell. . . . The 
duke is very proud of his name and Irish descent ; but, apart from this, 
the distinguished services which his ancestors have rendered to Spain 
since their exile from the mother country, might well give him cause- 
for gratification." 

In the reign of James I., Nial Garv O'Donnell was Prince of Tyrcon- 
nell, lord of the mountainous county of Donegal, and chief of his name 
and race. He warred valiantly against the English, but at length was 
taken prisoner. He died in the Tower of London. From the brother of 
this chief, Charles Oge O'Donnell, descended the two young exiles, 
Henry and Joseph O'Donnell, younger brothers of Manus O'Donnel}, 
of Wilford Lodge, county Mayo. 

Henry entered the Austrian service, and rose to be a baron, and 
a major-general. Joseph settled in Spain about 1750, and became a 
lieutenant-general. There was no need to ennoble him, as in Spain all 


the Irish exiles were recognised as nobles ready-made. This lieutenant- 
general, Don Joseph, left four sons all distinguished in the army, of 
their adopted country. The eldest, Don Jose O'Donnell, was Captain- 
General of Castile, and the youngest, Don Enrique, was a famous lieu- 
tenant-general ; O'Donnell, Count of Abisbad, Regent of Spain in 1812, 
and Captain-General of Andalusia. The second of the four, Don 
Carlos, also a lieutenant-general, and a knight of St. Ferdinand, died in 
1830, leaving two children, of whom the eldest, Don Carlos O'Donnell, 
was father of the present Duke of Tetuan, while the second was Field- 
Marshal Don Leopoldo O'Donnell, first duke of that name. 

The Duke of Tetuan was married in 1863, and had three sons, Don 
Juan Patricio O'Donnell, born 1864 ; Don Carlos Alfonso O'Donnell, born 
1869 ; and Don Leopoldo Patricio O'Donnell, born 1874. One of these 
young men is aide-de-camp to Gen. Weyler in Cuba. 

Kenagh (Co. Longford) Old Church. When passing the ruins of the 
above, some short time ago, I stopped and took some photographs of it. 
There are the remains, in fairly good repair, of what must once have been 
a handsome church ; but so overgrown with ivy, that its very outline is 
hard to distinguish. The date on the oldest grave that I could decipher 
was 1710 ; but, no doubt, there are many of a prior date to this. The 
graveyard is tidily kept, and a good wall built round it a great contrast 
to so many others in this county and elsewhere. 

What chiefly, however, attracted my attention was the fact that two 
inscribed slabs of limestone, apparently bearing a later superscription, had 
been built into the modern gate-posts of the graveyard. I had not time, 
nor, I fear, would I have been able, to decipher these ; but the late Vicar 
of the parish (Rev. W. Welwood), now removed to Co. Leitrim, has 
kindly sent me the translation, which runs as follows, viz. : 





A.D. 1649." 

These slabs were found by a labourer built into the wall by the road- 
side, and were put into their present position by the guardians. The vicar 
informs me that no records exist prior to about 1830; so that there are 
at least 200 years, if not more, of the life of this parish during which 
no records are to be had. Is it not a matter for great regret that 
so many cases of this scandalous neglect are to be found in Ireland in all 

directions ? 



I have always looked upon the part of the county in which this old 
ruin is situate as most interesting from an antiquarian point of view. 

The Cumins Ogham (Journal, 1896, p. 393). I am indebted to the 
Rev. Frederick Foster, of Bally McElligott. Tralee, for kindly informing 
me that the Kerry Sentinel, my only authority on this monument, was 
in error in two points regarding it. The true discoverer is Mr. Adrian 
Peet, and the inscription is incorrectly given. The Bishop of Limerick 
is, I understand, preparing a detailed account of the stone. R. A. S. 

Ancient Otter-Traps. The following Paper on the above subject, 
by Mr. Kinahan, Fellow, was read at the Evening Meeting of the Society 
at Kilkenny, on Monday, 19th April, 1897. " The wooden implements 
figured in the Journal of the Society (Part iv., vol. vi., p. 380) are evidently 
snares to catch a water animal that consistently travels in one direction. 
They could not be for fish, which dart about every way, except salmon 
and sea trout when ascending a river or stream. Eels when going up 
in the summer possibly may go straight, but our knowledge in connexion 
with the ascent of the eel at that season seems to be nil. Some people 
would even go so far as to wish us to believe they never come up from 
the salt water. Those who have studied the otter must be aware that 
these traps are admirably suited to meet its habits, and ought to be 
most effective snares. Unfortunately the photograph of the traps of 
Larkhillis calculated to mislead. The traps were found in "an upright 
position," not, however, on end as represented in the figure, but on their 
sides. When set, the hing side should be uppermost, the side with 
bevels leading to the open should face down-stream, and the back with 
the springs should look up-stream. This trap, besides being simple arid 
ingenious, seems to be well adapted for catching the otter. As to the 
habits of the otter when fishing it invariably, except under adverse 
circumstances (the adverse circumstances are when fishing a pool with 
perpendicular sides, when it will have to go back again to get out ; when 
fishing a ' tail race,' or when fishing a stream through a town, when it 
will have to go back down the stream) goes up-stream,' and returns by 
a land path, never when coming down taking the water except in case of 
danger. Even when hunted with hounds it will try to go back by the 
path. Often when hunting up a stream thfe otter has passed us going 
down on the land ; a good master, therefore, will make a side cast to see 
if the otter is i trying back.' Of course, when the hounds are close, 
the otter has to take the deep water, in which he goes backward and 
forward, but always if he thinks he sees his chance he will take to land 
and make a run for the next pool. As the otter always fishes up the 


stream, it is easy to see how the traps were set. A place in a reedy stream 
was chosen that a trap could just span ; the ope in it, if possible, being on 
the otter's run. To set the trap the door was forced open, and kept open 
by a trigger, which was probably a short bit of stick ; when the otter saw 
the ope he tried to push through, but the moment his shoulders pressed 
a gainst the door the trigger was let loose, and the springs jammed down 
the door on his neck and held him fast. It can be easily seen that the 
double traps were for wide streams that the single trap would not span ; 
or possibly they were for streams in which the otter had to return, such 
as a stream into a pool with perpendicular sides. In such a case the 
doors ought to open different ways. This is quite a surmise, as I have not 
seen a double trap. It seems to me unlikely that the nine traps in the 
diagram (page 379) were set in a lake. In fact I do not see how they 
could have been effectively set therein, as there would be no runs to set 
them in, the otter swimming everywhere about. It is more natural to 
suppose they were set in one of the marshes, or sloughs, so common in 
the Irish bogs, and so generally the fishing haunts of the otter. Such 
marshy places are fished from the bottom to the top, and I would 
suggest that the traps were not set in the regular form as represented in 
the diagram, but more or less irregularly according to the shape of the 
slough. Sloughs usually are wider at the lower than at the upper end. 
This evidently was the case in the Larkhill slough, as these traps were 
set three across the wide end, and the rest along or near each margin 
of the slough, in compliance with the courses of the little surface streams 
which usually are more or less near each edge ; in fact often along the 
margin between the soft slough and the bog. These streams are evidently 
in a great measure due to the otter paths, which run near the margin 
where the eels are principally to be found, eels being the fish usually 
found in the slough, as proved by the remains left at the otter stands, and 
by the contents of the dropping. Frogs, however, seem also sometimes 
caught ; fishes, except, perhaps, in some places, a few species, rarely 
frequent these bog sloughs. 

Inscribed Pillar-Stones, County Mayo. I was lately on the west 
coast of Mayo with Mr. Patrick O'Dowd, a gentleman who has a consi- 
derable knowledge of the antiquities of the county, and he showed me 
two standing stones which I have not seen mentioned in any book, 
though one is shown on the Ordnance Map (No. 95). I made rough 
sketches of them on the spot. No. 1 is near the sea, in the townland of 
Dooghmakeon. A farmer, Austin Tiernan, who livee close by, told me 
that it was lying flat on the sandhills, nearly covered ; but that about 
fifty years ago a Catholic clergyman, Father M'Manus, had it raised. 
Tiernan said that more than half the stone is buried in the sand. 


There are some incised marks on one corner, near the base, which 
probably are part of an Ogham inscription, the rest of which is buried 
beneath the sands. Close by, just north of Lough Cahasy, is a so-called 
grave, consisting of a low pile of stones, many of which are of a peculiar 
shape, mostly resembling dumb-bells. The balls seem to be light- 
coloured sandstone, shaped by sea-action ; but they are joined by a 
blue slaty stone, which must have united them subsequently. This 
grave is about 9 feet long, and many stories are told about it. Any one 
praying there at midnight gets his wish, provided his rival does not 
arrive before him ; disputes are settled there by both parties swearing 
over one of these stones. It is evidently in repute still, as it 'is half 
covered with rags, bits of iron, &c. Several of the neighbouring tenants 

No. 1. 

Diameter of Circle, 1 foot 2| inches. 
Pillar, 5 ft. 6 in. above ground. 

No. 2. 

say that a number of coins, long bronze-pins, &c., have been found 
there; and that about 100 years ago, a Father Lyons broke several 
bronze swords that were lying on it, and threw them into Lough 
Cahasy. There is another celebrated grave in the middle of this lake ; 
but I was unable to get out to it. 

The standing stone, No. 2, is in Killeen graveyard, in the townland 
of Cloonlaur (Ordnance Map, 95). The ornamentation on it is very 
similar to No. 1, but with the addition of the oval cup-holes and grooves. 
The stone is much weathered, and I could ascertain nothing about its 

This stone is leaning at an angle of 35, and would appear much 
taller if upright. The small cup-marks are indistinct, and now average 
only about 1 inch in depth. The grooves, or gutters, running from 



them to the centre of the circle, are only just visible, owing to growth 
of lichen. There is a second outer circle, but only traceable on the 
lower half of the circle. It will be seen from the sketch that the 
segments of inscribed circles do not intersect as in stone No. 1. 

In the adjoining townland of Cross there is a standing stone about 
12 feet high, but without any markings that I could detect. A 
few feet from it is another standing stone, about 4% feet high, without 
markings, and apparently much broken. There is a cromlech about 
a mile away in the townland of Aillemore ; but 1 had not time to 
visit it. 

If these stones have not been described before, perhaps a short 
description of them may be suitable for the Journal of the Society. 
W. E. KELLY, C.E., J.P., Hon. Local Secretary, South Mayo. 

Holed Stones found in France. A Paper by Mons. F. Poly, 
published in the "Rev. de 1'Ecole d'Anthropologie," 1896, describes 
seven " Pierres-Percees " found in the Department of Haute-Saone, and 
figures five of these interesting objects. To this list M. Mortillet has 
-added a memorandum concerning two or three additional instances from 
other departments on the Swiss frontier, and gives a figure of one of 
these. I have not seen the original communication, and extract this 
note from "Bulletins de la Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris" for 
September, 1896, where a woodcut illustration is shown of a perforated 
stone from Poulaincourt, Haute-Saone. Further inquiries into the 
distribution of these " stones with perforations " in France would be of 
great interest ; also if they are associated with any of the traditional 
uses with which tliev are identified in Ireland. W. FEAZER. 

" The Kilkenny Museum." The Irish Builder, of April 15th, has 
-an article on this subject, from which the following are extracts : 

"The question of housing the objects of antiquarian interest collected in Kilkenny 
has occupied considerable attention for some time past, and a rather painful contro- 
versy appears to have arisen in that city over the proposed appropriation of a certain 
building known as ' The Shoe Alms-house,' which has been suggested by some local 
persons as a fitting receptacle for the collection, which proposal has been very stoutly 
icsisted and so far successfully^ by some influential residents, who are anxious that 
the building should not be diverted from the charitable purposes to which, for some 
time past, it had been devoted. The quarrel bids fair to become a second edition of 
the story of ' The Kilkenny Cats,' and it is just possible that it may result in the 
removal of the objects from the ' faire citie.' 

" The Alms-house is considered by those best acquainted with the building to be 
very badly suited for the suggested purpose ; it is very dark, and has not been kept 
in a good state of repair; and though the rent asked for it is only 5 per annum, it 
seems that it would be dear even at that figure. The proposal to light it by skylights 


in the roof would be expensive, and would only prove effective for the attic story ;. 
the principal floor would still remain in darkness, and as the building was erected 
upwards of three centuries ago, it may be difficult and expensive to effect the necessary 
structural alterations. ... It may not be out of place to say that these objects were 
brought together solely by the energy and ability of three men. The first, who was 
the founder of the Society, Rev. James Graves; the second, Mr. J. G. A. Prim ; and 
the third, Mr. J. G. Robertson, who looked after the collection from the foundation 
of the Society until his removal to Dublin in 1888. The Rev. James Graves having 
died in 1885, the Society fell into decay; it had no funds, the Members would not 
pay, and, having neither men nor money to carry on the work in Kilkenny, the local 
Members decided to dispose of the objects to the Science and Art Museum. It is well 
to mark that this was decided on while the headquarters of the Society were still at 

" Shortly after this the management was taken up in Dublin, and a new Council 
was formed, and the almost defunct Society became, in a few years, transformed into- 
the most extensive and prosperous Archaeological Society in the United Kingdom, 
under the name of ' The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland,' and to the credit 
of the new management, it must be said, that they did not sell the Kilkenny Museum, 
but kept it up in the same house, paid the rent and other expenses, exactly as the old 
Society did. At the meeting at Kilkenny last year, some local Members, who did not 
understand the history of the case, proposed that the Council should undertake a large 
expenditure in improving the rented apartments. It is not to be wondered at that the 
Council, acting for all the Members as well as for those in Kilkenny (the Members 
outside of that city numbering about 100 for every one residing in it), did not see 
their way to spend in Kilkenny money subscribed elsewhere for the other purposes of 
the Society. An elected Council must follow the directions of the majority there are 
1376 Members in all, of whom considerably less than a score reside in Kilkenny. . . . 
A great opportunity was lost when the Society, founded by Rev. James Graves, 
was allowed to dwindle down and finally disappear. Another Society, founded by 
Cardinal Moran, when Bishop of Ossory, also died out in Kilkenny, for want of the 
necessary local support. A valuable collection of antiquities was made by the last- 
named Society, now housed, free of cost, at the College of St. Kieran, and the sugges- 
tion which has been made as to the amalgamation of the two collections, is worthy of 

"One thing is evident, that, while the (Royal) Society of Antiquaries, now a 
National Society, cannot allow money subscribed elsewhere, and for another purpose, 
to be spent in Kilkenny, they cannot allow the objects to remain as before. The 
local Members alone are to blume for the present block, and it devolves on them now 
to come forward and, after counting the cost, say if there is public spirit enough in 
Kilkenny to establish a public museum, and to give guarantees that the objects will 
be properly cared for and exhibited. . . . Turning for a moment to the objects in the 
museum, the collection is a very heterogeneous one; no system seems to have been 
adopted, and the result is that it presents more the appearance <>f an ' Old Curiosity 
Shop' than a properly -arranged museum. Stones, and fragments of stained glass 
from St. Canice's Cathedral, roof timbers from Callan, crannog logs from Enniskillen, 
rough beams from Rothe's House, and a great variety of pieces of timber, most of 
which should not have been moved from their original habitat, have now become a 
difficulty as to disposal, as they are of no archaeological interest whatever. There still 
remains a good deal of general and local interest, but there are some objects of a, 
fictile character, others rust-eaten, not much to look at, but rapidly disintegrating, 
which should be at once removed, and placed in the hands of an expert for preser- 
vation in dust-proof cases ; and for the safe custody of such special items it is not 
likely any satisfactory provision could be made in Kilkenny." 


Celtic Crosses. The latest theory formulated to explain the pecu- 
liarities of the ancient crosses which are found in Great Britain and 
Ireland, was explained in a Paper which was 'read in Edinburgh on the 
10th of May, hy Mr. Eomilly Allen, P.S.A., Fellow, who has devoted 
much attention to the subject. Keferring to the peculiar style of deco- 
ration of the period known as Celtic, which was by some assumed to- 
have had its origin in Ireland, Mr. Allen said it was no doubt true that 
Celtic art attained its highest excellence in Irish illuminated manuscripts, 
such as the Books of Kells, Armagh, and Burrow ; but it was a relevant 
inquiry to what extent the illuminators were indebted to foreign sources, 
and whether the similarities of design on the monuments of the eighth 
to the eleventh centuries in Scotland, Ireland, England, and Wales, 
might not be accounted for by development on parallel lines rather than 
by direct derivation. Instancing a series of rubbings taken by Mr. 
Griffith -Bavies, Member, from cross-shafts and fragments at Clonmacnoise, 
which closely resemble the slabs of Perthshire and Eorfarshire, he pro- 
ceeded to point out other resemblances between the Irish and the 
Scottish monuments generally, alike in their decoration and in the 
groups of Scriptural figure-subjects which appear on both. The Irish 
crosses are chiefly found in Leinster and Ulster, and are absent from the 
counties of Kerry, Cork, and Waterford, which contain the Ogham- 
inscribed pillar- stones of the earliest Christian period, and the total 
number of crosses in Ireland, amounting to about fifty, was extremely 
small as compared with the 300 localities in Scotland, 250 in England, 
40 in Wales, and 15 in the Isle of Man. that were now on record. The 
conclusion seemed to be that the pre-Norman crosses of Ireland were 
later than those of Scotland, England, and Wales, and that this phase of 
early Christian sculpture had its origin in Northumbria. The scrolls of 
foliage on the Irish crosses, and the bird and leaf motives in the Book of 
Kells, indicated North umbri an influence. Scandinavian influence had 
not been detected on the Irish crosses, but was found on the metal-work. 
In conclusion, he considered that the Celtic style was a variety of the 
Lombardo-Byzantine style, from which its figure subjects, interlaced 
work, scrolls of foliage, and many of its nondescript animals were 
obviously derived. 

Prehistoric Burial. On May 18th, 1897, when breaking up a grass- 
field on Mr. Sutton's farm near Newcastle, a few miles from Greystones, 
county Wicklow, the plough struck against a granite block, about 6 feet 
long, and 4 feet in width. Later, when preparing to blast this with 
gunpowder, it was discovered to be the roof of a stone cist, formed of 
schist slabs, measuring 5 feet x 2 feet 4 inches wide, and lying E.S.E. 
and W.N.W., within which the remains of a body lay, apparently on its 
side, with the legs drawn up or bent. There were also fragments of a 


neatly-decorated urn. The skull was well formed, with no very ab- 
normal features in the bones, the skeleton being that of a man of 
ordinary size, about forty years old. The remains were placed in 
the hands of Dr. C. Browne, and have been described (as well as the 
grave and its other contents) in a joint report to the Royal Irish 
Academy, by him and Messrs. Coffey and Westropp. 

Cams in Co. Tyrone. The Rev. F. Rapmund (Member) lately 
described in the Derry 70wrw(21stMay) two remarkable earns which he 
examined in the vicinity of Clogher. That of Carnagat was oblong ; 
90 feet in length, 30 in width, and 10 feet high. It contained four 
chambers. No bones or implements were discovered ; a small stone 
" ornament" was the only find. Carnafadrig is somewhat smaller 
than the other. It is 86 by 38 by 7 feet. Two pillar-stones stand 
at the eastern end. It contained one chamber, in which a flint-knife 
was found : also some fragments of rudely baked un glazed pottery 
were picked up. There was no trace of interment here. Three cham- 
bers, in line at right angles to long axis of earn, were discovered at the 
western end ; and here some fragments of bones were found one of them 
an uncalcined portion of a skull ; and in the same cist two flint im- 

" Spanish Armada Chests." The following letter appeared in the 
Irish Builder : Wo amount of ridicule seems to explode the figment about 
''Armada Chests." According to Dublin superstition it might be inferred 
that the Spanish Armada's particular mission to this country was to im- 
port church organs and iron chests ; and, considering how many ships 
were wrecked, it would be marvellous how so many organs and chests 
got to land. There are, at least, three organs in Dublin, which, of 
course, " came over with the Spanish Armada" ; and as for the chests, 
there are literally scores of them up and down Dublin ! 

These iron chests are no rarities at all, and their origin is perfectly 
well known, and their relation to the Spanish Armada about as near 
as to Noah's Ark. They are to be found by scores in old-established 
solicitors' offices, in banks, private houses, and marine stores. They 
were imported from Holland, where their name of Coffres du Privilege is 
perfectly well known, and they came probably as handy ballast for ships 
in the end of the seventeenth and throughout the eighteenth century. 
No doubt every one of the 24 Guilds of the Corporation possessed one, 
with its three keys, up to 1843. There is one at Christchurch, and the 
entry of the payment for it in 1689. I have one that belonged to the 
General Post, and the date on it 1753. 

A Belfast man, with becoming modesty, lately claimed for Ulster, in. 
the Ulster Journal of Archceology, the only three genuine and " unques- 


tionable relics of the ill-fated Armada." " Every ship of it carried two 
such bullion chests a big one for the common sailors' silver, and a little 
one for the officers' gold" ; but, unfortunately for romance, the bill paid 
prosaically for one of them in 1780, turned up. 

There was a "real relic of the Spanish Armada" discovered at Bath 
last month, and it was presented to the Museum, and local newspapers 
made much " copy" of "the most interesting discovery." Of course it 
was but another of the innumerable Dutch boxes of the last century ; but, 
of course, an " Armada Chest " it will be, as long as Bath has a Museum. 
Nonsensical figments like this die hard. THOMAS DKEW, V. P. 

Interesting Find in Moyntaghs, Co. Armagh. We learn from the 
Belfast News-Letter that while a number of persons were engaged in May 
this year cutting turf in Derrymacash, about 2 miles from Lurgan, and 
within 100 yards of Lough JSeagh shore, a large urn-shaped bronze 
vessel was unearthed at a depth of nearly 10 feet. The vessel is now 
in the possession of Mr. AVilliam Livingston, and a detailed description 
has been prepared for the Journal by Mr. Winston C. Dugan (Member), 
with illustrations, which will appear in next issue. The body of the urn 
is formed of two plates, neatly shaped, and rivetted on each side. The 
bottom is formed out of a third piece, shaped to fit the lower part of the 
body, to which it is similarly rivetted. Around the bottom edge are 
rivetted six corner pieces, thickened below, evidently for the purpose of 
strengthening and protecting the bottom from contact with the ground. 
The handles are formed of rings of solid bronze, angular in section, and 
about 3^ inches in diameter. The height of the vessel is 13 inches ; 
diameter, 14 and 11 J inches at widest and narrowest parts; weight, 
of Ibs. The surface of the interior is of a dark colour ; the exterior has 
a peculiarly dull, yellowish tint like oxidised brass. Mr. Magurran is 
the owner of the moss in which the discovery was made, and the " find " 
is considered extremely interesting owing to the legends associated with 
the district and the southern shores of Lough Neagh. 

An Old School in Gralway. The Records of the Irish Privy Council 
are now being published, and they contain some quaint entries. Thus 
we find the following concerning the opening of a school in Gralway in 
the sixteenth century : 

" The erection of a school at Gal way, at the expense of ' one Dominicke 
Linche,' was the subject of a letter to the English Privy Council in the 
year 1569. The letter is a long one, but it affords some rather interest- 
ing extracts illustrative of the state of learning in the West at the time. 
The writer, after referring to "the greate honestie of the peticioner 
(Lynch), together with the rareness of Ids request," pleaded for the 


grant of Crown property, valued at 8 11s. Sd. per annum for the 
purposes of the school, and proceeded : 

" So consideringe that he and the inhabitants are contented that the 
schole shall take erection from her majestie, and her highnes and her 
successors to have the nominacion of the schole-m aster, the honour of 
the godly foundacion, especially in this rude and barberowse countiie, 
may be a sufficient pourchase to her highnes to alienate from herself so 
small a revenew likely to confer unto her hereafter an infinite number 
of lerned honest and dewtifull subjectes of all sortes. 

" Sure, my lordes, the great want of civilitie, espeeiallie in those 
partes where this towne is planted and in whose walles is conteined all 
the dew subjection of the province of Conaught, is a cawse that might 
move your lordshippes to a comiseracion of this estate and to compell 
you to use mediation to the queenes majestie for her charitie to be ex- 
tended to so good and Godlie a pourpose, whereby also religion should 
be greatly advanced, for throughe lacke thereof I see the discommoditie 
growings by the careles education of the nobilitie and gentilmen of 
those partes where even thei of the best bowses, the brothers of the 
erle of Clanricarde, yea, and one of his uncles and he a bysshop, can 
neither speake nor understand e in maner any thinge of ther princes 
language, which language by the old statutes of Galwey everie man 
ought to learne and must speake before he can be admitted to any office 
within ther corporacion. 

" What marvell is it then that where there is nether religion, lern- 
inge, understandings, nor civilitie, there want also dew obedience and 
conformitie to thelawes. All which by this meanes may take encrease, 
if it please her most excellent majestie to become, with this small 
charge, the founder and beginner of this well-intended enterprise, the 
honour whereof shal be as perpetuall as the worke, and the commoditie 
greate to her people but most to her excellencie that of barberous 
uncivill and undewtifull men shall reigne over a nomber of lerned dew- 
tifull arid reformed subjectes hereafter. 

" And this I thoughte my parte to communicate to your lordshippes, 
desiringe that this private sute for a common benefite may receive your 
commendacions to the queenes most excellent majestie and that 1 may 
have answere of her highnes resolucion herein. And so 1 humbly take 
my leave. At Dublin, the xxth of May, 1569."- RICHARD J. KELLY, 
Hon. Secretary North Galway. 

St. Patrick's Bells. The following paragraph, which appeared in 
Trellarfs Dublin Journal for October 26th to 29th, 1751, possesses 
some interest at the present time, and may be thought not unworthy of 
insertion in our " Miscellanea" : 

" We hear that the fine-toned rings of bells belonging to St. Patrick's 


Cathedral, Dublin, which that ever memorable patriot, the Rev. Dean 
Swift, so much admired, and which were always held in high estima- 
tion among all true lovers of harmony, will be rung out on some solemn 
occasion. It is to be noted that these bells were cast very near to St. 
Patrick's steeple, wherein they now hang, and that, in the opinion 
of the most knowing in the art of ringing they are equal in a 
melodious and tuneable sound to any that were ever imported into this 
kingdom. As they are of Irish manufacture, it is not doubted that the 
ringers will exert the utmost of their skill which will give great satis- 
faction to all who delight in that exhilarating music." F. ELRINGTON 

Milk Adulteration. Prosecutions for the adulteration of milk were 
not unknown in Dublin more than one hundred and fifty years ago. 
In looking over Pue's Occurrences, I came across the following paragraph 
in the issue for October 10 to 14, 1732: " Mary Barrett was found 
guilty for putting 22 quarts of water to 44 quarts of milk, and this day 
stood in the pillory opposite to the Tholsel for the same." F. ELTUNGTON 

An Irish Easter Legend. Being in the north-west of Ireland last 
summer, on the borders of Sligo and Donegal, I chanced upon a famous 
Shanachie, or story-teller, an Irish- speaking peasant, who possessed an 
almost inexhaustible fund of traditional, historical, and legendary lore, 
and whose manner of relating his stories was so graphic that each scene 
seemed to pass before his own and his listeners' eyes. Amongst the 
legends he told was one which is now very rare, being, as far as I am 
aware, known only to Irish- speaking people, and even to few amongst 
these, though the sculptured tomb bearing the pictured representation of 
the story being found in Kilree churchyard, almost in the extreme 
farthest part of Ireland from Donegal, would seem to show that in 
olden times the legend was popular throughout Ireland. 

The old story represented by " a cock in a pot, crowing," was told 
me by the STianachie as follows : 

" It was at the time when our Saviour was in the grave, and that 
the soldiers who were set to watch the tomb were sitting round a fire 
they had lighted. They had killed a cock and put it in a pot on the 
fire to boil for their supper; and, as they sat arounJ, they spoke together 
of the story that was told how He that was in the tomb they were 
guarding had prophesied that before three days were passed He would 
rise again from the dead. And one of the men said, in mockery : He 
will rise as sure as the cock that is in that boiling pot will crow again.' 
No sooner were the words spoken than the lid of the pot burst open, the 
cock flew on to the edge, flapped his wings, sprinkling the soldiers with 


the boiling Avater, then crowed three times, and what he said each 

time was : 

' Moc an o-o-o-ye, slaun ! 
Moc an o-o-o-ye, slaun ! ' l 

That is, ' Son of the Virgin, Hail ! ' and ever since that hour this is 
what the cock crows : this is what we hear him say, and if you listen 
you, too, can hear the very words : 

' Moc an o-o-o-ye, slaun ! ' ' 

I spell the sound of the Irish phonetically to try and imitate the 
peculiar softening of the words as an Irish speaker softens them, the 
prolonging out of the o-o-o sounding almost precisely like the bird's 
crow heard from a distance. At least so it has always sounded in 
my ears since I heard this beautiful legend. M."B. 

1 "ITIac an Oig, r-ldn!" 


[NOTE. Those marked * are by Members of the Society.^ 

* Prehistoric Problems : being a selection of Essays on the Evolution of Man 
and other controverted problems in Anthropology and Archeology. By 
Robert Munro, M.D., Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland ; Hon. Member of the Royal Irish Academy and of the 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, &c. 

THIS is another valuable contribution from our esteemed Hon. Fellow, 
Dr. Munro, to antiquarian knowledge. His recent visit to Bosnia, 
Herzegovina, and Dalmatia, so vividly described, will be remembered 
by many readers with lasting interest from its conYbination of research, 
keen observation, and picturesque sketches; and this "Prehistoric 
Problems," if more strictly scientific, will equally repay attentive 

The central Paper of the present volume to the allied studies of 
Anthropology and Archeology, illustrates Dr. Munro' s views respecting 
human development in prehistoric times, attributing to the acquisition 
of erect posture, at some admittedly very remote epoch, all subsequent 
advances that have taken place in the growth of brain tissue, and con- 
sequent progress of .our race from higher-class apes to the highest grade 
reached by modern civilization. In following up his train of reasoning, he 
discusses the principal examples of crania found in sedimentary deposits, 
caves, &c., from Canstatt, Cromagnou, Engis, Clichy, Spy, and elsewhere, 
up to the very recent observations of Dubois on the Java specimen, termed 
" Pithecanthropus erectus," which was shown by its discoverer recently 
in this city, as well as at many scientific centres in England and on the 
Continent, and fully examined by scientists, together with the thigh- 
bone and large-sized tooth, considered by Dubois to belong to the same 
individual, and, at least, found in the same geologic positions. Dr. 
Munro has given brief but accurate available summaries of the reliable 
facts bearing on each of these finds, which can be studied by those who 
desire to approach the investigation of this difficult question in full 
possession of all the reliable circumstances yet ascertained, from which 
they may form their own deductions. Thus it becomes serviceable alike 
for advanced thinkers, and for that wider section of readers who desire 
to keep their stores of information abreast of modern investigations 
lespecting the abstruse problem of how man obtained his distinctive 
characteristics, and gained his admitted pre-eminence over other animals. 

The preliminary pages are devoted to a history of Palaeolithic Man, 


and all that is yet ascertained of his special progress towards civilization ; 
his geographical distribution and environments, such as contemporaneous 
existence with tribes of animals known to be long extinct, especially 
in Europe. This, likewise, may be described as a summary of facts 
and observations relating to such subjects scattered over many works, 
British and foreign, the result of long continued researches, under 
varying circumstances, by numerous scientists, brought up to date by 
Dr. Munro's investigations; for he enjoyed tbe advantage of being able 
to visit, and personally study, every important find bearing on Prehistoric 
Man, in almost every museum of Europe. 

Nor must his other essays be overlooked, such as one on the curious 
subject of " Skull Trephining," removing during life, or after death, 
portions of the bony covering of the human brain, possibly attempts 
to cure diseases, or to relieve the consequences of injuries ; and, strange 
.as it may seem, it is suggested, with much probability, employing these 
detached pieces of human bone for amulets and charms. In pursuit of 
this investigation, Dr. Munro has, for several years, collected scattered 
facts from various sources, and added to them, by his own inquiries, 
several important additional observations, so that at present a new 
chapter on the past history of our race has resulted. Up to the present 
no such artifically perforated skulls are known in Ireland referable to 
prehistoric or early historic times, though cranial injuries are not 
unfrequent, and a large number of perforating wounds of the skull were 
found in the remains of the great Donnybrook massacre amongst its 700 
or 800 victims. 

Respecting another Paper, describing the wooden implements pro- 
visionally called " Otters." It contains an exhaustive summary of all 
yet ascertained about their archeology. This country had the merit of 
contributing the first published example of these objects, one of which 
was figured and described in an early volume of the first series of the 
Ulster Journal of Archaeology, found in the parish of Aghadowey, county 
Deny. The description and drawing there given are alike valuable, but 
the conflicting opinions about its probable uses are amusing. By some it 
was supposed to be designed to catch fish, which is, indeed, we believe, 
its real intention ; again it was thought to form some kind of pump ; to 
be intended to mould "sods of turf," a material better known out of 
Ireland as "peat"; or even applicable for a " cheese-press." Since 
this time several examples were found imbedded deep in peaty deposits 
in many continental countries from Germany to Italy. One, which was 
found in Wales, was supposed to be a " musical instrument," for what 
reason it is difficult to surmise. 

Dr. Munro has long devoted his studies to these traps, and, finally, 
Ireland has topped the record, no less than nine specimens being recently 
got imbedded in peaty bog, at Larkhill, county Fermanagh, near Castle- 
caldwell, on the estate of the late J. C. Bloomfield, Esq. 


Mr. Hugh Allingham, of Ballyshannon, deserves the credit of 
thoroughly working out the history of these finds, of which he has 
published an account in this Journal for 1896, p. 379. They have, thanks 
to him, found a resting-place in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. 
Another specimen of one of these traps is preserved in the collection of 
the late Canon Grainger. We call attention to these Irish specimens, 
for it settles the suggestion that they were used to snare " beavers," 
for the beaver was at no time an inhabitant of this country. It 
would be almost as difficult to understand how otters, or wild fowl, 
could be caught with such affairs. We are disposed to the simpler 
conclusion of their being intended to catch pike of large size by 
night-lines. If we are informed aright, somewhat similar arrangements 
of baited hooks attached to a board were used in the English lakes, and 
in some parts of Ireland not many years since, by poachers ; if so, the 
name "Otter" would signify something equally destructive to fish at 
night, as that quadruped or the poacher himself. 

Two other Papers, on Bone Skates and on Prehistoric Saws and 
Sickles, are deserving of mention, the latter possessing for us local 
claims, for whilst bone skates are undescribed here, and in England 
confined to a small coast district, extending along the eastern shoreland 
from London to York, they are abundant in Holland, Denmark, and 
North Germany. On the other hand, Ulster has yielded, in comparative 
abundance, knives with serrated edges, made from flint ; and flakes of the 
same material, " so serrated at the edge, that a person at once comes to 
the conclusion that they had been prepared as saws," as our Fellow, 
W. J. Knowles, has stated; and also these " hollow scrapers," with 
neatly- worked edges in the form of a semicircle, which appear to belong 
specially to our flint districts, with rare exceptions, together with those 
Dr. Munro groups, the well-known toothed flint weapons from Scandi- 
navia, bronze saws (very rare with us), and sickles of bronze and iron. 
It will appear, from this brief notice, that a series of articles, requiring 
patient study, and abounding in archgeologic research, are placed at our 
disposal in these pages, for which we thank its author, and would ask 
for more at his hands. 

W. F. 

JOUR. R.S.A.I., VOL. VII., *"T. II., 5lH SEH. 


THE SECOND GENERAL MEETING of the Society for the year 1897 was 
held (by permission of the Mayor) in the Council Chamber of the 
Tholsel, Kilkenny, on Monday, 19th April, 1897, at 1 o'clock, p.m. ; 

COLONEL PHILIP DOYNE VIGORS, J.P., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following took part in the proceedings : 

Felloivs : The Rev. J. F. M. ffrench, M.R.I.A., Vice- President ; Robert Cochrane, 
F.S.A., M.R.I. A., Hon. General Secretary and Treasurer ; G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., 
M.R.I. A., Assistant Secretary and Treasurer ; Richard Colles, B.A. ; John Cooke, M.A. ; 
Patrick M. Egan; Richard Langrishe, F.R.I.A.I. ; the Rev. Patrick Power; Edward 
Perceval Wright, M.A., M.D., M.R.I. A. 

Members: J. St. Clair Boyd, M.D. ; M. J. C. Buckley; Miss Byrne; John 
Carolan, J.P. ; Major J. H. Connellan, J.P., D.L. ; John Commins ; Miss Field; 
Arthur Hade, C.E. ; the Rev. Canon Hewson, B.A. ; M. W. Lalor ; E. W. Love- 
grove, M.A. ; Mrs. M'Donnell; Patrick O'Leary ; P. J. O'Reilly ; N. Power O'Shee, 
J.P., D.L. ; Thomas Rice; P. Shannon; the Rev. T. R. Walsh, P.P. ; R. Blah- 
White ; W. Grove White, LL.B. ; Miss K. E. Younge. 

The Hon. Secretary read a letter from the Right Hon. 0' Conor Don, 
President of the Society, regretting his inability to be present. 

The Chairman said that, before they commenced the proceedings, he 
should like to give expression to their regret at the enforced absence of 
their President, 0' Conor Don. The utmost importance was attached to 
these local meetings, as, owing to them, the increased interest taken in 
archaeology through the country had been very marked ; and he thought 
they might attribute the non-destruction of a large number of our old 
buildings and the preservation of others, as well as the recovery of a 
great many articles of immense value to the spread of the light that was 
now taking place throughout the land. They had also, within quite a 
recent period, new local societies in connexion with their society, started, 
such as in Waterford, Cork, Belfast, and, coming nearer home, Kildare ; 
and last, but not least, he saw that one had recently been started in 
Limerick. There were other counties rich in archaeological interest, such 
as Galway and Londonderry, and he hoped that they would follow the 
good example set by those places he had mentioned. He attached much 
importance to local museums, and he was glad to see the work that had 
been done in this direction. His own county town (Carlow), amongst 
the number, had started a museum in the town hall, for which a grant 
was made by the town commissioners. He thought that the work in 
which they were engaged did not rest solely with Members. Outsiders, 
who did not belong to the Society, might assist a great deal in carrying 


out the objects they had in view. There was no one who was not aware 
of the injury that had been done to castles and abbeys, in which this 
country was so rich. Now, that should be put a stop to if possible, and 
objects of interest should be brought under the notice of the Secretary 
of the Society, or a local Member where possible. He was sure the 
Council would be only too glad to receive information from any person 
relating to any object of interest, or dealing with injuries to existing 
ancient buildings. In conclusion the Chairman said that the Society 
was especially indebted to the Press for spreading the light. 

The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting were then read and 

The following Candidates, recommended by the Council, were 

unanimously elected : 


Frost, James, M.R.I. A.., j. p. (Member, 1871), 54, George-street, Limerick: pro- 
posed by Robert Cochrane, F.S.A., Hon. General Secretary and Treasurer. 

M'Chesney, Joseph (Member, 1890), Holywood, Co. Down : proposed by Francis 
Joseph Bigger, M.U.I. A., Fellow. 

O'Donoghue, Charles, J.P., Ballinahown Court, Athlone : proposed by W. P. 
Kelly, Fellow. 


Archdall, Right Rev. Mervyn, D.D., Bishop of Killaloe, Clarisford House, 
Killaloe : proposed by the Very Rev. Robert Humphreys, M.A., Dean of Killaloe, 

Bain, Andrew, D.I.,R.I.C., Newcastle "West, Co. Limerick : proposed by Thomas 
Hayes, c.i., R.I.C. 

Berry, Hugh F., B.A., 16, Trinity College, Dublin, and Mourne House, Fortwilliam 
Park, Belfast: proposed by the Rev. Professor Stokes, D.D., M.R.I. A. 

Burke, Rev. Thomas, P.P., Ballindereen, Kilcolgan, Co. Galway : proposed by 
the Very Rev. J. Fahey, P.P., V.F. 

Burke, Rev. W. P., Catherine- street, Waterford: proposed by the Rev. P. Power, 

Campbell, A. Albert, Solicitor, 2, Lawrence-street, Belfast : proposed by D. J. 

Caruth, 'Norman C., Solicitor, Ballymena : proposed by W. J. Knowles, Vice- 

Crosthwait, Rev. Edward, B.A., The Lodge, Bagnalstown : proposed by Colonel 
P. D. Vigors, Vice- President. 

Cummins, John, Desart, Cuffe's Grange, Kilkenny : proposed by the Rev. Canon 
Hewson, B.A. 

Drummond, Michael, M.A., Q.C., 51, Lower Baggot-street, Dublin : proposed by 
G. A. P. Kelly, M.A., Fellow. 

Fenton, Rev. C. O'Connor, B.A., 105, Botanic-road, Liverpool: proposed by Mrs. 

Fletcher, Rev. Victor J., it. A., Malahide : proposed by the Rev. Professor Stokes, 

D.D., M.R.I. A. 

Frewen, William, Solicitor, Nelson-street, Tipperary : proposed by the Rev. 
Denis Hanan, D.D. 

Gleeson, Michael, Crown Solicitor, Nenagh : proposed by the Very Rev. Robert 
Humphreys, M.A., Dean of Killaloe, Fellow. 

Glynn, William, J.P., Kilrush : proposed by Bartholomew O'Hennessy. 

Greer, Thomas Mac Gregor, Solicitor, Ballymoney : proposed by W. Grove 
White, LL.B. 

Hartigan, P., Castleconnell : proposed by O'Donovan, Fellow. 

Hennessy, Bryan, South-street, New Ross: proposed by P. A. Pope, Fellow. 

Kiernan, Mrs., Leitrim Lodge, Dalkey : proposed by Miss Banim. 


Kiernan, Thomas, Leitrim Lodge, Dalkey : proposed by Miss Banim. 

Limerick Institution, The Hon. Secretary of, 99, George -street, Limerick : pro- 
posed by P. J. Lynch, Fellow. 

M'Cann, David, Manager, National Bank, Kilkenny : proposed by M. M. 
Murphy, M.R.I. A., Fellow. 

M'Cormick, "William, M.A., Ardnaree, Monkstown, Co. Dublin : proposed by the 
Rev. J. W. R. Campbell, M.A. 

M'Donnell, Mrs., 68, Rathgar-road, Dublin: proposed by John Carolan, J.P. 

Molony, Henry G., M.D., Odellville, Ballingarry : proposed by George James 
Hewson, M.A., Fellow. 

Mulqueen, John T., Inspector, Inland Revenue, Nairn, N.B. : proposed by 
Samuel Scott. 

Munce, James, ASSOC. M. INST. C.E, Alexandra Park, Holywood, Co. Down : pro- 
posed by Joseph M 'Cheney. 

Murphy, Miss, 77, Ulverton-road, Dalkey : proposed by Miss Banim. 

Murray, J. W. Brady, B.A., Barrister-at- Law, J.P., Northampton House, Kinvara : 
proposed by R. J. Kelly, B.L., J.P. 

Nason, William H., M. A., 42, Dawson-street, Dublin: proposed by George D. 
Burtchaell, M.A., M.R.I. A., Fellow. 

O'Connell, Rev. Daniel, B.D., c.c., 81, Quay, "Waterford : proposed by the Rev. 
P. Power, Fellow. 

O'Connor, M. J., Solicitor, 2, George -street, Wexford : proposed by G. E. J.- 
Greene, M.A., sc. D., Fellow. 

O'Duffy, John, Dental Surgeon, 54, Rutland -square, Dublin : proposed by 
G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., M.R.I.A., Fellow. 

Rice, Thomas, 5, Carlisle-street, Dublin: proposed by George Healy, J.P. 

Roberts, Edward, M.A., H. M. Inspector of Schools, Plas Maesinda, Carnarvon : 
proposed by the Rev. Canon D. Jones, M.A. 

Russell, William, c/o Foster, Green, & Co., High-street, Belfast : proposed by 
S. F. Milligan, Vice -President. 

Smyth, Thomas, 2, Lower Ormond-quay, Dublin : proposed by George Healy, J.P. 

Spaight, Colonel W. F., Union Hall, Leap, Co. Cork : proposed by 0' Donovan, 

Thomas, W. J., Mullingar: proposed by the Rev. Sterling de Courcy "Williams, M.A. 


The Auditors' Report and Statement of Accounts for the year 1896 
was read, showing a balance to credit for the year ended December last 
of 38 Us. 6d. The capital account now amounts to 1,000 invested 
in 2f Consols in the name of the trustees. 

Mr. Cooke, one of the Auditors, moved the adoption of the Report. 
He had examined the accounts of the Society for several years, and there 
was no doubt of the highly satisfactory state in which they now were. 
There was not only a balance to credit, but they had also a capital sum 
1,000. The Society, they knew, published a Journal, which ranked 
amongst the best of the journals in the United Kingdom, and was cheaper 
than any other journal he knew. In addition to that they brought out 
an annual volume. Although the Members had increased slightly, the 
expenses of supplying the Journal and the annual volume kept up a 
heavy expenditure. He had only to say in conclusion that the accounts 
of the Society could not possibly be better kept. From the way the 
financial statement, vouchers, and documents, were presented to him and 
his colleague, they had the highest appreciation of the manner in which 
Mr. Cochrane did his duty, ably seconded by Mr. Burtchaell. 



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Mr. Egan seconded the motion. He said that the large sum to the 
capital account was a very fair indication of the stability of the Society, 
and, he thought, was a reason for congratulation on behalf of the Society, 
and a source of thanks to the officials and to the Council. If the trans- 
actions of the Society had not been very well managed such a creditable 
state of affairs would not exist. 

The motion was passed unanimously. 

Mr. M. M. Murphy, Fellow, whose name was down on the notice to 
read a Paper on " Sir Biehard Shee's Alms-house, Kilkenny," wrote as 
follows : 

"It is stated in the Programme that I will read a Paper on 'Sir Richard 
Shee's Alms-house.' I did say I would read a Paper on 'The Museum and 
Sir Richard Shee's Alms-house,' of a purely historical, character, but owing to 
the correspondence which recently appeared in the newspapers, I consider it 
advisable to hold over this Paper until our next Meeting." 

Mr. Burtchaell, Fellow, explained that, owing to pressure of business, 
he had not time to prepare his promised Paper on "Kells in Ossory." 

The following Paper was read (by Mr. Burtchaell), and referred to 
the Council : 

" The Rangers of the Curragh of Kildare," by Lord Walter Fitz Gerald, M.K.I.A., 
Vice- President. 

The following Paper, on the list, was referred to the Council : 
"Ardfert Friary and the Fitz Maurices, Lords of Kerry" (concluded], by 
Miss Hickson. 

The following notice of motion was handed in by Mr. Langrishe, to 
be submitted to the next General Meeting to be held at Lismore, county 
Waterford, on the 12th of June next : 

" That as the Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council for 
Education have, by their letter of the 10th day of April, intimated that they will 
not accept the care of the collection of objects now placed in the Museum at 
Kilkenny, the care of the said collection be vested in a Committee of not more 
than nine Fellows or Members of this Society, to be hereafter named, with power 
to appoint one of their number as Secretary, such Committee to be elected 
annually at the General Meeting in January of each year ; and that the sum of 
10 per annum be paid to such Committee by the Treasurer on or before the 1st 
day of February in each year, provided that suitable rooms, for housing the said 
collection, shall have been obtained in Kilkenny, and proper arrangements for 
conserving and exhibiting the same shall have been made by the said Committee 
to the satisfaction of the Council of this Society." 

The Meeting then adjourned for luncheon, at two o'clock ; and, at 
three o'clock, various places of interest in the city were visited, under 
the guidance of Mr. Egan. The Members then returned to the Club 
House Hotel, where dinner was served at 6.30. 



Ten Members of the Society dined at the Club House Hotel at 
7 o'clock, after which the Evening Meeting was held at 8 o'clock. 

The Chairman mentioned that the Eight Rev. W. Pakenham 
Walsh, D.D., Bishop of Ossory, had asked him to express his regret at 
not being able to be present at their meeting, and to say that, were it not 
for the state of his health, it would have afforded him great pleasure 
to be there 

Dr. Wright read a Paper by Mr. G. H. Kinahan, M.E.I.A., Fellow, 
on "Ancient Otter-traps," which was referred to the Council for 

Mr. Cochrane read a Paper by Mr. H. T. Knox, M.R.I. A., on " Castle 
Hag, in Lough Mask," which was also referred to the Council for 


Some interesting exhibits were laid on the table for the inspection of 
the Members. 

Mr. W. F. Budds, J.P., sent the following : Long bronze ear-ring date 
unknown, found at Courtstown Castle ; Caraccas silver coin, 1 oz. in 
weight; coins of the reign of James II., 1689; bronze axe, 9 oz. in 
weight, found in a bog near Athy. 

Mr. Langrishe exhibited some documents, one being a patent of 
George II., dated 1739, to Robert Langrishe as sheriff of the county 
Kilkenny, also the appointment of Samuel Millbank as sub-sheriff by 
Robert Langrishe, same date, and Samuel Millbank's bond to Robert 
Langrishe for 2,000 for performing the duties, and a deed with three 
impressions of the seal of John Langrishe, who was the county high 
sheriff in 1696. 

Mr. !N". Power O'Shee exhibited an original patent for the O'Shee 
coat-of-arms dated 1582, and a Bull of Pope Urban VIII., dated 1636, 
to Peter Archer, Pastor of the Blessed Virgin Church, Kilkenny, to erect 
a cathedral church in Kilkenny under the patronage of the O'Shee 
family, and which was never built. He also showed the cartulary of 
Sir Richard Shee, containing an interesting record of some of the great 
families in the counties of Kilkenny and Tipperary who were pursued as 
rebels by Lord Thomas de Rokeby in 1346, the expenses of the expedi- 
tion being stated, and also contains, under the sign manual of Sir William 
Drury, Queen Elizabeth's Lieutenant in Ireland at the time, a certificate 
as to the authenticity of each of the documents. Another exhibit was 
an index to the foregoing, containing the genealogy of the O'Shee family. 
Mr. O'Shee further showed an original duplicate of the will of Sir 
Richard Shee, dated 1604, one of the three copies made for Sir Richard's 
three sons ; a lament, in Irish, for Richard Power of Gardenmorris, 
composed by one of his female relatives ; a deed of sale of Sir Richard 
Shee's hospital, as the almshouse in Rose Inn-street was then called, to 


a merchant in Waterford, by Edmond Shee, and another deed of its 
repurchase, in 1779, by the present Mr. O'Shee's grandfather, John 
O'Shee, who bought it for 20 when it was in ruins. 

Mr. Blair White proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Langrishe, Mr. 
Power O'Shee, and Mr. Budds, for their interesting and instructive 

Mr. O'Reilly seconded the vote of thanks, which was passed. 

The Chairman said that it gave a zest to their meetings to have such 
exhibits as those which they had seen brought forward, and he hoped 
that, on future occasions, local gentlemen who had objects of this kind 
under a bushel, as it were, would produce them for the inspection of 

The Society then adjourned until its next Meeting, at Lismore, on 
12th June. 


On Tuesday morning, April 20th, several Members started from the 
Club House Hotel on the Excursion which had been arranged in con- 
nexion with the Kilkenny Meeting. They first visited Kells and the Priory, 
where Mr. Egan gave a short account of the history of the Canons Regular 
of St. Augustine at Kells, after which some time was spent in examining 
the ruins and monuments. Luncheon was provided under the shelter of 
the central tower. The party left at two o'clock for Kilree, where they 
visited the ruined Celtic church, which contains amongst other tombs an 
elaborately sculptured one of Richard Cornerford, of Danganmore, who 
died in 1612, on the side slab of which are sculptured the emblems of 
our Lord's Passion, and a representation of a cock with extended wings 
crowing on the edge of a pot, somewhat similar to that depicted on the 
tomb of Edmond Purcell in St. Canice's Cathedral. Mr. Langrishe here 
read an account sent to him by Miss Banim, Member, of a legend 
referring to this which she had heard from an old Irish-speaking story- 
teller in county Donegal last year. After examining this very interesting 
church with its later chancel, the round tower standing to the north-west 
of which within the graveyard, and the ancient Celtic cross standing 
about fifty yards to the west in the adjoining field, the party proceeded 
to Aghaviller, situate in the demesne of Castle Morres, where they 
inspected the fourteenth-century house and the remains of the round 
tower standing in the graveyard. Proceeding by Sheepstown, they 
visited the ancient church which has been illustrated in the Journal of 
the Society, and here a Paper by Mr. Murphy was read giving the 
references to this church in the " Annals of the Four Masters" and other 
documents. The excursion party returned by way of Kells, arriving at 
6 p.m., completing the whole programme, notwithstanding the wetness 
of the day. 

(JouR. R.S.A.I., VOL. VII., FIFTH SERIES, 1897.; 

In description of Plates I., II., III., and IV., pages 3, 5, 7, and 9, for 
"one-fourth size," read " half linear. " 

In Plates V. and VI., pages 11 and 13, for "two-fifths natural size," read 
' ' three-fourths linear. ' ' 

For " one-fourth size," under figure 50, p. 15, read "natural size." 








"17" ILLY VILLA LAKH, in which this crannoge is situated, takes its name 
from the townland in which part of it lies. Killy villa is the 
Anglicised form of the Irish name Coill-a* -bhile, the wood of the bile, or 
old tree. This I learnt from an old man, one of the last speakers of Irish 
now remaining in the neighbourhood, and I subsequently verified his 
translation by the help of Dr. Joyce's work, "Irish Names of Places." 
The name is an inappropriate one for the townland at the present day, 
as the place is bare enough of trees, but doubtless was accurately de- 
scriptive of it at one time, as numy relics of bygone vegetation, in the 
shape of large trunks of black oak, are to be seen lying in the moory soil 
which surrounds the lake. Bog-oak is also largely used by the farmers 
in the neighbourhood for gate-posts, supports for out-houses, &c. No 
doubt also the trees (oak, birch, hazel, and fir), which formed the frame- 
work of the crannoge, grew in its immediate vicinity ; and I have spoken 
with old men who remember to have been told by their fathers of the fir 
woods which once existed there. The lake, which forms one of a 
cluster of four, is a small one. It is evident that its proportions have 
shrunk considerably, as white shell marl forms the substratum of the 
surrounding bog, showing that it was formerly part of the lake bottom, 



the water having been displaced by the gradual growth of peat. This 
shrinkage, however, must have taken place at a very remote period, as 
roots and portions of the stems of black oak, and of other trees, may be 
seen in situ, just at the present margin of the lake. It is obvious that the 
water must have reached its present level before the seeds of these trees 
could have been deposited there. I think it probable also that the 
crannoge was built when the lake was of about the same depth as at 
present, for the water at its ancient level would (as far as can be roughly 
gauged by the eye) have submerged it, even should the structure then 
have stood many feet higher than is the case at present, which hypothesis 
however may be dismissed as an impossibility ; for the elevation of the 
island at the time when it ceased to be occupied, must of course have 
been much the same as it is to-day, plus some depth of mould derived 
from the decayed vegetable matter of centuries. No doubt some degree 
of subsidence took place in all fascine-dwellings, yet this must, from the 
nature of its causation, have been at its maximum comparatively soon 
after their construction, or at all events before they were abandoned ; 
and instances have been brought to light of crannoges having had 
additions made to their height at various times. 1 This lake, which is 
situated about five and a half miles from Clones, and nearly a mile from 
the village of Eosslea, county Fermanagh, four hundred yards distant 
from the right-hand side of the county road, leading from the latter place 
to Scotstown, is (as I see by the Indices to the Townland Surveys of the 
counties of Fermanagh and Monaghan) bisected by the boundary line 
between these counties ; the Fermanagh half lying in the townland of 
Killyvilla, and the Monaghan in that of Kilcorran. In the latter half is 
the crannoge. It presents the appearance of a small island, slightly 
oval in shape, sloping gradually on all sides, from about the centre 
downwards to the water's edge, and measuring 65 feet in length by 
52 feet in breadth. The water which surrounds it is from 8 to 10 feet 
in depth round the margin, except on its eastern aspect, where the 
crannoge is distant only a few feet from the lake-shore, A, 2 and where 
the water averages about 2 feet in depth at the winter level of the lake, 
and in very dry summers almost disappears. The crannoge, prior to- 
excavation, was covered with a dense vegetation, the most notable 
feature of which was a broad belt of the garden black currant, the 
bushes extending round the structure, from the water's edge inwards. 
These must of course have been planted in comparatively recent times ;. 
in fact the old lake-dwelling, its origin forgotten, was converted 
into a sort of garden. Strange to say, however, before I began to 
excavate, I learnt that a vague impression existed in the vicinity, to the 

1 " The Lake Dwellings of Ireland," by W. 0. Wood-Martin, p. 31 ; and Journal, 
K.H.A.A.I., vol. vii. (4th Ser.), No. 65, pp. 374 and 375. 

2 The letters in the text refer to the plan of the crannoge on opposite page. 



effect that " the island was made with stuff carried in from a neighbour- 
ing field," at an indefinite but comparatively modern date, by a former 
local landowner. Whether there is a grain of genuine tradition in this, 
incorporated, with modern additions, or whether, as is probable, some 
soil may have been deposited on the crannoge at the time of the gardening 
operations, thus giving rise to the story in its entirety, it would be hard 


to say. Others had an idea that the place was a kind of cemetery, and 
that "a man had been buried there." Whitethorn bushes, elders, and 
sallows, also flourished in rank luxuriance, and the prostrate trunks of 
several tall poplars were to be seen, lying on the surface in process of 
slow decay, their branches trailing into the surrounding water; a plentiful 
crop of ivy, nettles, and reeds, &c., growing breast high, added to the 



difficulty of clearing for excavation. Hound the shelving margin of the 
island, lying in the shallow water, many bones could be seen, most of 
them broken and splintered for the purpose of extracting the marrow, 
and covered with a white concretion of lime salts derived from the lake 
water. Bones, more or less broken, are also found by the turf-cutters, 
in the bog lying east of the crannoge. On careful inspection round the 
margin of the structure, on the western and southern sides, the heads of 
a row of encircling oak piles B, just projecting above the mud, could be 
detected. A breakwater, composed of stones, c, also exists here. It is 
worthy of remark that the crannoge was much more strongly and solidly 
constructed at the south and west than at any other point, as it was here 
comparatively unsheltered, and had to withstand the heavy wash of the 
lake in a gale : stiff clay, D, stones, and the heaviest timber, E, laid bare 
in the whole structure, were employed, outside of which, as before 
mentioned, were the piles in some places two or three deep, and the stone 
breakwater. The northern and eastern sides, on the other hand, being 
near the land, and sheltered by high hills, were not nearly so carefully 
constructed, and no perpendicular piles could be detected. About ten 
yards from the north-eastern shore of the island, and close to the belt of 
bullrushes which fringes the lake margin, a solitary stake, F, was observed, 
rising about two feet above the surface of the water, which is here about 
six feet in depth. On pulling it up it proved to be an oak sapling, 
sharpened at the lower end, evidently by a metal instrument. Its use is 
conjectural : it is almost certainly coeval with the period of occupation 
of the crannoge, as no timber of the kind now grows within some miles 
of the locality. The country people here at the present day occasionally 
make use of similar stakes, usually fir saplings, driving them into the 
mud at the bottom of a lake at certain places where the fishing is known 
to be good ; to these their boats are moored, and such stakes go by the 
name of " anchors." The one near the crannoge may have been used for 
a similar purpose by its inhabitants, or it may perhaps be one of the 
supporting piles of a gangway connecting the crannoge with the main- 
land, A, the others having either sunk down into the lake-bed, or been re- 
moved. The planks of black oak roughly dressed with an axe or adze, 
lying near the margin of the island, and seen at G, may possibly also be 
the remnants of such a gangway ; the direction in which they lay with 
regard to the stake, lends some colour to this theory. 

If a gangway existed, the reason why communication with the land 
was made in this direction, and not in that where the shore was nearer, 
appears to have been that whereas at the latter point there was a soft 
peat bog, now cut away, at the former the ground rises slightly, and is 
firm. Gangways and causeways have been frequently noticed in con- 
nexion with Irish crannoges. 1 About 150 yards to the south-east of the 

1 " The Lake-Dwellings of Ireland," pp. 43-45, 166, 167, 172, 190, 193, 194, 
199, 207, 220, 224, 226, 234. 


erannoge, on the summit of a small round hill, is a circular rath of small 
size. This juxtaposition of rath and crannoge might, perhaps, give some 
support to the theory that crannoges were merely temporary refuges. 1 
This rath has been used as a cemetery for a number of years by some 
members of the Society of Friends, and is surrounded by what I believe to 
be modern rubble- work, in which is an entrance closed by a small iron 
gate ; some trees, chiefly firs, have also been planted round it. Similar 
instances of ancient structures being used as modern burying-grounds 
appear not to be very rare in Ireland. 2 I know of one other instance of 
the kind in this neighbourhood. Besides the fort above-mentioned, three 
other lisses (in two cases this word " lis" being prefixed to the names of 
their respective townlands) and four crannoges lie within a radius of one 
mile from the crannoge in Killyvilla Lake, the nearest lake-dwelling to it 
being situated within view, in the next lake but one. These remains 
give evidence of an extensive ancient settlement. I have been informed 
that twenty or thirty years ago some weapons (variety unspecified) and 
two copper vessels, one very large, and the other smaller, were accidentally 
discovered through the removal of stuff for top-dressing to the depth of 
about two feet, presumably from one of the above-mentioned crannoges, 
which is situated in the marsh, at the southern end of Drumacrittin 
Lake. The weapons are said to have been " sent to a museum," and the 
vessels " sold in Clones" ; but there are no means of verifying the tale 
after such a lapse of time. An iron sword, however, with a wooden 
handle, and bronze mountings, has come into my possession. It is said 
to have been found many years ago in the same (Drumacrittin) crannoge, 
but it differs in many respects from the usual type of crannoge sword. 
There is a legend current among the peasantry concerning Killyvilla 
Lake which, as such folklore is fast dying out, is worthy of being re- 
corded. The lake (so the tale runs) is, or was, inhabited by water-horses. 
These steeds, it is alleged, were seen at various times, grazing on the 
shore, but immediately disappeared into the water on the slightest alarm. 
It is also related that one of their foals was once captured, taken away 
to a distant place, and in course of time trained for use. It was a beautiful 
animal, and proved most docile, till one day it happened to be passing the 
lake of its birth, into which, despite the efforts of its rider, it plunged, 
both horse and man disappearing from view ; the mangled corpse of the 
horseman rose to the surface some time afterwards, but the horse was 
never seen more. As bones of the horse, and an iron horseshoe, were 
among the " finds" in the crannoge, one might ask, is there any 
connexion between them and the legend which is probably identical, if 
somewhat altered in detail, with that common throughout Ireland, 

1 "The Lake-Dwellings of Ireland," p. 35. 

2 "Irish Names of Places" (Joyce), vol. i., p. 316; and Journal R.H.A.A.I.> 
vol. viii. (4th Ser.), Nos. 73 and 74, p. 275. 


concerning lake monsters ? l Exactly the same legend appears to occur 
also in " Manx Folklore." 2 

But to turn from legend to fact an old man, who resides in the 
townland, told me (and I have no reason to doubt his statement) that many 
years ago, while dragging the lake at its southern extremity, near the 
shore, in order to clear the aquatic weeds out of the mouth of a drain, he 
drew up a human skeleton, with the skull attached. This, he says, startled 
him so much, that he threw the bones back again into the water, and de- 
sisted from further dragging. I persuaded him to drag the place over again 
in my presence, but with negative results. This, however, might be due to 
his having missed the exact spot, or, as he observed, to the accumulation 
of mud and decaying vegetable matter having, in the course of years, 
covered the remains, which may or may not have been those of one of 
the original inhabitants of the crannoge, or their contemporaries. I may 
here mention that the island, as well as some of the neighbouring cran- 
noges, is said to have been frequented, in the early part of the present 
century, for the purpose of poteen distillation; and it was, and still con- 
tinues to be, a favourite vantage-ground for disciples of Izaak Walton. 

My excavations were carried on sporadically during the summers of 
1893, 1894, and the summer and autumn of 1895, when the work was 
finished. Every spadeful of stuff was carefully broken down by hand, 
so that, if possible, not the smallest relic should escape notice ; but the 
welling-up of water, as the trenches were cut down to the lake level, 
was a serious impediment. The excavations, when completed, disclosed 
the following particulars as to the construction of the crannoge : namely, 
that it was a fascine-dwelling, lying partially on a small natural shoal of 
marl, H, which had evidently been selected as a suitable site, but was 
not of sufficient extent to accommodate more than about one-third of the 
structure. This portion, however, was the most solidly built part of the 
island, being formed of large tree trunks, E, some of them quite 18 inches 
in diameter, lying in parallel rows, each one in contact with the other. 
There were three, and in some places four, superimposed layers of these 
logs, chiefly birch, the silvery bark looking as fresh as when the trees 
were cut ; the wood, however, could be sliced with the spade as easily as 
cheese is cut with a knife. Many of the logs, especially in the lower 
layers, had been charred, no doubt to enable them the better to resist 
decay. Oak and fir timber was also observed. The lowest layer of logs 
lay directly on the marl, which was tolerably hard, and on which their 
impress could be seen, after they had been raised. Above the wood was 
a thick layer of earth and stones ; the latter for the most part small, 
though occasional large boulders of sandstone occurred, especially near 

1 " Irish Names of Places" (Joyce), vol. i., p. 197 and following. 

2 " Further Notes on Manx Folk-lore," by A. W. Moore, M.A. Z%* Antiquary, 
August, 1895, pp. 230, 231. 


the margin. Here also a particularly tenacious kind of clay, D, was 
found to exist in certain places ; when this was reached, the pick was 
in constant requisition. Outside of all was the perpendicular piling, B, 
and the breakwater of stones, c, before referred to. The central part of 
this section of the crannoge was higher above the water-level than any 
other in the whole structure, the trench cut here measuring about 5 feet 
in depth from the surface to the marl below. 

Here also, I think, in all probability, was the principal house site, 
since it would naturally be the driest, and would afford the firmest foun- 
dation ; and also because at this place was unearthed a large hearth, i, 
consisting of a heap of fire-marked rubble- stone, covered with a great 
quantity of ashes, the earth underneath and around being burnt almost 
to the consistence of brick. Several large flags of sandstone, K, were 
found about a foot below the surface, near the centre of the island, three 
paces to the north of the hearth. They may have been adjuncts to it, 
subsequently disturbed, but bore no marks of fire. Small heaps of ashes 
and charcoal were occasionally found, at various depths, in different 
parts of the island ; they probably served as temporary cooking places, as 
a few small pieces of calcined bone were generally found mixed with 
them. A short distance to the west of the hearth was an extensive 
kitchen midden, L, broken bones, and small fragments of pottery, being 
abundant there. The remaining portion of the crannoge, M, rested on 
the soft mud of the lake-bed. It was somewhat lower than the part 
first described, measuring at its highest point about 4 feet from the 
surface to the bottom. The lowest layer consisted generally of quantities 
of bracken, fern, and moss, compressed almost to the consistence of peat 
by the weight of the superincumbent mass ; in some places, however, 
peat itself had been used. Above this was a thick stratum, composed of 
branches of oak, hazel, and blackthorn. On the branches large stones 
had been deposited in many places, to assist in consolidating the mass 
below. In some places, too, horizontal rows of logs were met with on 
top of the branches ; they were chiefly cut from young oak trees of 
no great thickness. Perpendicular oak piles were also of frequent occur- 
rence, driven downwards through the strata, evidently for the purpose 
of, as it were, nailing them together, into the mud below. The upper- 
most layer consisted of clay and gravel. At one place, N, an immense 
quantity of bark and wood-chips, chiefly of oak, was found, such as 
would be struck off with an axe ; this lay deep down within a few inches 
of the mud. It is evident that this was the place where many of the piles 
for the building of the crannoge were dressed and sharpened. I was 
struck by a curious point as to the time of year at which the foundations 
of this crannoge were probably laid, from observing that the hazels and 
blackthorns had evidently been covered with nuts and sloes at the time 
when they were placed in their present position ; quantities of these 
(the nuts brown and ripe-looking) being present among the twigs. But 


for these evidences one would naturally have thought that such a work 
would have heen begun in spring or early summer, so as to have all 
completed before the storms and floods of the ensuing winter. On the 
other hand, of course, with a large number of men engaged in the work, 
the crannoge may have been erected in a short time. None of the 
timbers showed any mortice and tenon arrangement, such as I have seen 
so often mentioned in descriptions of Irish lake-dwellings, neither were 
any of the logs split or squared in nny way. The trees, as they came 
from the forest, were simply denuded of their branches, and cut into 
convenient lengths of about 5 or 6 feet. Such of the perpendicular 
piles as could be drawn up entire had their lower ends well sharpened, 
'with long, clean cuts, evidently of a sharp metallic hatchet. In fact 
it was quite clear that metallic tools had been used in preparing all 
the wood-work of the structure. None of the cuts, however, showed 
evidence of the saw ; even the largest trees, at the cutting of which its 
use would have saved some labour, having been chopped into logs. The 
only portions of the wood-work on which any extra attention had been 
bestowed were the planks of bog-oak, G, before referred to ; these had 
been roughly dressed, probably with an adze, and lay about a foot below 
the present surface. The way in which they were arranged suggested a 
gangway, or landing-stage ; for if they were used here merely in lieu of 
the ordinary horizontal logs, why was so much extra labour expended in 
dressing and splitting tough black oak into planks, especially when this 
was not thought necessary in the case of any of the other crannoge 
timbers? One of these boards, however, had not, in my opinion, been 
originally intended for the purpose to which it was here put ; it will be 
described when treating of the articles discovered formed of wood. 
One or two logs of bog-oak were also found in the lowest stratum of the 
foundation, which shows that at whatever date the crannoge was built 
this wood was then as much a relic of bygone vegetation as it is at the 
present time. The relics discovered were unimportant and few (with 
the exception of pottery fragments) in comparison with the magnificent 
" finds " recorded in many Irish crannoges, yet some of them possess 
features which I believe are unique in their way. 


The following articles were found : A hammer-head, or pounder. It 
is exactly 5 inches in length, and is quadrangular, each of its four faces 
measuring about 2^- inches at the broadest point. Composed of an 
exceedingly fine-grained, hard variety of sandstone, which occurs natu- 
rally in the district, this implement has been shaped by the process 
technically known as "pecking." 1 When thus blocked into shape the 
hammer was smoothed or polished to a certain extent, but not sufficiently 
to entirely obliterate the minute pitting due to the former process. The 

1 " Flint Chips," pp. 572 and 573. 


broader or hammering end shows marks of considerable wear and tear. 
This implement may simply have been a hand-tool for smashing marrow- 
bearing bones, and the like; but I think, from its shape, that most 
probably it was at one time furnished with a handle, for, being both 
four-sided and conical, if a tough piece of wood was chosen, and a 
quadrangular aperture cut in it of sufficient size to grip the head firmly 
at the centre, the whole being strengthened by being bound round with 
a thong, every blow on the working end would then serve to tighten the 
head in its place. The fact that the smaller end bears practically no 
marks of use favours the theory that there was a haft ; for, of course, 
any forcible blow on this end would obviously have at once dislodged 
head from handle. If, also, the implement was merely intended for 
a hand-tool, it is improbable that it would have been shaped in this way } 
or, in fact, that it would have received any artificial shaping at all, as 
all the other hammer- stones found, nine in number, wei e merely natural 
pebbles, a few being slightly smoothed. They had evidently never been 
hafted, and, moreover, bore marks of use on both ends as a rule, which, 
no doubt would be the case with the specimen under consideration also, 
but that some strong reason existed for avoiding the use of the smaller 
end. This hammer, hafted in some such way as described, would be 
very suitable for driving down piles, as well as for fracturing the larger 
marrow-bones, &c. It was found about 2 feet below the surface, among 
the broken bones and pottery of the midden. L. 

A couple of those relics, known as "tracked stones," were found. 
Though not particularly rare in Ireland, they are so in Irish crannoges. 
I at present only know of two other Irish lake-dwellings where such 
stones have occurred ; and in all the lists of "finds" appearing in 
" The Lake-Dwellings of Ireland " I can see no mention made of them, 
unless the reference to "two weapon-sharpeners of a remarkably hard 
stone resembling quartz," at p. 199, note( giving list of articles discovered 
in the large crannoge, in the townland of Cloneygonnell, otherwise 
Tonymore, county Cavan), could have anything to say to them. The 
first specimen, fig. 1 (p. 215), is a quartz pebble, about inch in thick- 
ness. On each face is to be seen a well-marked groove, running in a 
direction diagonal to the long axis of the stone ; the two grooves also* 
run in opposite diagonal directions to each other ; beside the end of one 
of them, the beginning of a third groove may be seen. This stone was 
found in the lowest stratum of the foundation, at least 4 feet from the 
surface, in the midst of the mass of chips and bark, IT. Here also wa& 
found the knife-blade of iron, fig. 5 (p. 215), and the leather sheuth, 
illustrated by fig. 9 (page 215). The second specimen is 3 inches long, 
by 2 broad. Strange to say, it is composed of soft sandstone. I am not 
aware that many other specimens of the kind have been found formed of 
such a friable substance. The grooves on each face also run diagonally, 
as in the case of fig. 1 ; but they are much larger in every way, being. 


nearly the full length of the stone, and quite i- inch broad. This is, no 
doubt, due to the soft consistence of the stone, which wore away much 
more rapidly than the hard quartz. .In the centre of one groove is 
a well-marked pit. This stone was found near the surface, to the west 
of the midden, L. It seems an undecided point what purpose these relics 
served, some regarding them as " point-sharpeners " for sharpening 
small tools of metal, others as strike-a-lights for striking fire with flint; 
but the specimens found in this crannoge were certainly not used for the 
latter purpose. I speak from experience ; for being a firm believer in 
the adage, that a very minute quantity of practice is worth an immense 
amount of theory, I chose a suitable quartz pebble, and with a piece of 
flint tried to convert it into a ''tracked stone," as nearly resembling 
fig. 1 as possible. The attempt, however, was a complete failure. I 
produced enough fire to cause a respectable conflagration had the sparks 
fallen on anything combustible ; but had little else to show for my 
pains, except a wide white streak parallel to the long axis of the 
pebble, composed of minute scores, and very unlike the smoothly-made 
grooves on fig. 1. Anyone who carefully examines this specimen must 
see that these grooves were evidently formed, not by anything having 
been struck against the stone, but by friction, some hard substance 
having been rubbed on it for a considerable length of time, or on frequent 
occasions, always exactly at the same place. The only places where a 
few small scores exist are in two spaces extending from the correspond- 
ing ends of both grooves to the extremity of the stone ; otherwise, the 
grooves themselves and the surfaces of the stone in their immediate 
neighbourhood are smooth and show no scores or peckings, which I have 
no doubt, from my own experience, would be the case had the main 
''tracks" been made by percussion with flint, unless it were possible 
to strike with the accuracy of some kind of iron automaton, so that the 
flint would always impinge on exactly the same spot. .Besides, is there 
any reason to suppose that the users of these stones, even if by dint of 
long practice they could strike with this accuracy, would see any parti- 
cular utility in doing so every time they wanted to strike a light? The 
fact that the "tracks" in this, as well as in all other specimens of 
which I have read descriptions, run diagonally, is not easily explained. 
It certainly, however, militates against the strike-a-light theory ; for 
unless one wished to do a purposely inconvenient thing, one would never 
attempt to hold the pebble as striker in the right hand in such a way as 
to strike the flint diagonally. I found that this could be far more 
easily accomplished by holding the stone in the left hand, and striking 
the flint diagonally across it. Plenty of sparks were produced by this 
plan ; but it seems rather an unnatural method of doing things, the 
holding of the stone as striker in the right hand being undoubtedly the 
usual mode of procedure. I think the only way that the apparent 
universality of the diagonal groove in connexion with these relics can 


Objects found in Killyvilla Crannoge, near Clones. (The scale shown does not apply to the leather 
knife-case, fig. 9, which is 53 inches long.) 



be accounted for is, that it may have resulted from some " tip " or small 
trade secret known, and in use, among these ancient craftsmen, carpen- 
ters, and others, when sharpening their tools, hut now as much forgotten 
as themselves. In fact, since there is no smoke without fire, these men 
must have ground their tools in such a way as to make grooves in this 
particular direction, because it was the most convenient plan. 

The fact that fig. 1 was found not far from an iron knife-blade is 
suggestive, as is also the fact that a blackish coloumation is visible in 
the neighbourhood of the grooves, which is evidently foreign to the 
stone and superficial. I believe this to be due to the conversion of a film 
of iron deposited on the quartz, from constant friction with tools of that 
metal, into the black tannate of iron, by the action of the tannic acid 
contained in the oak bark in which the stone was found lying. 

I may here mention, that I tried the experiment of rubbing an awl. 
on a quartz pebble, and I found no difficulty in making a pretty smooth 
groove, which was covered with a film of iron. Another thing that 
tells against the strike-a-light theory is, that no flint was found near 
the stone, which, judging from the place where it was found, must have 
been used for sharpening some of the tools with which the piling, &c., 
of the crannoge was being made. The implement was doubtless lost 
among the debris of chips and bark, and in due course was covered over by 
the successive layers that went to form the structure. Even had flint 
been found in proximity to the pebble, it is scarcely likely that the 
slush of the lake-bed would have been chosen as a suitable place for a 
fire, nor would one naturally suppose that objects found in such a place 
had anything to do with producing fire. The material, also, of which 
the second specimen is composed affords, I think, strong evidence of 
the uses to which both were put. It is just possible, as I found, to 
strike a few sparks with flint and a piece of sandstone, greatly at the 
expense of the softer substance ; but the utter improbability of an unsuit- 
able material, like sandstone, having been used for such a purpose, when 
quartz was abundant, is obvious, nor are the grooves on this specimen 
such as would be made by flint. They have been worn by rubbing ; and, as 
everyone knows, sandstone is a very suitable material for sharpening a 
metallic tool. Fig. 1, as well as being "tracked," is also a hammer- 
stone, both ends showing four well-marked facets separated by slight 
ridges. "What more natural than that the long, narrow, weak blade 
of the knife found near it might often have become bent ; and, when 
this occurred, might not the instrument have been laid on a log, and 
the convexity then hammered straight with this stone. 

The late Sir William Wilde, in the " Catalogue of the Museum of the 
Koyal Irish Academy," pp. 74, 75, 76, and 77, gives a description of 
several " tracked stones," under the heading of " sling- stones." Of one 
specimen he remarks: "In the centre of each flat surface may be 
observed a slight indentation, such as might be effected by rubbing 
with a metal tool." And of two others : " They both bear the indented 


line on each side. This mark is sometimes polished like the rest of the 
surface, hut more frequently hears the mark of a tool, as if worked in 
hy sharpening the point of a knife or dagger, for which use they may 
have "been occasionally employed." Of the nine specimens of these 
" sling-stones," then in the collection of the Academy, all were composed 
of quartz rock, except Nos. 1 and 9, which were formed of sandstone, 
and No. 2 of limestone. Three examples are figured at p. 75 of the Cata- 
logue, one of them, fig. 56, No. 3, showing the characteristic oblique groove. 

An object formed of black chert, beautifully polished. It is 3|- 
inches long by 1 inch broadband in shape exactly resembles a bean 
pod ; two or three nicks have been worn on its edges, and, when viewed 
in certain lights, some slight striae are plainly perceptible" on all its 
surfaces. From these indications I have no doubt that it was used as a 
burnisher. It would" equally well have served as a touchstone for 
testing the purity of gold, and it is possible that it may have been put 
to both these uses. It was found about 2 feet below the surface, in the 
midden, L, close to the hammer-head already described. 

A whetstone, quadrangular in shape, and composed of sandstone. ' It 
is 5 inches long by inch broad ; the extremities are conical. The 
object closely resembles a cigar which has been tightly compressed by 
its fellows in a box. It bears little or no marks of wear, and was found 
2 or 3 feet below the surface, to the north of the midden, L. Two other 
whetstones were found, and portion of a fourth. The perfect specimens 
are oblong in shape ; one is composed of rather coarse sandstone, the 
other of soft whet-slate. The fragment is formed of sandstone, and is 

An oval hammer-stone, one of nine discovered, and the most typical 
of them. It is composed of a hard, light-green coloured stone, and has 
been artificially smoothed. It measures 4 inches in length by 2 in 
breadth ; a flattened facet appears on both ends. This object was found 
near the surface, just at the water's edge, at the western side of the 
island. In addition to the oval hammer-stones, some smooth oval pebbles, 
composed chiefly of quartz, were found; and although they bear no 
marks of use, they had evidently been brought to the crannoge with the 
intention of using them as hammer-stones. 

A round object composed of soft sandstone. It is about the shape 
and size of a small orange, and is covered with minute pits, probably due 
to hammering. There were seven others discovered of various sizes ; 
none, however, quite so accurately shaped or pitted in the same way as 
this one. 

Two flint implements. The first specimen, from its notched edge, 
looks as though it had been used as a strike -a-light with a piece of 
steel; certainly no "tracked stone" ever made such marks. A small 
flint core found is shown in one of the illustrations to be included in the 
second part of this Paper. Twenty- seven fragments of flint, exclusive 


of these, were found. They are all very small ; and although one or two 
of them may possibly he imperfect or unfinished implements, I think 
they are chiefly chips, such as would be struck off in making strike-a- 
lights. In fact, I am inclined to believe that all the flint found in the 
crannoge was used in producing fire. 

Eighteen pieces of querns were found, chiefly lower stones, as far as 
could be judged from the fragments ; they were of the ordinary kind, and 
composed of sandstone. All were found near the surface, at the western 
side of the island, with the exception of one lower stone, the most perfect 
portion discovered, measuring 16 inches in diameter, which lay near the 
centre of the crannoge, deep down on top of the stratum of branches. 
Having been rendered useless from a slight fracture, it had been placed 
there to assist in consolidating them. The querns had all been formed by 
"pecking," the tool-marks appearing very distinctly on all the fragments. 


Fig. 3 (page 215) illustrates a fine specimen of a bronze ring-pin 
six inches long, the metal of which it is composed being of a golden colour. 
The ring consists of a piece of bronze wire tapering slightly from the 
centre to both extremities, the upper surface of the head, not seen in 
the illustration, is quadrilateral, and is crossed by two diagonal grooves, 
which form a design resembling the letter X. The hole in the head for the 
ring is slightly smaller at one side than at the other, and has been drilled, 
for on looking through the aperture in a good light, a slight circular ridge 
left by t-he tool may be seen. From certain mould-marks which have 
not been obliterated, it is plain that the whole shank was originally cast 
quadrangular, and a small portion, afterwards slightly decorated with a 
graver, having been allowed to retain this shape in order to serve as a 
head, the rest was rounded off at the edges by a process of hammering 
and grinding, the marks of which are plainly visible. The burnisher 
(the fourth object of stone before described) would have been very 
useful here for giving the finishing touches. This pin was not 
found during the period of the excavations. The way in which I 
obtained it is rather peculiar. I was called one night to see a patient, 
who had formerly been for a long time a Member of the Royal His- 
torical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. We got into conver- 
sation about this crannoge, when he informed me that over twenty years 
ago, a man, since deceased, had shown him a bronze pin, which he said he 
had found on the shore of the island in Killyvilla Lake while fishing. 
My friend told him to keep the pin safe as it was well worth preserving, 
and suggested to me that possibly it might still be in the house of the 
finder's brother, who resides in the village of Rosslea. To him I hastened 
next day, and was fortunate enough to find the pin hanging from a nail 
in the wall. The owner seeing that I evidently would appreciate it, 
very kindly presented it to me. When one takes into consideration the 


number of fishermen, poteen makers, and casual visitors, who have fre- 
quented this, as well as probably most other ancient structures of the 
kind during the centuries that have elapsed since they ceased to be in- 
habited, it seems highly probable that our crannoges have been gradually 
rifled of any objects left lying on the surface, as in addition to the pin 
so strangely recovered, I was told by a neighbouring farmer who came 
one day to view the excavations that a few years ago having had occasion 
to visit the island, he picked up " a small black square stone that looked 
like a sharpening-stone," which, however, had unfortunately been since 

Fig. 4 (p. 215) is a piece of bronze. It is about as thick as a 
sixpence, and is of a pale yellow colour. This object has been cast in 
its present shape, as the condition of the edges, which are rough, and 
slightly rounded, does not appear to show that it was cut from a larger 
sheet. Two dumb-bell shaped holes (not represented), which I believe 
to be rivet holes, would seem to show that the object was at one time 
attached to something else, perhaps a handle. It may, however, have 
simply served as a patch. 

There was also found a circular piece of bronze, slightly shorter in 
diameter than a halfpenny of the present currency, and about as thick as a 
well-worn sixpence. The colour of the metal is rather remarkable ; it 
evidently contains a much larger percentage of copper, and is therefore 
redder than the ordinary antique bronze. When first found, this object 
was as bright as the day it was cast, and before the mud was rubbed off, 
resembled a coin so much that the workmen became greatly excited, 
thinking that we had at last " struck" the " crock of goold," a search 
for which many of the country people thought, was the object of the 
excavations. The surfaces of this object are not burnished or smoothed 
in any way ; it has evidently been cut from a larger sheet of metal, and 
is I think in an unfinished state, having been possibly designed for some 
such purpose as the head of a pin. Both this and the preceding piece of 
bronze were found within a short distance of each other, near the northern 
shore of the crannoge, in the midst of a mass of oak branches and bracken 
fern, which here formed the first stratum above the mud. It has since 
struck me that these objects owed their brightness when found to the 
fact that they had lain steeping in an acidulous solution, produced by the 
acid contained in these vegetable substances diluted with water. They 
have since become somewhat tarnished from exposure to the atmosphere. 


The following articles were discovered : A dagger or short sword, so 
much corroded that, with the exception of the tang, it is almost a mass 
of rust, and it consequently broke into fragments the moment it was 
touched. These pieces, however, I carefully collected, and I think 
recovered them all, so that the total length of the weapon, 17 inches, can 
be pretty well ascertained. The tang measures 4f inches long, and the 
blade If inches broad, at its widest part. Most crannoge swords are 


described as having remarkably small handles, and hence it has been 
inferred that the users of them must have been a diminutive race. 
Judging from the tang, however, the handle of this specimen would have 
afforded a comfortable grip for the hand of any ordinary sized man. A 
groove can be traced on the fragments of the blade on both sides, for a 
distance of 4^- inches downwards from the line of junction of blade and 
tang. The shape of the point is the most remarkable feature about this 
weapon, its outlines being concave. This object was found lying just 
.under the surface sod, towards the western side of the crannoge. 

Fig. 5 (p. 215) is a knife blade 5 inches long, including the tang; 
it is about inch broad at the widest part, and was found near the 
" tracked stone," fig. 1 (p. 215), and the sheath illustrated by fig. 9 
(p. 215). 

Another knife-blade, judging from its shape, seems a more modern 
specimen than the foregoing ; and it possibly may be a modern article 
dropped perhaps by some fisherman, as it was found just at the surface, 
under a heap of withered leaves, almost at the water's edge, at the 
eastern side of the crannoge. The object may, however, get the benefit 
of the doubt : it is S-^V inches long, by nearly inch broad. 

A large nail, or spike, 7 inches long. It was found among the stones 
of the hearth i. 

<; '.A swivel ring, measuring 2 inches in the clear; what appear to be 
the remnants of a chain link are attached to the lower end of the stud. 
This object was found a couple of feet below the surface, near the centre 
of the island : it may have been used for tethering cattle. 

That portion of a small axe-head which projected in front of the 
handle, the hinder part having been broken off. It is 3^ inches lon<r by 
3 inches wide at the cutting edge, and was found near the surface, at 
the western side of the crannoge. 

A horse-shoe of medium size ; one of the extremities has been broken 
off, but the other shows that there were no raised heels. It was found 
on the inner side of the mass of stiff clay, D, at the eastern side of the 
island, about a foot below the surface. 

A staple, found near the surface, at the western side of the island. 

A conical object 4 inches long, by about 3 inches broad at the top. 
It is clearly broken off something else, and bears some resemblance to 
the small end of an anvil, or to the leg of a massive pot. It was found 
close to the surface, near the midden L. Twelve other pieces of iron 
were found, some of them evidently mere fragments, perhaps of the same 
article, and all of them so much corroded, that their use could not be 
determined. One is a rough shapeless lump weighing 7 Ibs., found near 
the surface, close to the sword. I may add that all the objects of iron 
were in a very corroded state, and, with the exception of the knife-blade, 
fig. 5 (p. 215), lay near the surface. 

(To le continued.} 


TN July of last year (1896), while enjoying the hospitality of the 
Rev. E. F. Hewson, I had an opportunity of examining the Gowran 
stone for the third and fourth time, and of paying my first visit to the 
comparatively recent discoveries at Legan and Lamogue. The Kilkenny 
Oghams having been lately the subject of discussion, the present seems 
to be a favourable opportunity for recording some observations then 
made by me upon these monuments. 

Two or three years ago, when open-air epigraphy was to some extent 
a new subject to me, I visited Gowran, taking with me copies of the 
transcripts published in their respective books by Mr. Brash and Sir S. 
Ferguson. I then thought I had made out IQADIERACIAS MAQI ... D ... 
QO MUCOI . . . , a reading which nearly agrees in number and position of 
scores with Sir S. Ferguson's, though he has read it in the reverse direc- 
tion. I published this reading in the Academy for 29th December 
1894, marking as obscure the initial IQ, and suggesting that EEACIAS 
might be a form of the more common EKCIAS. This reading, however, I 
must withdraw, as there are several errors in it. 

When I revisited the stone last year I had, in addition to the two 
copies mentioned above and my own, the copy made by the Rev. E. Barry, 
and published by him at p. 350 of the Journal, ser. v., vol. v. I went 
very carefully over the whole inscription a process much easier than it 
formerly was, as Canon Hewson has brought the stone out of the ruined 
nave of his fine church, to the chancel, where it is under cover and in a 
more diffused light and compared it with these copies. I came to the 
conclusion that all four transcripts were more or less inaccurate. 

Mr. Brash is the most correct, but he errs on the side of incomplete- 
ness. He has, moreover, taken two accidental flaws on the top of the 
stone as a G (" Og. Mon.," p. 281). 

Sir S. Ferguson, as well as myself, was misled by some chisel-marks 
before the IE on the left-angle ; these are not Oghmic. He also assumed 
the existence of antitheticals, reading LASICAEEIGNI when he must have 
seen LACISAKEIGNI ; and he also read MAQI MUCOI on the other angle 
("Ogh. Inscr.," pp. 74-5). 

I cannot satisfy myself that the word LI, read by Father Barry, is on 
the stone ; in the place indicated I see nothing but scratches, to me 
meaningless. His DALO, too, I regard as impossible, for reasons to 
be presently noted. 

I do not think that the inscription was cut on more than two arrises, 



or that anything is gained by inverting the old-established order of read- 
ing. I now read 


Maqi E KAC 1 A S M A 

11 . / 

... D.I MA Q AMU C O 1 ... 

Except in one point this reading agrees with that of Canon Hewson ; 
and as he has exceptional opportunities for examining the stone, this 
fact affords no small presumptive evidence of accuracy. 

The right angle is the more easily disposed of, and we shall accord- 
ingly discuss it first. It commences with a name whose only certain 
letter is the penultimate D. The H-side of the arris is here smooth and 
uninjured ; the B-side is chipped away by a series of flakes. The damaged 
surface is triangular in shape, the apex meeting the arris before the two 
vowel points. Diagramatically this may be thus represented 

11 _ 


Now it is obvious to anyone inspecting the stone (1) that no over- 
scores (HDTCQ, scores) except the D could have existed in this name ; (2) 
that under-scores (BLVSN scores) might have existed before the D, but 
none could have existed after it, for their ends would have appeared 
below the line of chipping (this places Mr. Brash's DEGO and Father 
Barry's DALO out of court) ; (3) that the name must have been very short. 
From (1) and (2) it follows that vowel-points alone followed the D ; 
there is just room for five in all, so I read i. Some such name as BLADI 
or BODI would satisfy all the conditions. 

This, however, leads us to an anacoluthon, for ... DI would be 
genitive, and MAQA seemingly nominative. Such a grammatical error 
does not surprise us in Latin inscriptions Avritten by Celts, as in TALOEI 
ADVENTI MAQERAGI FiLivs at Pant y Polion, Caermarthen. In Professor 
Rhys' s tentative treatment of the Bressay stone a similar anacoluthon 
is postulated 

the cross of Nahhtvvddaftft's daughter (gen.} wife (now.) of Maqqddrroann 
;~0 .' F~ 

But, as we shall see in considering the Legan stone, we need not 
assume that the Kilkenny engravers could not write their vernacular 

The stone has been treated as a building-stone ; to adapt it as such, 


the entire surface has been spalled, and no respect has been paid to the 
inscription. The history of the stone 'is precisely the same as that of 
the Seskinan and Kilmolash monuments. A vicious series of spalls has 
completely carried off the name which followed HTTCOI, and not a score 
of it is now recoverable. 

Returning now to the left angle we may note, first of all, that it is 
quite beyond question that the termination of the name here written 
was IAS, not os, as Mr. Brash gives it. 

The principal crux in the whole inscription is the initial lacuna. 
Here again a rough diagram may be employed to point out in what the 
difficulty of the reading lies : 


Before the i the arris on both surfaces is chipped away. At just the 
proper distance from the i to allow of the insertion of AQ, is the end of the 
tail of an M ; but immediately before the i is the top of a single score, 
startlingly like an H. This cannot be taken as the last score of the Q, 
for an inspection of the angle will show that the ends of the companion 
scores would have survived if any had existed. There are only two 
alternatives to reject the M as one of the many flaws in the stone, and 
read HIERACIAS ; or to reject the H, and read MAQIERACIAS. From a mere 
inspection of the stone alone, either course might be followed ; but argu- 
ment may be brought to bear strongly in favour of the latter alternative. 

In the first place MAQIERACIAS, in the form MAQIERCIAS, is a well- 
established Oghmic name. We find it at Roovesmore and Coumeenoole ; 
a somewhat later form, MAQQIERCCTA, occurs on a stone now at Burnham. 
The interpolated A is merely an auxiliary vowel, such as is interpolated 
into words like " arm," "helm," in Ireland to-day. 

Secondly, the seeming H score would, if complete, be somewhat 
longer than the other consonantal side scores in the inscription. On the 
other hand the hypothetical Q scores would be somewhat shorter. There 
is a spall knocked off the angle, slightly to the left of H, which would 
exactly account for them. 

Thirdly, -IAS is a feminine genitive termination, and a prefixed MAQI is 
required to masculinise the name and make it stand in proper apposition 
with the following MAQI. The masculine form, corresponding to ERCIAS, 
is *ERCAS, later ERCA, which is given us at Bally eightragh. 

Fourthly, for anything analogous to HIERACIAS we should have to 
(1) go to Greece, (2) assume the existence of a digraph IE in Oghams, 
(3) assume a Greek with a father whose name made a genitive in i, and 
whose parentage was sufficiently well-known in Ireland to be traced at 
least to a grandfather. 



Fifthly, the letter H has not yet been found in a Celtic Ogham of the 
Ogham period, and perhaps we may he almost safe in saying will not. 
Of course in late revivals of the Ogham, written after H had been adopted 
as a symbol of the " aspiration" of consonants, wo naturally find H ; 
thus the Clonmacnoise stone gives us BOCHT, the Kilmallock ink-bottle 
MOCHOLMOG, and the St. Gall Priscian MINCHASC. These, however, do not 
date from the " classical " Ogham period. All instances of its use in what 
may be called true Oghams, given by Brash and others, are erroneous. Thus 
SAHATTOS, at Colbinstown, ought to be IVACATTOS ; FAUAHG, at Tullaherin, 
should be viu . . .or possibly VIAR . . . ; while the mysterious HABAM, at 
Ross Hill, I have found to be merely a set of scratches without any 
meaning whatever. The letter occurs freely in the Pictish stones ; but 
these can hardly be brought in as evidence in a question of Celtic use. 

It might be asked why, if it was never used, this letter was provided 
with a place in the alphabet. The same might be asked of -//ft , 
which occurs once only. This would lead us too far out of our way to 
discuss at present, as it involves the whole question of the origin of the 
Ogham alphabet a subject which is, to say the least, obscure. But 
one little hint might be given. It is generally assumed that the Ogham 
is a Celtic invention ; but is this so ? Judging from the frequency with 
which these two characters are used in the few inscriptions in the Pictish 
tongue which we have, it certainly seems to fit that language better than 
the Celtic. 1 

Leaving this question thus at the threshold, and returning to the 
Gowran stone, we must now examine an important problem connected 
with it namely, the relative date of the cross and the writing. 

Here we find ourselves on the horns of several dilemmas at once ; but 
the questions involved can be reduced to two : was the stone intended to 
stand upright or lie flat ? and, is the sibilant genitive a proof oi early date ? 

1. If the stone was meant to stand upright, cadit quaestio ; the 
cross is later than the Ogham : for I have too much confidence in the 
common sense of the inhabitants of Ireland during the Ogham period to 
believe in the intentional burial of either one or the other. Here I will, 
no doubt, be reminded of the Fothad Airgthech story in the " Lebor 
na h-Uidre" ; but (1) this story is from its nature obviously mythical, 
and of less value archa3ologically than from the point of view of the 
folklorist : (2) the writer of the tale in its present form clearly knew 
little or nothing of actual Ogham inscriptions, for otherwise he would 
not have cast his legend in a formula entirely foreign to their usual 
purport (the change from Fothad to Eoehaid, of which much has been 
made, merely shows that the scribe was sleepy, or his exemplar damaged) : 
(3) the burial of the inscription is, I suspect, introduced for dramatic 

1 The scribe of the "Book of Ballymote" seems to have had an inkling of a 
possible non-Aryan origin for the Ogham script: for he assigns it to the Tuatha De 
Dunann, whatever the exact meaning of this ascription may be. 


effect merely ; how tame it would have been had Cailte read the inscrip- 
tion straight off, instead of prophesying that certain specified words 
would he found underground! 

But it is not certain that the Gowran stone was not regarded as 
a flag, meant to lie with its cross-signed surface uppermost. The smooth- 
ness of this face renders this conceivable, and I hardly think the blank 
butt is long enough to have held the stone firmly in the ground. But 
possibly the masons have shortened it. 

2. If, again, we could assign a certain fixed date before which to 
place inscriptions with sibilant genitives, and after which to place the 
remainder of our monuments, we might hope to settle this and many 
other questions. But it seems to me impossible to do so. I do not 
think we can go further than to say that given two inscriptions in the 
same district, of which one displays sibilant genitives and the other does 
not, then the former may be regarded as the older. Thus, Ardmore I 
may be regarded as older, perhaps considerably so, than Kilgrovane I ; 
but I should be very sorry to regard all stones with s-genitives as being 
as old as the Ardmore stone. We do not know whether, in that non- 
literary age, the changes of language took place at equal rates all 
over Ireland; and allowance must be made (1) for the revival of the 
s in one or two late stones as a kind of affectation of archaism, and 
(2) for the retention of the s by some names longer than others. The 
Arraglen stone is, perhaps, the best example of the first. Here we have 
QBIMITIEEOS, associated with COMOGANN, a form which (compared with 
COIMAGNI at the neighbouring Ballinvoher) shows the former stone to 
be somewhat later than the latter itself by no means an early inscrip- 
tion. Of names which retained the s later than others, one example is 
EECE, the very name which we have here at Gowran. We have IVTAQI- 
ERCIAS associated with BOVINIA[S] at Coumeenooie, 

The Leg an stone is difficult to read ; my copy differs in two places 
from Father Barry's 


The first difficulty in this inscription is -^--#*-**M+-. I have no 
theory to proffer as to its meaning ; but some obvious general state- 
ments can be made concerning it. 

1 . It cannot be a verb, for it is never at the commencement of the 
sentence, and is always constructed with genitives. 

2. It cannot be a noun in the nominative case, for Celtic syntax 
would require it to precede the word which would depend on it here 

3. It might be a noun in the genitive, in apposition to LOEBI, with 
MAQQU-MUCCOI depending on it ; but this does not seem probable. 



4. It invariably follows the principal name, therefore probably 
qualifies it in some way, and is -therefore probably an adjective in the 
genitive case. 

The nominative would most likely be *KOOS, or perhaps *KOE, like 
KOSTECE, LUGUVVE, ivvENE ; and the word KOI would of course be dis- 
syllabic, just as MUCOI is trisyllabic (mucoi). 

Adjectives, or their equivalents, are common enough in MSS. as 
qualifying adjuncts to proper names : e.g. Bodb Derg, Brian Borama. 
But they are extremely rare in Oghams one, equally obscure in mean- 
ing, occurs in the Whitefield (?) inscription 


It follows, from the frequency of the word, that KOI must represent 
some elementary attribute, probably introduced to distinguish the person 
so qualified from some co-parental namesake : the case of the three 
Collas is a well-known example of the inconvenient practice of calling- 
several brothers by the same name. Some such meaning as "young" 
would suit requirements, though it should go without saying that I do 
not desire to suggest analogies between KOI and 65. 

The next words, MAQQU-MUCCOI, recall the MAQA-MOCOI in a similar 
position at Gowran. In both places the construction seems to me 
analogous to that quasi- agglutination which Prof. Ilhys has detected 
in some Irish Oghams. Thus we have 

BIR MAQI MUCOI ROTTAis, ;/. . . , Drumloghan, 


and several others, where BIR-MAQ and similar combinations are treated 
as one word with a common genitive ending ; BIR-MAQI for BIRI MAQI. 

Before applying this principle to the stone before us, it will be neces- 
sary to determine what meaning we are to assign to MUCOI. Here I 
must confess myself unable to follow Father Barry. At p. 351, in his 
first paper on the Kilkenny stones, he says: "In texts of the Old 
Irish period, MOCCU-, MOCU-, and MAcetf-, in the sense of remote descen- 
dant, are found in compound family names," and gives a series of 
examples ; further on he alludes to the confusion which subsequently 
arose between this element and mac ui. Yet on Oghams he simply 
takes MUCOI to be a variant of MAQI, to distinguish a common noun from 
a member of a proper name. This, so far as I know, is unsubstantiated, 
and seems to me to be strained ; and one important item in his argument 
is not quite accurate : namely, that " in perfect inscriptions MUCOI, with 
or without an intervening proper name, is ever preceded by a MAQI." 

1 The nominative form -AC shows that the inscription must be divided as thus 
given, and not into GOSOCTEAS MOSAC MAKI M, as analogies with Lugnagappul, &c., 
would lead us to suppose. 


THe italics are mine. That there are exceptions to the rule the following 
list will show: 

FEQEEQ MOQOI GLUNLEGGET, . . . Monataggart I, Cork, 
CONUNETT MOQI coNUEi, . . . Camp, Kerry [F.], 

GOSOCT . s MUCOI MAQiE . . ., . . . Garranmillon I, Water- 
ford [H.],, 

... GNI MUCOI GUN ... . . . Kilgrovane IV, Water- 


(?)BIVODON MUCOI ATAK, . . . Kilbeg, Waterford, 

all in the genitive ; and 

CATABAR MOCO FiMiQOEB, . . . Ballyquin, "Waterford 

[*], . 
LUGUVVE MOCCO MAQIMEQ . . ., . . . Aghacarrible III, 

Kerry, 1 
in the nominative. 

Bearing in mind Father Barry's quotations, from the " Book of 
Armagh," which is as near to the Ogham period as our MS. literature 
can bring us, there is nothing in these inscriptions to prevent our trans- 
lating MOCO as " descendant." And we are justified in this, when we 
remember how MUCOI is associated in three groups of stones, with appa- 
rently tribal or eponymic names ; DOVINIA(S), four times in Corkaguiney ; 
TOICAC(I), thrice at Dunloe ; KETASEGAMONAS, twice (? thrice) in the Decies. 
The Dunloe stones are especially instructive. I have not seen them, but 
the latest copies are : 




Here, if MUCOI = son, No. 2, with all its s-genitives, must be contemporary 
with 1, and only a generation older than 3. It is fair to compare stones 
of the same group thus together,- and to pronounce this impossible. 2 

1 [F.] denotes that Sir S. Ferguson, and [H.] that Canon Hewson, is responsible 
for the reading selected ; those unmarked are all from my own notes. One reading 
would bring Drumloghan VI into this list ; on the other hand, a variant lection would 
strike Garranmillon 1 out of it. I have queried the Kilbeg reading, on which Brash, 
Professor Rhys, and myself were agreed, on account of the revolutionary transcript 
of it published by Father Barry. The Kilgrovane stone, even if it did begin with 
MAQI, is in place here, for the MAQI, being at the commencement of the inscription, 
^was part of the name which followed. I am not quite certain of the two last names in 
the Dromore inscription ; but of the essential portion its formula I have no doubt. 

2 DEGOS lost its s in the genitive . later than some other names, as is shown by 
Drumloghan X, DEAGOS MAQI MUCOI . . . ENAI (for . . . ENAIS). This fact lends 
additional weight to the argument as far as the relative date of Nos. 1 and 2- are 
concerned. No. 3 is supposed later than No. 2, because TOICACI has shed its final i: 
but perhaps an i has been lost from the stone. 


MTJCO must, however, mean something more than "descendant"; 
for then we should be unable to distinguish between A. MTJCOI B. and 
A. MAQI MTJCOI B. The descendant, i.e. the head of the clan descended 
from the ancestor named, seems best to fit the sense required. This 
would give MUCO a kind of honourable sense ; and it is not irrelevant to 
notice that the majority of stones commemorating a MUCO are of large size, 
as though by their barbaric grandeur to do increased honour to the memory 
of the chief. The Roovesmore, Monataggart, Camp, Garranmillon, and 
Ballyquin stones are exceptionally large ; the others are of respect- 
able dimensions ; the Dromore stone seems to be the surviving member 
of a once remarkable and elaborate monument. If Professor Rhys* 
brilliant equation of the name TOBANIAS, on the Ballycrovane stone, 
to the name of the Gaulish goddess, TUEANIS, be accepted, AVI on that 
stone must be equivalent to MTJCOI, and its colossal dimensions may also 
be used as an illustration of this general principle. 

The formula MAQA-MUCOI would then assume a definite meaning, " son 
of the chief," not unlike the modern " heir apparent " ; l and its occa- 
sional treatment as one simple word would be natural. The Legan stone 
gives us a later, but almost identical form ; for as QU = Q, and QQU = QQ 
= Q, and cc = c in Oghams, MAQQU-MUCCOI = MAQMUCOT. 

I read the eponymic name EEINI, though with some little doubt about 
the last three letters ; the N is badly cut, and is not at right angles to 
the stem line. The doubled E seems certain to me ; compare ERUANAN 
at Aghadoe and MAQI-EEEODAGNI at Ballyknock, and with the whole 
name, BINT at Fardell, Devonshire. 

The Lamogue stones are very interesting additions to our epigraphic 
record. Jn accordance with the practice which I usually follow, I shall 
treat the SEVEREIT stone as Lamogue I, that being the order adopted by 
the first published (Canon Hewson's) copy, though having regard to the 
relative importance of the two I should have been inclined to commence 
with the other. 

At the stone itself I made 

the penultimate E being four broken notches in the stone, and my rubbing 
shows the same thing; but philological considerations as well as the 
careful examination of a photograph, which I took, makes me think that 
Father Barry is probably right in reading AIS. There is no such termi- 
nation in Oghams as -ES,* and this fact struck me at the time of my 

1 This modern instance is merely quoted as a rough parallel : of course the chief's 
son was by no means always the heir apparent. 

2 Brash's CAKKICES is wrong, being properly, as well as I can make out, CARUICAI. 
In AVITTORIGES the termination is not -ES, but -GES, a variant of -IAS, just as is -GAS 
in the very interesting Dingle fragment, where we have [AV FJETORIGAS. Compare 



examination of the stone, but stupidly enough it did not occur to me to 
look for an alternative reading. 

I cannot, however, agree with Father Barry's restoration of the 
missing part of the inscription : there is not room for it. The T of 
SEVERRIT is just under the shoulder of the stone, which is, I think, 
original, not formed by fracture. The letters that once were on the top 
are lost, not by fracture of the upper part of the stone, but by extensive 
spalling. Canon Hewson, in whose company I visited Lamogue, agreed 
with me that there was hardly room even for MAQI. 

The termination -AIS I am inclined to regard rather as an early form 
of -AI (as -AS is of -A), than of a genitive by attenuation of a nominative 
-AS. We find it in the name DOLATIBIGAIS, on the Ardmore stone, in 
company with unquestionably early genitives, while the seemingly late 
form BIK, at Drtimloghan, has already been explained as an example of 
w<m-agglutmation, and, therefore, probably rather early. 

Lamogue II is more interesting and even more perplexing. I 



--m-lL+H-^-ilL- ,- 



"When I saw Canon Hewson's description of this monument, at p. 27 
of the Journal for 1896, I at once suspected that AVI had a place in the 
inscription. But at the spot I could not identify any such word. It 
seemed to me then that there never had been any characters in the five 
inches between the end of DOVATTJCI and the commencement of VTJD, 
&c. ; in fact, that the former, an obvious and well-known name, was 
separated from the rest of the legend, as is FEQREQ on the Monataggart 
stone. Nor could I find more than three points between the second v and 
the D : the first and third are marked in my note as faint. The third 
character of the second group of letters I made D, not T. I remember 
considering the possibility of this character having three scores, but 
rejecting it. The sixth, like the eighth, I make to consist of one 
vowel-point only, in the centre of a space unusually long 3 in. I 
also recollect reading this sixth character as o at first, but making A in 
a second reading. The vowels are drilled out, not punched. I accepted 
the final A, but Father Barry seems to have disposed of it. 

As to the interpretation of the inscription, I cannot claim to have 
made much progress j but I take it the verbation would be 


in which word-division I am largely influenced by a mysterious inscrip- 
tion at Kinard in Kerry, near Dingle. Here we have 



A tentative analysis of this inscription claims a short digression. In 
the first place I gather from what appears, to be an incidental reference to 
it in Professor Rhys' analysis of the inscriptions seen at the Joint Meeting 
of the R. S. A. I. and the Cambrian Archseological Society, in Kerry, 
and from Father Barry's inclusion of it in a list of inscriptions show- 
ing the word AFI (AVI), that both these authorities read it in the 
inverse direction ; and certainly part of it, so read, yields the satisfactory 
sequence of letters LLOTJTI AVI. But I examined this stone with all 
possible care last summer, considering especially its interpretation when 
read thus ; I failed, however, to find anything intelligible in the 
SANGATU which certainly precedes the LLOTITI, or the equally embarrass- 
ing SEUSA, which follows the AVI. Moreover, the transcript above set 
forth follows the ordinary course of reading : the reader stands with 
the inscribed angle to his left, commences from the bottom (in this 
prostrate stone satisfactorily marked out by the blank end that once 
stood in the ground) and reads up to the top along the top arris. 

The initial A is probably some separate vocable, and possibly an 
abbreviation for ANM though it is always objectionable to take a diffi- 
cult letter or series of letters in an inscription for an abbreviation till all 
other possibilities have been excluded. At any rate an inscription at 
Ballintaggart seems to show the same phenomenon of a prosthetic A: 
here we have A XEVEITTI, where KEV is apparently a phonetic expression 
of the sound of Q (= QV) ; the name being, as I take it, the same as the 
<IRITTI that the Ballyneanig stone gives us. CUECITAIVI recalls CUKO- 
CEiwivi, found at Trallong, according to one reading ; it is, no doubt, 
equivalent to the CURCITTI of another of the Ballintaggart group, and 
both are clearly derivatives (diminutives ?) from CURC. The concluding 
word DUVANGAC may possibly be a derivative adjective from the name 
Duben, the genitive of which we have in the form DOVINIA(S) several 
times in the barony of Corkaguiney, and which was the name of the 
eponymous ancestress of the race which inhabited that district ; the N I 
regard as gutturalised into NG by the attraction of the c. The residual 
VOD, which also appears at Lamogue, is very puzzling. One interpreta- 
tion only has occurred to me, which I do not regard as other than a wild 
piece of guesswork, almost overstepping the bounds of legitimate con- 
jecture : namely, that VO-D = fui-t = Old Irish ba, bu. The most that 
can be said for this rendering is that it makes sense on the Kinard stone, 
especially having regard to the seemingly nominative form of DUVANGAC : 
but the genitives on the Lamogue stone are in the way of such an inter- 

A word about the transliteration of -j|y in conclusion. The only 
authority for rendering this F universally is the Bally mote and similar 
keys ; but these, with every respect to their authors, were written at a 
non-critical time, long after Ogham had ceased as a medium of communi- 
cation ; and the puerilities of which the scribes were guilty in their 


" variations " on the Ogham theme considerably weaken their evidence. 
Contemporary documents, on the other hand, unanimously render the 
letter by v, both medially and initially : I allude, of course, to the 
bilinguals of South Britain and Ireland. But Oghmic -jjp passes 
initially into Old Irish /, medially into I : and in some late inscriptions 
-yyy, in initial position, does apparently equal r ; thus we probably have 

FEQEEQ at Monataggart, FUR-DDRANN at Tinnehally. Assuming the cor- 


rectness of the published copy of^ Eathcroghan I, which I have not 
seen, both transformations are exemplified by it ; for its VEAICCI MAQJ 
MEDVVI is certainly " of Fraech, son of Medb "- quite independently of 
the (most improbable) contingency of this being actually the memorial 
of the Fraech, who married, or wanted to marry, our great national 
heroine's daughter Findabar. 

It is with considerable diffidence that I thus venture to question 
some of Father Barry's readings and deductions, and I need hardly say 
that it is in no cavilling spirit that I do so. I have nothing but admira- 
tion for the zeal, learning, and ingenuity he has shown in the interpre- 
tation of these ancient epigraphs. But it is only by opposing theory to 
theory, and reading to reading, that we can hope ultimately to attain the 
truth in a subject beset with so many difficulties. 



(Concluded from page 239, Vol. VL, Fifth Series.} 

have seen that there is not a particle of trustworthy evidence to 
prove that Raymond Le Gros left any issue. On the contrary, 
Giraldus, his cousin-german, contemporary, and warm admirer, distinctly 
tells us he, Raymond, left no issue by his wife, Basilia ; nor does Giral- 
dus say, as he does of some other invaders, that he left illegitimate 
children, while the State Papers and old records show that his 
nephew, William de Carew, son of his eldest brother, Odo de Carew, 
succeeded to his lands in Leinster. It is therefore amongst some of 
Raymond's numerous nephews and grand-nephews, living in the thir- 
teenth century in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, that we must look 
for the heirs of such lands as he, with the help of his brothers, acquired 
in Ireland. To identify and trace with perfect accuracy the descent of 
that one of Raymond's nephews, or grand-nephews, who founded the 
baronial family at Lixnaw, is an impossibility at present, nor can it 
ever be done until all the medieval Irish State Papers have been 
calendared on the plan adopted by Mr. Sweetman, by competent Irish 
scholars : (see Journal, vol. vi., Fifth Ser., p. 233). 

But by a careful study of those mediaeval Irish State Papers which 
Mr. Sweetman and Mr. Handcock have calendared so well, and by col- 
lating those documents with such portions of the Irish annals and tra- 
ditions as are trustworthy in genealogical matters, we may certainly be 
able to correct the errors of the modern pedigree-makers, and to form a 
reasonable judgment about the origin of this ancient baronial family 
whose history for many generations was virtually the history of Kerry. 
It is necessary when beginning our researches to bear in mind that, 
between 1200 and 1500, surnames, as we understand them, were only in 
process of formation, and that the process in Ireland and Wales was 
much slower than in England. Lodge and Archdall (Peerage of Ireland, 
vol. ii., p. 185, Ed. 1789) say, that the founder of Ardfert Friary, in or 
about 1253, was the first to assume the surname of Fitz Maurice. But 
the State Papers prove that this was not the case, and that for many 
generations after that date the Lords of Kerry used patronymics, as did 
their Geraldine cousins of Desmond and Leinster, causing some confusion 
in their genealogies before the creation of the Earldoms of Kildare and 
Desmond. Raymond Le Gros, as he was nicknamed, signed himself 


Raymond Fitz William, as the son of William Fitz Gerald, elder brother 
of Maurice Fitz Gerald (v. Giraldus, Book i., chap, xiii., and Journal, 
vol. vi., p. 227, Fifth Series) ; and Raymond's younger brother, Griffin, 
also used the patronymic ; while Odo, their eldest brother, called him- 
self Odo de Carew, from his lordship of Carew Castle in Wales (Ibid. 
p. 230). The sons of Griffin called themselves Gilbert, Matthew, Ray- 
mond, and Griffin Fitz Griffin ; while their sons and some of the grand- 
sons of Odo de Carew used the patronymics of Fitz Raymond, Fitz 
Nicholas, and, sometimes, the territorial surname, de Carew, indifferently. 
We have seen (ttid. p. 232) that the pedigree of William Fitz Gerald's 
descendants drawn up by Anstis, Ulster King, and shown by Mr. Pole 
Carew of Anthony, in Cornwall, to the late Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., 
was proved correct by Sir John's exhaustive researches in the unpublished 
State Papers of the thirteenth century, so far, that is, as it related to Odo 
de Carew, eldest brother and heir of Raymond, and Odo's son, William 
de Carew, in 1213 ; and the fact that he, William, was a Geraldine, not 
a Montgomery, as some genealogists asserted he was. Anstis also was 
correct in stating that Odo had three brothers, viz. Raymond Le Gros, 
who died s. p., William, and Griffin ; but Anstis was wrong in stating 
that Griffin died s. p.\ and Sir John Maclean followed him in this error, 
because when he wrote in 1851, the thirteenth-century State Papers 
relating to Ireland had not been arranged and calendared. At page 184 
of the third volume, Fifth Series, of this Journal, in a very interesting 
Paper on the Kilkenny Geraldines, Mr. G. D. Burtchaell, Fellow, 
quotes a register of the monastery at Kells, in Kilkenny, preserved in 
Trinity College Library, which states that Griffin Fitz William left 
two sons, Matthew and Griffin, and that the last-mentioned left two 
sons, Raymond and Gilbert. But Mr. Burtchaell admits, in a foot- 
note, that an Inquisition amongst the State Papers of 1290, calen- 
dared by Mr. Sweetman, proves that this pedigree in the register of the 
Kells monastery is wrong. This register seems to be only a copy of an 
original, written probably in the fifteenth century ; and for this and 
other good reasons, it cannot be accepted as correct against the legal 
evidence of the following Inquisition of 1290. Still, on one point, the 
monastic register does supply an omission in the Inquisition by giving 
Griffin Fitz William a son named Griffin. This omission, however, is not 
an error, but was simply caused by this Griffin Fitz Griffin not being in 
any way concerned with the legal proceedings disclosed in the Inqui- 
sition. We have full evidence, however, that he existed and was a 
magnate of Ireland in 1220. He is mentioned in a Charter of Thomas 
Fitz Anthony, Lord of Decies and Desmond, before 1224, granting lands 
to the Cistercian monastery of St. Mary's, Dublin. In this Charter, 
calendared by Sir J. T. Gilbert, P.S.A., he is called " Griffin filio Griffini 
tune Vice-Comite de Dungarvan." In 1218 the Bishop of Waterford 
complained to the King and Council that Fitz Anthony and Griffin Fitz 


Griffin, had unjustly disseised him of the castle and lands of Lismore, 
Ardmore, and Ardfinnan (Calendar, 1. S. P., vol. i., p. 126). 

Mr. Sweetman in the third vol. of his Calendars of same, has the fol- 
lowing abstract of the above-mentioned Inquisition : 

" DUBLIN, May 6th, 1290. The jurors upon their oath say, that 
Raymond Le Gros enfeoffed his brother Griffin Fitz "William, of 
Fynnore and Kells in Fothered, for the service of two knights of 
his Court at the Castle of Fothered, and that after Griffin's death, 
Gilbert, his son and heir, succeeded to his inheritance, that Gilbert 
begot a daughter named Clarice, who was a-half year old when 
her father died; nevertheless, after Gilbert's death, Matthew Fitz 
Griffin, brother of Gilbert, entered the lands, and held them all his 
life, and after Matthew's death Raymond, his brother, entered the 
lands, and held them for seven years; then Clarice, aforesaid, went 
to William de Dene and Richard of Rochelle, locum tenens of John 
Fitz Geoffrey! then Justiciary, and promised to each of them a third 
of the lands, provided they would aid her in recovering them. By 
their counsel and aid, Clarice recovered the lands in the Court of 
the Liberty of Carlow, and having had seisin, she enfeoffed "William 
: . de Dene and Richard of Rochelle, respectively, of one-third of them, 
rendering each one penny a-year at Easter ; and afterwards Clarice 
enfeoffed John Fitz John, her son, of her own third part of them 
with the demesne of the said "William and Richard ; and after some 
time, John enfeoffed William de Dene aforesaid of his third part 
in free socage, yearly rendering at Easter three pence, or a pair of 
iron spurs. They further say, that the said William de Dene went 
to William de Maleherbe, then Seneschal of Carlow, and gave him 
a sum of money to receive suit of Court at the castle of Fothered, 
and to render the service aforesaid of two knights to the Earl 
Marshal at that castle for the lands of Fynnore and Kells, which 
service the said William rendered all his life ( Q. R. Irish Exchequer 
Records, 531, No. 9 ; Sweetman's Calendar, L S. P., vol. iii., 
p. 294)." 

Here we have legal evidence of the existence of three sons of Griffin 
Fitz William, said by Anstis, and others, to have died childless, and 
-further the Inquisition shows us that the eldest of the three died first, 
leaving only an infant daughter named Clarice. The Inquisition also is 
very interesting, as showing us how justice, was bought and sold in those 

1 John 0' Donovan, in his notes to the Four Masters, vol. iii., p. 315, and other 
writers, have mistaken this John Fitz Geoffrey for a son of Geotirey de Marisco, 
Justiciary in 1224. Dugdale shows thait John Fitz Geoffrey was the son of Geoffrey 
Fitz Piers, created Earl of Essex, hy King John, a connexion of the De Says and 


old days, and how difficult it was for daughters to hold their inheritance, 
and how by degrees the descendants of William Fitz Gerald were 
" elbowed " out of Leinster by the heirs of Strongbow and Eva. Giraldus 
tells us that, at even an earlier date, Raymond Le Gros and Fitz Stephen 
were obliged by Fitz Adelm to move westward into "remote and barren 
territories" (Giraldus, Book n., chap, xv., p. 276). Odo de Carew's 
descendants and representatives, marrying amongst the Digons, and the 
De Mohun's connexions, or descendants of Strongbow and Eva's heirs, 
continued to hold Idrone, but the youngest branches of William Fitz 
Gerald's family, nephews and grand-nephews of Odo and Raymond Le 
Gros, and the younger grandsons of Odo, evidently moved westward into 
the " remote territories " of Giraldus' history obtained by Fitz Stephen, 
De Cogan, and Raymond, in Desmond and Kerry, by the power of the 
sword confirmed by royal grants. The brilliant valour of the Irish tribes 
in those territories would have proved more than a match for that of 
the invaders but for the clan system which the Rev. Dr.Todd in his notes 
to the Wars of the Gael with the Gaill, truly said, made an Irish army a 
" rope of sand " against an enemy. As it was, the English invaders had 
to fight desperately for every acre they obtained west of the Barrow and 
the Maine ; and could only hold what they did obtain, by intermarriages 
with members of certain Irish clans whom they conciliated by helping 
them to fight a rival clan, and by adopting the old Irish usages of fos- 
terage, tanistry, gavelkind, tributes in kind, &c. 

The history of Matthew Fitz Griffin and his connexion with Carrick- 
mac Griffin, or Carrick-on-Suir, will be found in Mr. Burtchaell's before- 
mentioned Paper. As this Inquisition states that, at Matthew's death, 
his brother Raymond succeeded to the lands unjustly detained from their 
niece by both brothers in her minority, we may suppose that the Kells 
monastic register in Trinity College is right in stating that Matthew died 
S.2)- But we have no good proof that Raymond Fitz Griffin died child- 
less. The monastic register seems to say he did, but as it is proved 
incorrect respecting Raymond's and Matthew's parentage by the Inquisi- 
tion given above, we cannot look on it as trustworthy evidence for the 
pedigree of Griffin Fitz William's descendants. We find from the Irish 
State Papers that Raymond Fitz Griffin, Clarice's uncle, was living in 
July, 1255, and contesting her claims to her father's land, and that he 
still held lands in Leinster in 1279 (Calendar, I. S.P., vol. ii., pp. 74, 
326). In 1278 and in 1282 a William Fitz Raymond was a juror on im- 
portant Inquisitions taken at Clonmel. The inquisition of the latter 
year was to ascertain the possessions of John Fitz Thomas (Fitz Gerald) 
in Desmond at the time of his death in battle at Callan, near Kenmare, in 
1261, when William de Dene, Justiciary, who had aided Clarice as the 
Inquisition of 1290 tells us, was also killed by the victorious O'Sullivans, 
Mac Carthys, O'Driscolls, and other Munster tribes. Philip Fitz Ray- 
mond was an inhabitant of Waterford in 1286 (Calendar, vol. iii., p. 94). 


If it be said those Fitz Raymonds may have been sons of a Raymond 
<le Carew, I do not doubt that this is probable enough, for there were, 
at least, two Raymond de Carews living in Tipperary in 1290 (Ibid. 
p. 355) ; and in a schedule of debts of John of Callanin the eleventh and 
twelfth years of Edward I. the name of Raymond de Carew of Water- 
ford appears, while in 1277 William de Carew held the serjeantry of 
the county Waterford in fee (Ibid. pp. 263 and 498). But it is to be 
remembered that those Carews, if they were not the descendants of 
Griffin Fitz William, and his sons, in the male or female line, were cer- 
tainly his nephews or grand-nephews, and the nephews or grand-nephews 
of Raymond Le Gros, and sons or grandsons of his brother and heir, Odo 
de Carew (v. Journal, Part 3, vol. vi., p. 237). Lodge and Archdall, 
writing more than 120 years ago, had, no doubt, access to old papers of 
more or less value at Lixnaw Court, and elsewhere now lost or dispersed. 
They also carefully noted the Kerry traditions of different branches of 
the Fitz Maurice family at that place, and atCosfealy (Duagh) and Bal- 
lykealy. I am myself very sceptical of the value of such traditions, and 
think Irish writers are generally disposed to depend on them too much. 
But not the less do I believe that traditions should never be altogether 
disregarded by students of history and genealogy, because they often in- 
dicate in a confused, vague way, where the truth lies, and help us to 
reach it by patiently collating them with contemporary legal documents. 

Now one of the oldest traditions gleaned by Archdall and Lodge in 
Kerry, about the first Fitz Maurice, Lord of Kerry, the founder of the 
Franciscan friary at Ardfert, was, that he was the son of Maurice Fitz 
Raymond by Joanna, daughter (she was really niece) of Meyler Fitz Henry, 
Justiciary of Ireland, from 1204 to 1208, and that this Maurice was son 
of Raymond Le Gros. The traditions further stated that said Thomas 
Fitz Maurice, first Lord of Kerry, son of Maurice Fitz Raymond, married 
Grace, daughter of Dermot Mac Murrogh, King of Leinster, in 1170, and 
was buried with her circa 1181, under an altar tomb, close to the high 
altar of the Ardfert Friary, of which we have had such faithful sketches 
from Mr. Wakeman's gifted pencil and pen. (See Journal, vol. v., Fifth 
Series, pp. 37 and 38, and 330). Contemporary history, as I have said, 
proves, that the first step in those descents is wrong, the vague tradition 
that Raymond Le Gros left a son Maurice, has no support in that history. 
The Fitz Henry wife, tradition says, brought Rattoo, Ballyheigue, and 
Kilbury, as her dowry to her husband Maurice Fitz Raymond, and as 
those lands, or some of them, are proved by the State Papers of 1203-10, 
to have belonged to Meyler Fitz Henry, and were afterwards amongst 
the earliest possessions of the Lords of Kerry, we may accept as true 
these traditions of the marriage and the dowry. But as regards the 
tradition that Thomas Fitz Maurice, son and heir of Maurice, and his 
Fitz Henry wife, married the daughter of King Dermot Mac Murrogh of 
1170, chronology and history alike prove that it cannot be correct, and 


we must therefore reject it. Dermot Mae Murrogh or Dermot-na-nGall 
(i.e. Dermot of the English strangers), as he was called by his country- 
men, died in 1171, at the age of eighty one, according to John O'Donovan 
in his notes to the Four Masters, vol. ii., page 1182. A daughter of 
his, born in 1161, would therefore have been almost a centenarian in 
1253, and far too elderly a bride for a grandson of Raymond Le Gros, 
who died in 1183 (Four Masters, notes, page 61, vol. iii.). But a grand- 
daughter or great-granddaughter of King Dermot would have been 
of a suitable age in 1253, for a bride of a grandnephew of Raymond 
Le Gros, and we shall presently see that such a marriage did really take 

The contemporary accounts of Dermot Mac Murrogh's children are 
meagre and contradictory. They give him at least two sons, Connor and 
Donald. Giraldus says, the former only was legitimate ; but Maurice Regan, 
Dermot's secretary, writes of Donald as a legitimately born prince. Giral- 
dus says that Eva, the wife of Strongbow, whom her father King Dermot 
made heiress of Leinster, had sworn in England that Donald was illegiti- 
mate. But on such a point Giraldus cannot be a trustworthy authority. 
Whatever may have been the number of King Dermot' s legitimate 
children, the claims of Eva, as heiress of Leinster, were wholly illegiti- 
mate according to Irish law. They were invented in face of it, by 
Dermot to obtain the aid of Strongbow against his own countrymen, and 
were enforced and maintained by the swords of Strongbow and his 
English followers. If Dermot left no adult male issue, the heir to his 
dominions, according to Irish law and usage, was his tanist brother, 
Murrogh-na-nGael (*'. e. Murrogh of the Irish) as he was called, because 
he opposed Dermot and his English allies, and under that law and usage 
Eva could never be heiress of Leinster. She and her only child Isabel, 
wife of the Earl Marshal, probably both fully recognized this fact, and 
the latter is said to have predicted that the breach of Irish law by her 
Irish grandfather King Dermot, would result in the disappointment of 
Strong-bow's hopes, for that her own five sons would die without male 
heirs, and that Leinster would again pass away in the female line to 
strangers. If Isabel or any one else made such a prediction we know 
that it was actually verified before 1320 in a very remarkable manner. 
No impartial student of history can doubt that Dermot Mac Murrogh 
was a bad king and a bad man, but the evil wrought by such men to 
their own confusion and ultimate loss, often results in some good to 
generations that come after them. The soul of goodness in things 
evil is a mystery, but a powerful witness against a desolating spirit of 

Leaving the dreary bloodstained records of the old Leinster king's life, 
I believe that the true explanation of the Kerry traditions of a descendant 
of his having been buried with her husband in the Friary of St. Francis 
at Ardfert, will be found in the following facts. In the Chartulary of 

JOUR. R.S.A.I., VOL. YII., PT. III., 5'1'H SER. 


St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, edited by Sir J. T. Gilbert, F.S.A., we find 
a document drawn up circa 1230, to settle a dispute concerning the lands 
of Glancullen, between the abbot and monks of that community, and 
Johannes Gillaholmoc and his wife " Claricia filia Gilbertifilii Griffini" 
The husband and wife demised Glancullen for the good of their own, and 
their ancestor's souls, to the said abbey, at a rent of one mark yearly, 
and after her husband's death Clarice gave a confirmation (also calendared 
by Sir J. T. Gilbert) of this grant. John O'Donovan in his notes to the- 
Four Masters (vol. ii. p. 847), and Sir J. T. Gilbert in his valuable history 
of Dublin, and his edition of the before mentioned Chartulary, have given 
an account of the powerful Leinster chief Donnel Mac Gillaholmoge, 
servant of St. Mocholmoge, or Gillaholmoc, who is said to have been 
the founder of St. Mary's Abbey. He married a daughter of Xing 
Dermot Mac Murrogh, and had by her a son Dermot, who was the father 
of the above-mentioned John Gillaholmoc, the husband, as proved by the 
charter of Glancullen to St. Mary's, of Clarice proved by same, and also by 
the Inquisition of 1290, to have been the granddaughter of Griffin Fitz- 
William and the grandniece of Raymond Le Gros. It is matter of 
history, that the chief invaders of Ireland in 1169-72, and their descen- 
dants, were connected by constant intermarriages. Maurice de Carew, a 
grandnephew or great-nephew of Raymond Le Gros, claimed as we have 
seen (Journal, Part 3, vol. vi., Fifth Series, p. 324, and Lynch's Feudal 
Dignities of Ireland, p. 152), lands in Desmond in 1311, in right of his 
descent from De Cogan and Fitz Stephen, to whom Henry the Second 
had granted all the lands lying between Waterford and Brandon Hill, in 
Kerry. His claim as lord paramount of certain lands in this wide district 
was allowed by a royal mandate still lying among the Memoranda 
Exchequer MSS., fourth and fifth Edward II., in the Dublin Public Record 
Office, of which I had an official certified copy made in 1 895. My belief 
subject to correction by the as yet unpublished and unarranged State 
Papers of mediaeval times in London and Dublin is, that a daughter of 
John Gillaholmoc (grandson of Dermot Mac Murrogh' s daughter) and his 
wife Clarice, granddaughter of Griffin, brother of Raymond Le Gros, 
married Thomas Fitz Maurice, first Lord of Kerry, son of a Maurice Fitz 
Raymond, whose father, Raymond, was either the Raymond Fitz Griffin 
of the Inquisition of 1290, or else his cousin, a Raymond de Carew, and 
that the old Kerry tradition recorded, but slightly confused, as usual, the 
relationship which did really exist between the wife of Lord Kerry 
and the Leinster royal family of 1200-60. She was not of course the 
daughter of King Dermot, dead in 1171, at the age of eighty-one, but the 
daughter of his great-grandson John Gillaholmoc, living between 1215 and 
1245 (v. Sweetman's Calendar I. S. P. vol. i. pp. 88 and 53.) The descents, 
in brief, reconciling the traditions and history were as follows : 



Raymond Le Gros, 
died*, .p. 1183. 

Griffin Fitz William. 

Odo de Carew, father of William 
and Raymond de Carew. 

Gilbert Fitz Griffin. 

Clarice, only child, v. Inquisi- = John Gillaholmoc, 

tion of 1290 Gal. I. S. P., 
vol. iii., p. 294, and Gilbert's 
"Chartulary of St. Mary's." 

great grandson of 
King Dermot Mac 

Grace, or Grany, Gillaholmoc, 
great great granddaughter of 
King Dermot Mac Murrogh. 

Raymond Fitz Griffin. 

Maurice Fitz Raymond mar- 
ried Joanna Fitz Henry, 
heiress of Rattoo, Killury, 
and Bally heigue, in Kerry. 

Thomas Fitz Maurice, first 
Lord of Kerry, buried, 
with his wife, in the 
Franciscan Friary at Ard- 
fert in 1280 (Archdall's 
"Lodge," vol. ii.). 

I do not insist that this short table of descents, framed, after carefully 
collating the thirteenth-century State Papers and monastic chartularies 
with the traditions of Kerry, for six hundred years, about the wife of its 
first Lord, is indisputably correct. But I maintain that it has reason and 
history to support it, and is much more likely to be correct than any 
other put forth up to the present time, founded on the mythical traditions 
about a supposed son of Raymond Le Gros, whose cousin -german, 
contemporary and loving admirer, Giraldus Cambrensis says, left no 
children by his wife Basil ia De Clare, and whose illegitimate son, if he 
ever existed (we have not a particle of proof he ever did exist), would 
assuredly never have been allowed by his De Carew and Fitz Griffin 
cousins to seize on the lands of their uncle, which lands they helped him 
to acquire in Desmond and Kerry. The Annals of Innisfallen show us 
how William, the eldest son of Odo de Carew, after the death of his uncle 
Raymond Le Gros, whose heir he was, extended his conquests into Des- 
mond, and built castles at Kenmare and other parts of the present county 
Kerry, including Lixnaw, according to an ancient Irish MS., which 
Florence Mac Carthy Reagh, son in-law of Mac Carthy, Earl of Clancare, 
showed to Sir George Carew in 1599 (see Journal, Part 3, vol. vi., 
Fifth Series, p. 233). The heirs of this William de Carew resided at 
Mulresford in Devonshire, or in Idrone in Leinster, but we may reasonably 
suppose one of his younger sons or grandsons, or one of his younger 
nephews, or Fitz Griffin cousins, bearing the favourite Christian name of 
Raymond, in memory of their great collateral ancestor, was made by him 
Warden of his castles and lands in Desmond and Kerry, doing knightly 
service for them, as the Barrys and some of the Geraldines are shown to 
have done in 1311, by the before-mentioned royal mandate to Maurice de 

Thus Raymond Fitz Griffin, or Raymond de Carew was, I feel sure, 
the grandfather of the first Lord Kerry, who used the patronymic of 



Thomas Fitz Maurice, and who from being a great feudal tenant on his 
Carew cousin's Kerry lands, after the usual Geraldine fashion, soon be- 
came the chief lord of the district. The encroachments of the Earl 
Marshal's heirs in Leinster, and subsequently the Wars of the Roses in 
England, drew the eldest branch of William de Carew's family back to 
Devonshire, where their most valuable estates under royal grants lay, so 
that the younger branch at Ardfert andLixnaw had nothing to fear from 
them. But by degrees, between 1230 and 1330, the descendants of Fitz- 
Griffins and Carews at those places found formidable rivals in their kins- 
men, the descendants of Thomas Mor Fitz Gerald, father by his wife 
Elinor de Marisco of John Fitz Thomas Fitz Gerald, who fell at the 
battle of Callan, in 1261, the husband of Fitz Anthony's heiress. Those 
powerful and warlike magnates and their descendants the Earls of Des- 
mond, slowly but surely encroached on the territories of the old Lords of 
Kerry, and waxed so great after 1329, that it is popularly supposed the 
latter were originally their vassals. But the reverse was the fact as the 
medieval State Papers prove. An Inquisition taken at Kilmallock, on 
the 8th of August, 1282, to ascertain what lands and tenements John 
Fitz Thomas Fitz Gerald held at the time of his death in the battle of 
Callan, just twenty- one years before, says 

" The said John Fitz Thomas held at his death . . . (land) called 
Acumkery, in the county of Kerry, of Sir Milo de Courcy, for the 
service of two knights, wont to be worth in the time of the said John 
100, but now worth only 50; besides the thirds of the Lady 
Matilda de Barry, who was the wife of Maurice Fitz John, the 
greater part of which is destroyed by the war of the Irish ; and half 
a cantred at Denloyth of Geoffrey Tyrel at 20 marks of rent a-year, 
wont to be worth forty pounds, now worth twenty marks ; and one 
theodum in Moyhynwyr of William de Coher (query ? Poer) for six- 
pence a year, and suit at the Court of Maurice Fitz Thomas at Altry, 
and half the service of a knight worth twenty marks a year ; and 
three carucates at Ogenathy Donechud wont to be worth in time of 
peace forty marks and now worth nothing, for they all lie in the 
power of the Irish, etc." (Sweetman's Calendar I. S. P. vol. ii., 
p. 429.) 

This and other passages in the enormously long Inquisition of 1282 
show us how the Irish tribes had reconquered, at and after the battle of 
Callan, almost all Kerry and West Desmond from the English. The 
Acumkery of the Inquisition is, as the late eminent Irish scholar, W. M. 
Hennessy, M.R.I.A., Assistant Keeper of the Records, told me, a misspelling 
by the old English scribe of Aicme Ciarraighe, or the district occupied by 
the Aicme, i.e. the tribes of King Ciar, from whom descended the O'Coffeys 
(Maelcobha), kings of Kerry, ancestors of the O'Connors Kerry of later 
ages(v. O'Donovan's^ZVbtes to the Four Masters, vol. ii., p. 891, A.D. 1067). 


Mr. Sweetrmm, in the first volume of his Calendars of the I. S. P., gires 
the grants of King John to Meyler Fitz Henry of Aicme Ciarraighe, 
Huerba, and other lands in Kerry. The latter district was Hi Feorna (or 
as it is written in the Tudor State Papers, Offeriba and Hy Fearba), 
which lay around the north-west coasts of Tralee and Ballyheigue 
bays, and no doubt those cantreds formed part of the dowry of the 
Fitz Henry mother of Thomas, first Lord of Kerry. The De Courcys 
were probably sub-feudatories of portions of Fitz Henry's grant ; for 
an account of Wardships and Escheats in the Public Record Office, 
Dublin, and in the Carew MSS. at Lambeth, says that in 1318 the 
Lady Annora De Courcy held in dower, amongst other lands in Munster, 
the "rents and issues, warrens, fisheries and perquisites of the Court 
of Ballionry (Ballyconry), Glenardule and Fenoad (Fenit) in Kerry." 
Moyhynwyr seems to be the modern Meenanare in Clanmaurice, and 
the important point in the above Inquisition for our present purpose 
is, that it shows us, on the sworn evidence of a jury of Kerry and 
Cork gentlemen in 1282, that at the time of his death at Callan, in 
1261, John Fitz Thomas Fitz Gerald was not, as is popularly supposed, 
chief owner of lands in Kerry, but the feudal tenant of small portions 
of the county, under the De Courcys and the Fitz Maurice Lords of 
Kerry, and that he not only paid rent to a sub-feudatory of the latter, 
but did service at his, Maurice Fitz Thomas Fitz Maurice's (Second 
Lord of Kerry) manorial Court at Altry, recte Altraighe, which O'Douo- 
van, Dr. Reeves, and other eminent Irish scholars tell us was the district 
around Tralee, extending from near Fenit to near Castleisland. After 
1290, year by year, the descendants of John of Callan, recovering from 
the eifects of that battle, won more than they had lost by it. But even 
after the marriage of his grandson Thomas Fitz Maurice Fitz Gerald with 
" Margaret the king's cousin," as she is styled in the Charter of Desmond 
to husband and wife, calendared by Mr. Sweetman, under February 6th, 
1292 (v. Calendar, vol. iii., p. 464), and. the creation of the Earldom of 
Desmond in 1329, for their eldest surviving son, the Desmond Geraldines 
found it well nigh impossible to maintain even a nominal supremacy, over 
their cousins and rivals the Fitz Maurices in Clanmaurice. The old 
Lords of Kerry and their descendants were still supreme in that portion 
of their inheritance, and held it in spite of all opponents by their here- 
ditary valour, as the direct descendants of William Fitz Gerald (elder 
brother of Maurice) and his sons Fitz Griffins or Carews, and the 
collateral descendants of his son the famous Raymond Le Gros. They, 
the Fitz Maurices, further strengthened their position by frequent inter- 
marriages with the O'Briaiis, princes of Thomond (chief of the quinyu* 
Sanguines in the south), the Mac Carthy chiefs of Desmond, the 
O'Connors Kerry, and the Mac Mahons, a branch of the O'Brians in 
Thomond. For several generations no Desmond Earl ever married for 
a first wife a lady of the old Irish blood, nor did the son of an Irish 


wife succeed to the Earldom. On the other hand, twelve out of the 
nineteen Fitz Maurice Barons of Kerry, living between 1250 and 1660, 
married wives of the old Irish blood, six of the remaining seven, 
married Geraldines, Roches, or Cauntons, " Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores " 
and only one married an English wife, and died in 1541, leaving no male 
issue (v. Journal, part 1, vol. v., p. 40). Ultimately the Desmond Earls, 
in this fierce struggle for supremacy with their cousins in the old 
kingdom of Kerry, found it necessary to patch up a temporary peace, by 
intermarriages with them, and their O'Brian connexions. Maurice Fitz- 
Thomas, second Baron (by tenure) of Kerry, did good service in the 
Scotch wars of the English king, and married, according to Lodge, 
Mary, daughter and heir of Sir John MacLeod of Galway, whose arms, 
one of the triple towers of the Macleods of the Hebrides, were hence- 
forth quartered by the Lords and Earls of Kerry. But there can be 
no doubt that the wife of Maurice Fitz Thomas, second Lord Kerry, 
was the descendant of the Mac Elgots, who were Seneschals of Connaught 
in 1247, and that her father was owner of Galey in JS T oith Kerry, and of 
the present Chute Hall, and Obrennan near Tralee, before 1620. In 
O'Donovan's Notes to the Four Masters, an account of the Mac Eligots of 
Connaught and Kerry will be found, vol. iii., page 325. 1 It is highly 
probable or certain that they were of the Gall-Gael race of the Hebrides, 
and therefore a branch of the Dunvegan chiefs now called Mac Leods. 
The history of the Barons of Kerry, between 1250 and 1691, is full of 
historic interest and romantic vicissitudes, but time and the space allotted 
to me in these pages prevent my entering on it more fully. I hope, how- 
ever to be able to say more on the subject of the Mac Eligots, De 
Courcys, Walshes, De Clahulls and Hices hereafter, and to give engrav- 
ings of the admirable sketches of the interior and exterior of the curious 
old round castle of the De Clahulls, or De Courcys, on Barrow Head, 
close to Fenit, which were taken for me by Mr. Wakeman in 1894. 

1 There is a Car (Caer or Cahir] Elgi on the Scottish horders (see "Veitch," 
vol. i., p. 36). 

( 243 ) 

Observations of the History of "Holed Stones" in France and 
Ireland, by Mons. P. Joly, Lodeve (taken from a communication sent to 
Dr. Frazer, Vice-President). The distinction you make of the Pierced 
Stones of Ireland into two categories appears to me logical and judicious, 
for, as you well say, the monoliths with large openings can be differenti- 
ated from those of small dimensions. Are not the first the remnants of 
ancient dolmens, and is not the " Cultus " associated with them, a remi- 
niscence of that of the dead. That is my opinion, though it is not that of 
M. de Montillet. Open " Prehistoric Man " by Lubbock at page 118, 
and suppress all the other stones of the dolmen, and you will have the 
pierced stones of the " Haute Saone." There are observable in them, it 
is true, only oval openings, but they are of sufficient size to permit, if 
necessary, a man passing through them. The stones owe their preser- 
vation, I believe, to the special " cultus " of which they have for a long 
time been the object. As for the monoliths which you classify in your 
second category, and they are the most numerous, there is nothing 
analogous to them in our regions. 

But the most striking and interesting fact, it appears to me, is that 
the pierced stones have been in Ireland, as in France, the objects of a 
superstitious cultus. This once more demonstrates that the same race 
spread itself over both countries. You are aware of the legend which 
peoples Hibernia with a colony from Iberia, whence it follows that tho 
nations who inhabited that region, or at least a great part, were of the 
same family ; but what is this race ? Allow me to place before you my 
ideas on this point. As you are occupied with the study of Archae- 
ology? you will perhaps find in them something that may interest you. 

What principally struck me in ancient and even modern geographical 
names is the frequent occurrence of the root " Seek" and " Sick," some- 
times a little modified, but perfectly recognisable, and almost always 
associated with another substantive which completes and defines it. For 
instance, in Southern Germany I have met with more than 100 names of 
localities commencing with the root " Seek" or " Sick" e.g. Seckingen ; 
Seckendorf, the village of the Seeks ; Seckhof, the house of the Seeks ; 
Sickengen, the field of the Sicks ; Sickenkirch, the church or temple of 
the Sicks. From which fact I have been led to think that this root, so 
often repeated, and with the suffixes which give it a meaning, may be 
that which represents the people whom the ancient authors call Celts, 
and which scholars of the present day have nowhere found. This name 
of " Seek" is generally applied to the "Sequanes" alone (Seck-an) whose 


primitive name would have been altered by the Romans, who, not possess- 
ing the latter K, replaced it by Q, which in Latin is always followed by 
the vowel u. What further tends to confirm this opinion is that the 
" Seckana " or Seck-na has been changed into " Seine." If the root 
" Seek " appears to belong, as has often been said, to the " Sequanes," that 
of " Sick " seems to have been borne by the " Sickules" (Sick-ur), the 
primitive Sicks, who had, from their arrival in Central Gaul, occupied 
Italy. If we are to believe scholars, "Sick" ought to be pronounced 
" Seuk," which would bring it still nearer " Seek," of which it appears 
to me to be only a slight modification. The two peoples " Seck-an " and 
" Sick-ur" would then be but two branches of the Aryan family of 
"Seeks" derived from Asia (cf. Seeks and Celts). In France we find 
the same root under the Roman form of Segondi, Sig more often. Thus 
in the valley of the Rhone we meet with the " Secusiani liberi " of Pliny, 
the Segalanni, the Segobriges, upon whose territory Marseilles was 
founded, and at the mouths of the Rhone, the Secoani. All these 
people's names seem to me to have a peculiar analogy with that of the 
Sequanes (Seckan) and especially of the Seeks (cf. Sequani and Secoani). 

Between the Rhone and Alps we meet again with Segovii (Seek and 
Gau, district), the Siconii, and towards the source of the Po the Segusini, 
with Segusio (Sux) as their capital (cf. Segusini and Segusiani). Amongst 
the towns, let us mention Segobodium (Seveux), Segessera (Bar sur Aube), 
Segustero (Sesteron), Segodunum (Rhodes), Segora (Bressiere), SecorPon- 
tus (les Sablons d' Olonne), &c. 

In Spain, the ancient Iberia, we find Sigobriga (cf. the Segobriges), 
Segovia (cf. the Segovii), Segontio, and a dozen localities with the name 
Segouria (Seek and Gour). Let us mention further a river named 
" Sicanus," which reminds us of the Scianes, who seem to approach near 
to the Sequanes. 

In England we have the Segonciaci (cf. Segontio), the Selgovii 
(cf. Segovii and Segoveas), Segedunum (cf. Segodunum), Seguntium (cf. 
Segontio), Segonciaci, and even Seckington. 

I have passed by perhaps better examples, but the facts which I have 
placed before you seem a confirmation that the customs which are found 
alike iu Gaul and Ireland, support the idea that a single race once peopled 
the whole of Central and Western Europe. I am led to conclude from 
them that this great and ancient race is that of the Seeks which came 
there, says Henri Martin, in a condition of social infancy, of which no 
recollection is written in human memory. The proof of the high anti- 
quity of the Seeks in our regions is not difficult to find ; the ploughshare 
(soc de la charrue) has retained in German their name. " Seek " is yet the 
name they give in their language to this implement, and sickel is also 
applied to the scythe and the sickle. There is a strong probability 
that they were the inventors of them, or at least the importers. Let 
me add that Secale, the Latin name for Rye, may be analysed into 


Seck-cal. Now Cal is a root found in French words, and which, signi- 
fies grain in general, from whence Seck-cal would be the grain of the 
Seeks. I shall stop here, for the path is slippery, and from Cal to- 
Gal or Gall is hut a step ; to-day I should not dare to make it. 

Monumental Inscriptions from the Cathedral, Jamaica. The arm& 
given in the Quarterly Part of the Journal for March, 1 897, from the 
monument of." Mr. Gerald Bermingham, of the nohle and ancient house 
of Athunry," are different from any arms of that family which I have 
ever seen, which are, party per pale indented, or and gu. The two spears* 
heads in the arms on the monument must he an addition or augmen- 
tation of some kind. It would he very interesting to know something 
of this Gerald Bermingham, to what branch of the family he belonged,, 
and how the spears' heads came to be on his arms. The old Barony 
of Athenry was in existence in 1742, the date of the monument, being 
then held by Francis, 21st Baron, the first who conformed, whose son 
and successor, Thomas, was created Earl of Louth in 1750, on whose 
death, in 1799, the earldom became extinct, and the barony went into 
abeyance. It has been claimed, I believe, more than once since, though 
never successfully. I hope that this note may draw out some informa- 
tion on the subject of the branch of the Berminghams of which the 
Gerald Bermingham, who died at Jamaica, in 1742, was a member. 
There were several branches of the family in existence then, which have 
since become extinct in the male line. Lord Leitrim represents one of 
them, and quarters the arms. 

The arms given as being on the monument of Andrew Arcedeckne 
must be wrong; they are " Argent, three chevronels or"; metal on 
metal. I think, though of course I cannot be sure, that it should be 
argent three chevronels sable; and that the mistake was caused by 
the colour being shown on the stone by cross lines for sable, which, 
perhaps being worn and in a bad light, may have been mistaken for the 
dots representing or. GEORGE J. HEWSO^, Fellow. 

High Cross, Downpatrick. The old Celtic cross at Downpatrick has 
been re-erected there in June this year. The gathering together of the 
scattered pieces and their re-erection is due to some of the antiquarian 
members of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, assisted by Major 
Wallace (Member), and the Yery Rev. P, O'Kane, who had possession of 
different fragments. 

This cross formerly stood opposite De Courcey's Castle where the 
post-office now is, at the cross-roads, in the centre of the town; and 
tradition says it .was brought at a remote time from the Dun, where it 
had been erected to the memory of Celtchair, an Irish chieftain. The 
old site is now the centre of traffic, and in consequence unsuitable as a 


site for its re-erection. The Dean and Chapter of Down Cathedral 
have given a site for the cross, and it now stands erected on the grass 
triangular plot at the east end of the Cathedral, facing the road leading 
up from the town. 

The stones of the cross consist of the base, the shaft, and the arms 
and circle ; the coping or cap-stone being still undiscovered. These three 
stones, with an additional base-stone, which was a necessary insertion 
owing to some injuries in the base proper, are now fitted together with 
care and precision, and form a cross eleven feet high. No attempt of 
any kind has been made to restore the ornament. 

The base stone has no trace of ornament left. The shaft on its east 
face has four panels, the two centre ones each containing three full- 
length figures, and the upper and lower panels, which are only half 
the size of the centre ones, contain half-length figures, all evidently being 
Scriptural subjects, but now so worn as to be beyond recognition. The 
south side of the shaft has one panel its full length, containing a rich 
interlacing Celtic pattern closely worked at each end, and expanding to 
greater freedom in the centre. This is the most legible ornament on the 
cross. The stone above the shaft which extends into the arms bears in 
the centre the crucifixion dimly visible on its weatherworn face. The 
angles of the cross bear evidence of having once had a round, possibly a 
rope moulding. It is to be hoped that the good feeling which prompted 
the possessors to give up the stones, and the generosity of those who 
contributed to the restoration, will prevail to preserve this cross as a 
special attraction to the place where the national saint sleeps after many 
years spent amidst the surrounding hills and vales. 

The work of re-erection lias been carefully carried out by Mr. Wm. 
Hastings, under the supervision of Mr. Wm. J. Fennell, Members of the 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

The Baginbun Stone. As Colonel Vigors, in his digest of the 
Academy correspondence on this monument (ante, pages 150-163), has 
found fault with me for describing it as a "hopeless puzzle," perhaps I 
may be allowed to make a brief personal explanation in this matter, and 
to give a short account of my present views concerning the stone. 

If Colonel Vigors will turn again to my Academy letter of 22nd 
September, 1894 (Academy, vol. xlvi., p. 216), which opened the dis- 
cussion on the inscription, he will find that I did not use the expression 
referred to without some qualification. I said that the inscription, so 
far as I could see, was a hopeless puzzle ; which simply means that I 
had exhausted all my resources in the vain endeavour to interpret it, but 
does not imply that others might not be more fortunate. 

As a matter of fact there is no reasonable doubt that the inscription 
has actually been deciphered. Though the Academy correspondence, 


like most newspaper discussions, was somewhat desultory, and though 
some very unlucky shots were made during its course, it led to definite 
results, thanks principally to the insight and epigraphic skill of Mr. 
Romilly Allen. It may now be regarded as settled that the Baginhun 
inscription is an unintelligent copy of the Fethard Castle legend, and 
the latter, in its turn, of the writing on the cross at Carew. A further 
point has heen noticed by my brother-in-law, Dr. D. Mac Alister, namely, 
a gradual rounding of the characters, and an approximation to cursiveness 
as we advance from the Carew to the Baginbun stone. This indicates 
that a pen-and-ink transcript was taken of each inscription copied, and 
slavishly transferred to the next stone of the series. As it happens, the 
Baginbun stone, when I last visited it, had in itself the means of study- 
ing the degeneration in the form of unknown letters resulting from 
unintelligent copying : for some idle person had shortly before been 
amusing himself by scratching, on the blank part of the stone, a fairly 
accurate, though excessively rude copy of the mysterious writing 
satisfactorily characterising his own mental condition by adding the 
letters ASS to his work. 

It follows that to interpret the inscription we must go back to the 
Carew cross : and if we did not possess that fine monument, I still hold 
that the Fethard Castle stone would probably, and the Baginbun stone 
certainly, present a ''hopeless puzzle." I have no hesitation in accept- 
ing Professor llhys' reading of the Carew inscription so far as the names 
MAHGITEUT EECETT Meredydd of Rheged is concerned : I prefer to 
keep an open mind about the interpretation of the concluding characters 
as any form of FECIT, though some such sense must be intended. 

The decipherment is, however, only half the enigma. When, by 
whom, and, above all, for what purpose the Irish copies were made are 
problems which still confront us. For the credit of my country, I 
heartily echo Colonel Yigors' hope that these questions (still "hopeless 
puzzles" to me) will be attacked, and satisfactorily solved, on the Irish 
side of the channel. 11. A. S. MACALISTER. 

" The Dolmens of Ireland," by Mr. Borlase, F.S.A. At page 841 
of the third volume of his new and deeply interesting work, Mr. Borlase, 
through an excusable want of time to examine for himself each Irish dis- 
trict's prehistoric remains, has fallen into a great error as regards Glenfas, 
in AVest Kerry. Writing of the prehistoric cists and menhirs in the glen, 
he says, there " is no ruined church near them." Now there is at least 
one very remarkable fifth- or sixth-century ruined church, with a stone 
circle, pillar- stone with incised cross on it, and bee-hive huts at Kilelton, 
still very near the modern Glenfas; but that this primitive church 
stands within the bounds of the ancient Glenfas is as certain as anything 
can be, for more than one reason already given by me in this Journal. 
The main and all-convincing reason of this is, that, from time immemorial, 


the tradition of the old Irish -speaking people of the district (familiar to 
me from childhood) has been that on the very grave of the pagan 
legendary princess Fas, who still gives a name to Glenfas, stands this 
little primitive church, now known as Kilelton. In his. account of his 
ascent of Cahirconrigh fifty- six years ago, published in the Ulster Journal 
of Archeology, Windele tells us that the Irish-speaking people of 
Kilelton, and around it, told him that the church stood over the grave 
of Fas. The remains of the low tumulus, and the western side of the 
stone circle around it, are still distinctly visible, and on the apex is the 
ruined church. ISTot examining it for himself, Mr. Borlase has missed 
the most striking illustration, perhaps, in Ireland, of the correctness of 
his judgment, that the earliest Christian churches in the island were 
erected over graves of pagans, venerated by a prehistoric race, where 
pagan sacrifices had been offered. MARY AGNKS HICKSON, Hon. Local 
Secretary for Kerry. 

Note on the Derivation of the New Grange Spirals. At the 
Meeting of the British Association, Liverpool, 1896, Mr. A. J. Evans, 
in his Address as President of the Anthropological Section, briefly 
reviewed the argument I have developed regarding the derivation of 
the JSTew Grange Spirals. Mr. Evans accepts the evidence of "a direct 
connexion between Great Britain and Scandinavia from the end of the 
Stone Age onwards"; but asks the question: Ought the prolongation of 
the Bronze Age trade-route from Scandinavia to Ireland "to be regarded 
as the historic clue to the contemporary appearance of the spiral motive 
in the British Islands ? Is it to this earlier intercourse with the land of 
the Yikings that we must ascribe the spiral scrolls on the slabs of the 
great chambered barrows of the Irish Bronze Age, best seen in the most 
imposing of them all, before the portal and on the inner chambers of 
New Grange?" 

"The possibility of such connexion," Mr. Evans says, "must be 
admitted." " The probability," he adds, " is great that the contemporary 
appearance of the spiraliform ornament in Ireland and on the continent 
of Europe is due to direct derivation." But, he suggests, "it does not 
follow that the only alternative is to believe that the spiral decoration of 
the Irish monuments necessarily connects itself with the ancient stream 
of intercourse flowing from Scandinavia." * 

The following is a summary of the leading points of Mr. Evans' 
argument in favour of a "West Mediterranean route : If the spiral had 
been a feature of the Scandinavian rock-carvings, the argument for 
derivation from that side would have been strong. But they are not 

1 In addition to the references to amber "beads found in Ireland, in section vin., 
i-hould be mentioned twenty -seven amber beads found in a tumulus at liella Hill, 
Carricki'ergus, county Antrim. Ulster Journal of Archeology, vol. vi., p. 171. 


found in them; and, on the other hand, the sculptures on the dolmens of 
the Morbihan equally show certain features common to the Irish stone 
chambers, including the primitive ship-figure. The prehistoric stone 
buildings of Malta, which show in their primitive conception a great 
affinity to the megalithic chambers of the earliest British barrows, bear 
witness on this side to the extension of the -3gean spiral system in a 
somewhat advanced stage, and accompanied, as at New Grange, with 
intermediate lozenges. In Sardinia there is evidence of the former 
existence of monuments of Mycenaean architecture in which the chevron, 
the lozenge, and the spiral might have been associated as in Ireland. It 
is on this line, rather than on the Danube and the Elbe, that we find in 
a continuous zone that Cyclopean tradition of domed chambers which is 
equally illustrated at Mycenae and at New Grange. These indications, 
Mr. Evans adds, gain additional force from a remarkable find in a British 
barrow excavated by Canon Greenwell on Folkton Wold, Yorkshire, 
consisting of three chalk objects, resembling round boxes with bossed 
lids, The ornaments on the lids show concentric circles of degenerate 
spiral form, and upon the sides of two of these chalk objects, associated 
with chevrons, saltires, and lozenges, are indications of faces recalling 
the early JEgean and Trojan types of Dr. Schliemann ; also some other 
forms, which Mr. Evans regards as Mycenaean (" Address," pp. 8 and 9). 

With every wish to defer to Mr. Evans' judgment on a subject which 
he has made in an especial degree his own, I am unable to accept 
the conclusion he has reached. It may be at once conceded that it is 
possible, not to say probable, that .ZEgean influence reached the west 
coast of Europe, but the gaps in the evidence for the derivation of the 
New Grange spirals appear to me to be greater on the west coast route 
than on the Scandinavian side. That the spiral motive, which Mr. Evans 
has shown can be put back in the JEgean to a period contemporary with 
the XII. Dynasty of Egypt, should be found at various points of the 
Mediterranean area is to be expected. The spirals at Malta are in relief, 
but we may assume them to belong to the same system as those under 
consideration. The remarkable fact is not that an occasional example 
should be found at Malta, but that examples should be so rare in the 
western basin of the Mediterranean. 

The influence of the JEgean spiral possibly extended beyond the 
Mediterranean to the west. Incised markings have been figured from 
the Canary Islands (" Materiaux," 1878, pi. vii.) which would be 
absolutely in place at Dowth. They include spirals and zigzags, and 
a boat-form. Other examples, also including spirals, resemble in 
general character rock-markings in America, and are compared by 
Mallery -with examples in California and Brazil ("Mallery," pp. 58, 
59, figs. 144 and 145). But proceeding northward we have no station 
for the spiral till we come to Gavrinis in Brittany. 

The chalk objects from Folkton are a strong point. The face-type 


on these " boxes" has been compared with the face-type of sculptured 
representations of a female divinity on dolmens in the south of France 
(Gard), and found as far north as Marne. Cartailhac refers the type to 
Sardinia, and further to Hissarlik ("1'Anthropologie," 1894, p. 155). 
But though a line of communication is thus provisionally established 
through France to the eastern basin of the Mediterranean, the possi- 
bility of such connexions throws into relief the fact that the spiral is not 
carried on the dolmens with sculptures of a female divinity ; it is not 
found on them, and renders all the more significant the failure of the 
spiral in the West. The exceptional nature of the Folkton objects, coupled 
with the fact that the Hissarlik face-type has been found on urns in the 
north of Germany ("Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic," 1894, p. 53), also the 
wide distribution of saltire and lozenge patterns, renders it, I think, 
doubtful that these chalk objects can be regarded as evidence for a 
west-coast route, to the exclusion of more central lines of communica- 
tion. That there are elements in the ornament of New Grange not to 
be attributed to northern influence may be readily conceded. The 
saltire and lozenge are rare in Scandinavia, and these forms at New 
Grange, no doubt, represent the general extension of such ornaments to 
the west in the Bronze Age, possibly entering Ireland from the south. 
I have indicated so much when discussing the saltire and the lozenge. 1 
But here, again, as in the case of the face-type, the spiral fails to follow 
these patterns westward. 

It is true, as Mr. Evans points out, that it is on the western line, 
" rather than on the Danube and the Elbe, that we find in a continuous 
zone that Cyclopean tradition of domed chambers which is equally 
illustrated at Myceme and at New Grange." But we must remember 
that this series, if it be a series, is carried up to Scandinavia. Chamber 
graves, with passages and encircling stones, are numerous in Scandinavia. 
But the spiral has not been carried on these monuments to Scandinavia. 
There are differences of types on the way, and it is remarkable that the 
examples most closely resembling those at Mycenae and in Caria should 
be found so far away as Ireland and the Orkneys. If the form of this 
class of monuments represents a primitive and widely spread hut-type, 
it is possible that the connexions between the sepulchral monuments 
are not so direct as has been generally assumed. That there is evidence 
of intercourse between the Iberian West and Britain and Ireland in the 
Stone and Bronze Ages, is generally accepted. But the difficulty I find 
in regarding the New Grange spirals as having been carried on stone by 
the West Mediterranean route is, that the examples in the Canary Islands, 
if we venture to include the latter in the group, as also those at Gavrinis, 

1 The ornament on an urn of late form found near Joppa, Edinburgh, strongly 
recalls the painted geometric patterns of Cypriote pottery. Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., 
vol. xvi., p. 423. 


show the exhaustion of the motive, and we are compelled, if we take 
Gavrinis as an intermediate station, to look on the spirals at New Grange 
as an ascending series in fact, a local development reascending the 
higher forms of the motive. It seems to me to be more reasonable to 
regard the higher forms of spirals at New Grange as an extension of the 
higher forms of the series so widely distributed in the Scandinavian 

Mr. Evans is clearly influenced by the consideration that the spiral 
first appears on stone. As he remarks, " the important feature to observe 
is that here (Egypt), as in the case of the early ^iEgean examples, the 
original material on which the spiral ornament appears is stone, and that 
so far from being derived from an advanced type of metal work, it goes 
back in Egypt to a time when metal was hardly known." I have 
already expressed dissent from the inference that the spiral is therefore 
original on stone. Professor Petrie's discoveries at Naquada show that 
between the VI. and XI. Dynasties, the spiral was a frequent form of 
decoration on the pottery of the non-Egyptian race. Professor Petrie 
attributes the spiral in this instance to a conventional representation of 
blotched limestone breccia used for stone vases. But however the case 
may be for the earlier ^Egean spiral, it appears to me that the main 
impulse of the Mycenae spirals is derived from the painted decorations of 
the XVIIL-XIX. Dynasties of Egypt. But even if this be not 
accepted, it is pretty generally agreed that the main body of the spiral 
decoration of Mycenae is to be placed between the 15th and the 12th 
centuries B.C., and that it is from the spiral ornament of that period 
that the spirals of Scandinavia have been derived. 1 Now, the fact 
that the zone of Cyclopean domed chambers extends to Scandinavia, 
and that the spiral has not been carried to the north on these 
monuments, together with the fact that the monuments inscribed 
with the spiral form numerically a small minority, and, further, 
that the spiral and other ornaments are placed on the stones of such 
monuments as have them in a most haphazard way, strongly suggest the 
idea, I think, that the incised ornaments have not been developed on the 
monuments or carried on them as a tradition, but, on the contrary, have 
been transferred to the monuments from other objects. 

The question has now to be faced of the transference of the Scandi- 
navian spirals in metal, to stone in Ireland. I have dealt partly with 
this difficulty in section vin. of my Paper in this Journal^ 1896, Part i. 

In architecture the transference of painted and textile patterns to 
stone is a commonplace. But we can give a particular answer from 
Scandinavia. The carvings of ships so numerous on the rock- surf aces of 

1 The Scandinavian spirals, in several instances, appear to be closer to the Mycenae 
spirals than those of the Hungarian area. It is possible that excavations along the 
eastern slopes of the Carpathians would throw some additional light on the subject. 


Sweden are rarely found on stone in Denmark. Rock -surf aces do not, 
it is true, crop up in the latter country, but the ship motive is frequent 
on bronze in Denmark. It is from the examples in bronze that rock- 
carvings in Sweden are decided to be Bronze Age. Again, it is an 
over- statement to say that the spiral is not found in the Scandinavian 
rock-carvings. It is no doubt relatively rare, but its occurrence is 
sufficiently marked to be included in the following general description of 
rock-carvings near Norrkoping in Sweden " Ces figures representant 
des homines, des chevaux, des epees, des boucliers, des na vires, des 
ecuelles, des spirales simples et doubles etc.," and to be used as an 
argument for the age of the sculptures " les epees, les boucliers et les 
spirales rapellent tellement 1'age du bronze, que M. Hildebrand croit 
avec beaucoup de raison que les sculptures en question appartiennent a 
cet age" (Bmzelius, Cong. Prehist. Stockholm, vol. i. p. 475). More- 
over, if the spiral is rare on the Swedish rocks, concentric circles are 
numerous. The concentric circles cannot here be regarded as the de- 
generation of the comparatively rare spiral on the rocks. It must be 
considered to represent the degeneration of the bronze spiral which, 
towards the close of the early Bronze Period in Scandinavia is constantly 
replaced by concentric circles, and it is to this period that the general 
evidence of the rock-carvings is related. 

This argument gains greatly in force when we take into consideration 
the positive evidence concerning the British and Irish monuments. The 
carving at New Grange will, I think, be generally conceded to be Bronze 
Age. It is not merely a question of the spiral. The manner in which 
the lozenges are in several instances halved and quartered, the parts 
being contrasted by the picking out of alternate triangles is characteris- 
tically Bronze Age, and represents in stone the contrasting of triangular 
spaces by hatching, so general in bronze ornament. Now, this feature is 
not a stone tradition, it cannot be traced on the monuments. On the 
contrary, it seems to be a direct translation from bronze and pottery. 
In fact, chevron, triangle, lozenge, and saltire patterns represent the 
common stock of Bronze Age ornament in the west of Europe. These 
forms have not been carried on stone, but have clearly been transferred 
to stone at New Grange from bronze, pottery, and, no doubt, wood- 
carving. But the attribution of the British and Irish monuments to the 
Bronze Period does not rest on the character of the ornament alone. 
The abundant evidence of cremation at Loughcrew, the Calder circle, a 
Bronze Age type, the discovery of Bronze Age urns in incised cists (as 
at Cunninghar) all point to the same conclusion. 

If, then, the spiral in Ireland and Britain is Bronze Age, I do not 
see that it is possible to dissociate it from the body of Bronze Age spiral 
ornament, and to refer it to the West Mediterranean route along which 
the spiral is a failing quantity. Such reference introduces the difficulty, 
as I have already said, of having to consider the New Grange spirals as 


an ascending series. On the contrary, the spiral series in Ireland is a 
descending series; the spiral is going out at Dowth, Loughcrew, and 

The absence of the spiral in bronze in Ireland is certainly a gap in 
the evidence. But we must recollect that the bronze remains in our 
museums are but the merest fraction of what once existed. It would not 
be possible from the great collection of the Royal Irish Academy to equip 
one hundred men with a full complement of swords and spears, although 
the collection represents many centuries of bronze manufacture. I have 
already drawn attention to the fact that but for the exception of a 
solitary example to the contrary, we might argue that incised concentric 
circle ornament was unknown on Irish gold objects. Yet the richness of 
the decoration of concentric circles of this solitary Irish example (charac- 
teristically Irish in form) is such that we may fairly infer that incised 
concentric circle ornament was frequently applied to Irish gold objects. 

The conclusive argument for derivation from the Scandinavian side 
does not, however, rest on conjectural or negative evidence. It must be 
insisted on that the argument does not rest solely, or now mainly, on the 
spiral. It cannot be merely a coincidence that the forms outside of the 
spiral to which I have drawn attention at New Grange (figs. 60 and 62, 
Journal, 1896, pp. 47, 49) cannot be traced on the Mediterranean route, 
but are fully in place on the Scandinavian side. ^Moreover, the manner 
in which the spiral gives way at Loughcrew simultaneously with the 
appearance of rayed concentric circles and wheel forms (which likewise 
cannot be traced on the Mediterranean route) furnishes too close a 
parallel to the change in ornament from the earlier to the later Bronze 
Ages of Scandinavia to be explained on other grounds than that of 
influence from the Scandinavian side. GEORGE COFFEY, M.E.I. A. 

Battle of Dysert O'Dea. Can any of our Members suggest a source 
for the legend of the battle of Dysert O'Dea, Co. Clare, which recently 
appeared in the Illustrograph ? The Irish are said to have planted bul- 
rushes in the marsh to lure the Normans into the quagmire, under the 
belief that these plants only grew in firm ground. This legend was not 
found by O'Donovan and 0' Curry when they so carefully examined the 
district and peasantry in 1839 ;;jior by me in 1891, though I took much 
pains to sift the legends of the battle. It does not occur in the written 
accounts, and is precluded by the unexpected appearance of De Clare 
before Dysert, as recorded in " The Wars of Torlough." 

There is a steady growth of sham legends, stimulated by tourists and 
by the inquiries made for the recent Ordnance Survey. The results 
ought to be carefully guarded against by the antiquary and collector of 
folk-lore, and if the "bulrush" legend is a mere modern invention (as 
seems probable), it ought to be so noted. T. J. W. 



Currin Crannog, Co. Tyrone. In the townland of Currin, between 
Eglish and Benburb, is a small lough less than a mile in circumference. 
It contains an island which, for some time, I have believed to be a 
erannog. - To test the truth of my supposition I lately paid it a visit, in 
company with Mr. Christopher I. Hobson (Member}. The island is 
circular, and is about 45 yards in circumference. It stands in the 
centre of the lough, and it rises almost perpendicularly from the bottom, 
as the water all around is exceedingly deep. Here and there the soil 
has been washed away by the action of the waves, and this enabled us 
to see plainly several horizontal logs, which evidently form part of a 
number that go all round the outside of the structure, and prove it to 
be a crannog. The island is covered with small trees and brambles, and 
its surface is less than three feet higher than the level of the lough. 
But the lough was once higher than at present, as a drain, which forms 
the outlet, has evidently been deepened. 

A neighbouring farmer states that, some time ago, a considerable 
number of logs were removed from the island. Besides this, a quantity 
of bones were found there, among which was a skull with long hair 
attached. Moreover, a small quern was discovered in the immediate 
vicinity of the lake. 

We had no means of digging, and were, therefore, unable to make a 
satisfactory examination ; but the horizontal logs and a number of stakes 
that we found, which were pointed with a metal instrument, were 
enough to satisfy us that the island once contained a lake-dwelling. 
We hope, on a future occasion, by favour of Mr. James Bruce, D.L., the 
proprietor, to explore the place more thoroughly. W. T. LATIMER, 
Fellow, Hon. Local Secretary, East Tyrone. 

Baginbun Inscribed Stone. About the beginning of September I 
visited Fethard and Baginbun. The inscribed stone at Baginbun shows 
marks of recent blows of a heavy hammer, and pieces are broken off two 
corners. The earth round it had been dug away and put back again. 
Apparently the owner of the field wishes to get rid of it. If the stone 
is of any real value to antiquaries, something should be done to prevent 
its destruction. W. WARING. 

"The Kilkenny Museum.' ' The following letter has appeared in 
The Irish Builder addressed to the Editor of that paper : 

" SIR, I recently read, while abroad, in the Journal of the Royal Society of Anti- 
quaries, an extract from The Irish Builder, under the above heading, stating (1) That 
it had been proposed to * divert' from charitable purposes the small Elizabethan build- 
ing known as The Shee Alms- House, for the purpose of housing therein the Kilkenny 
Archaeological Collection ; (2) that the building was in bad repair, dark, and other- 
wise unfitted for such purposes. 


"As its owner, and a thirty-seven years' Member of the Society and of its prede- 
cessors, I beg permission to reply. (1) It was never proposed either by myself or by 
the Museum Committee well-known gentlemen of Kilkenny county and city, under 
the chairmanship of the Marquis of Ormonde (styled by your contributor ' some local 
persons ') to divert that building from charitable uses. It was, when in ruins, about 
twenty years ago, newly rebuilt (all but the walls) by me. It was then given, at a 
nominal rent of one shilling a-year for the use of the Lay Ladies' Charitable Associa- 
tion, and for the employment in it of distressed needlewomen. In 1885 the manage- 
ment was changed. About the same time the. workwomen ceased to be employed, and 
thenceforth the building (two empty rooms, each 44 feet by 22 feet) was left unused, 
except a portion of one room, for the occasional meetings of some three or four of 'the 
Committee. The roof and walls were allowed to be damaged ; blown-off slates were 
not replaced ; walls were allowed to be saturated by choked valley gutters, uncleaned 
for years, &c. The owner (living forty miles away) now required the new managers 
to take out the shilling a-year lease, and to keep in repair. They refused ; demanded 
proofs of legal title ; asked for proofs that rent had ever been paid, and, finally, locked 
the owner out of the house. Legal proceedings promptly caused their unconditional 
surrender, May, 1896. Some months later it was proposed by the (innocent) ladies 
that they should re-occupy the building on condition of housing therein the Archaeo- 
logical Collection, while retaining in the building sufficient room for their Committee 
meetings, and receiving from the Museum Committee a contribution in money for 
their charity ; the Museum Committee Undertaking, besides, all charges for insurance, 
keeping in repair, &c. This offer being declined, the ladies were (December, 1896) 
formally offered the sole use of the building under a new management. This offer 
was not accepted ; and then, and then only, it was agreed to let the rooms (always 
subject to the above-named charitable contribution) to the Museum Committee a 
project still under the consideration of the Royal Society of Antiquaries^ With 
respect to the internal arrangement of the house (for which the owner was responsible 
in a pecuniary sense only), the upper room, having a coved wood-sheeted roof, 18 feet 
high, is well lighted by six windows in the gable walls. This room, 12 feet above 
the ground lloor, is what your contributor has styled ' the attic story ' ! The ground 
floor room is dark, but can be abundantly lighted by breaking three or more windows 
in its external side wall. This is about to be done. The outcome of the controversy, 
you, Mr. Editor, mention, is this : The house has been closed for sixteen months, the 
sole cause being a claim by the late management to dictate the terms of re-occupation 
by the ladies. That claim has now been allowed to lapse. The ladies have asked to 
resume occupation on the terms not accepted by them last December ; agreeing to 
insure, to keep in repair, and to pay to lay trustees, to be nominated by owner, a rent 
equivalent to that offered to them by the Museum Committee, which amount is to be 
distributed in charity as the owner may direct. Should the ladies, however, find no 
use for these deserted work-rooms except as a meeting-place for a few Committee 
members, they will do well to consider that, at a meeting of the Kilkenny Members of 
the Eoyal Society of Antiquaries, 15th April, 1897, it was unanimously agreed that, 
with the trifling alteration now about to be made, the building was well suited for 
housing the Kilkenny Antiquarian Collection. That meeting was attended by clergy 
(of both denominations) as well as by gentlemen representing antiquarian literature, 
architecture, and the fine arts. 

"I am, sir, &c., 





[NOTE. Those Works marked * are by Members of the Society."] 

Beauties and Antiquities of Ireland. Being a Tourist's Guide to its most 
beautiful Scenery, and an Archaeologist's Manual for its most interest- 
ing ruins. By T. 0. Russell. (London : Messrs. Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Trubner & Co., 1897.) 

THE motto of our Society might be appropriately taken from the first 
line of O'Heeren's Topography : " An increase of the knowledge of holy 
Ireland." As such, every work tending to make our island better known 
carries with it good credentials in its favour. In this spirit we took up 
the book, finding it excellently printed, beautifully illustrated, and in 
all respects a worthy sample of the work of the great firm whose imprint 
it bears. True it is that several of the views are from the picturesquely 
inaccurate visions of Irish scenery by Bartlett, whose artistic tastes 
entirely overpowered his sense of the accurate. With the author's state- 
ment of his views as to the requirements of his work we thoroughly 
coincide ; and his comment on many previous writers is but too just 
" Wherever they touch on matters connected with history and antiquity 
they are so often incorrect and misleading that the books they have 
published may ... be said to be useless." We were, therefore, ready 
to concede the claims of the title-page, but now, to our sorrow, find our 
position quite the reverse of the ancient prophet, and are compelled to 
criticise where we were prepared to praise. We shall, however, con- 
fine ourselves to the merest statement of fact. 

It is with feelings akin to dismay that we read passage after passage 
in the style of those popular histories, of some seventy years since, which 
did so much to discredit Irish Archaeology and history with sober scholars. 
" Before the Romans raised a rude hut on the banks of the Tiber ; 
when the place where the Athenian Acropolis now stands was a bare 
rock; kings, whose names are given in Irish history, ruled at Tara" 
(p. 13). The historical certainty of the founding of the Tailtean games 
by Lugh, a thousand years before Christ (pp. 15, 275), and of the story 
of Cuchulain (p. 287) is asserted ; and, near the close of the work, we 
are asked : * * Why should Ireland have a history that goes so far back 
into the dim twilight of the past, and England have no history beyond 
the time of Caesar ? " The time has gone by for such rhetoric ; for, 
though Ireland has a past of great antiquity, its records lie not in late 
songs and fictions, that once passed for truth, but in its forts and tombs, 
its weapons and ornaments. Why then attempt, by claiming fabulous 
glories, to bring ridicule on our truer and, therefore, nobler claims ? 

We note some other statements as novel. The ornaments carved at 


Newgrange, &c. are stated to bo inscriptions, and their elucidation 
recommended because the cuneiform monuments have been read (p. 206). 
" If it had not been for the care exercised by the Board of Works during 
the last thirty years, most of the ruins of Ireland would be either entirely 
uprooted, or so marred . . . that they would have little attraction for 
any one " (p. 257). In facts and chronology this quite equals the state- 
ments on our earlier history. Archaeologists will scarcely indorse the 
author's hope that the Board of Works will put a new top on the Round 
Tower of Monasterboice after the " antique model " (p. 203) : or that the 
church and plantations at Tara may be swept away (p. 18). In the 
latter case the author is evidently unaware that the church occupies the 
site of a hideous mediaeval predecessor, and that a town stood near it 
some centuries ago. 

Leaving matters of opinion, we find many errors in matters of fact. 
A few will suffice : Caeilte, and not Finn, converses with Patrick in 
"The Colloquy" (p. 73); the " Circuit of Ireland" has not been pub- 
lished in the "Transactions of the Irish Academy" (p. 169); the 
Protestant Bishop of Limerick did not restore the " Nun's Church " at 
Clonmacnoise with Government aid (p. 106) it was done by our Society, 
by private subscription, under our then secretary, Rev. James Graves ; 
Dr. Bernard (not Barnard) did not find Grianan Aileach "levelled down 
to the ground " at the time of his restoration (p. 159) ; nor, so far as is 
recorded, was the "Book of Kells" taken by the Danes. The topo- 
graphy is, if possible, more misleading. It states that only two stone 
crosses, and those of inferior workmanship, and only three ruins stand at 
Clonmacnoise ; and that not a single inscription in the Irish language is 
visible to passers by at this place (pp. 104, 105). The Cromwellians, 
we may note, have quite enough sins to answer for, in regard to our 
antiquities, without accrediting them with cannonading O'Rorke's Tower. 
Only two ancient buildings are stated to stand at Glendalough (p. 145) ; 
nor were we aware, till we read this book, that even antiquaries had 
been able to differ about the use of "Kevin's Kitchen." Lastly, Dun 
Conor, in the Aran Isles, is said to have "a treble wall" (p. 392), 
and the neighbourhood of Galway to have little of antiquarian interest. 

We hope these and other errors maybe set right in any future edition. 
In many respects our interest and approval survive ; but we feel com- 
pelled to insert this warning lest, after the promise of accuracy given in 
the preface, but so far from being fulfilled, these errors in nearly every 
section might become a snare to those many individuals, both among 
tourists and archaeologists, who, like the customers of Autolycus, are sure 
of the truth of a matter when once they have bought it "in print." W. 

The Celtic Church of Wales. By J. W. Willis Bund. (London : D. Kutt.) 

WE can scarcely call this book a history, it is rather a series of Papers 
on the Constitution and Characteristics of the Celtic Church, and it 


covers a much larger area than the Celtic Church of "Wales, as its author 
illustrates and builds up his lectures by constant reference to the consti^ 
tution of the larger and more important sister Church in Ireland. Apart 
from the theories of the writer, our readers will not find much that is 
both new and reliable in this volume, nevertheless it is not without 
interest, for our author presents the old facts in a fresh and interesting 
way, and is never tedious. 

Our author commences his Preface with a statement which led us to 
expect better things in the chapters which follow. There he tells us that 
the publications of the ancient laws of Ireland and Wales renders a new 
survey of the Church history of these islands possible. If he had 
adhered to what seems to have been his original idea, and confined him- 
self to giving us a critical examination of the new lights which the ancient 
laws of these islands throw on the constitution of the Celtic Church, he 
would have rendered us a valuable service ; but instead of so doing, he 
makes a succession of sweeping assertions, built on either the most 
shadowy foundations, or on no foundation whatever. How are we to 
criticise a book which indulges in statements such as the following : " It 
is not, as has been said, that the religion of Wales was Christianity with 
a veneer of Paganism, it was really Paganism with a veneer of Christi- 
anity " (see p. 17) ? What proof does he offer us of the statement made 
on p. 23, that, on the death of St. Patrick, "Ireland relapsed into 
Paganism," and u that it was from Wales the missionaries came who 
reconverted the country " ; and that u when Christianity again prevailed 
it approached nearer to Paganism than ever"? Can it be that these 
assertions are founded on the mere fact that, as Lanigan says, "a great 
intercourse was kept up between the religious persons of Ireland and 
those of both Great Britain and Brittany ; so that while Irishmen 
repaired to either of the latter countries, many pious Britons used to 
spend a great part of their time in Ireland " ? [we ourselves have found 
a trace of one of these old British visitors while rambling over a remote 
part of the county Carlow, in the little unrecorded oratory of Ard- 
Britain] or was it the well-known friendship that existed between 
St. David, Bishop of Menevia, and St. Aidan, or Maidoc, Bishop of 
Perns, which originated this idea of a Welsh mission to convert the 
Irish to Christianised Paganism. Nor do our author's remarkable 
discoveries end here. He tells us, on p. 162, that "morality, in the 
modern sense of the term, was never a characteristic of Celts." Here 
we are at once prepared to join issue with him as far as Ireland is con- 
cerned. We fear he is labouring under a difficulty which is very 
common to members of the Anglo-Saxon race, who seem quite unable 
to realise that a civilization can exist which may be quite unlike their 
civilization, and a morality may exist amid circumstances which would 
be very distressing to sensitive nerves of the Anglo-Saxon Mrs. Grundy. 
We would point him to the poor hovels on our west coast, and tell him 


that he will find the sternest morality there amid surroundings that he 
would consider most unpromising. 

Our space will only allow us to notice one more of the statements 
contained in this book, that on p. 440, where we are told " the Celt soon 
found himself at a terrible disadvantage in having no person that could, 
in any way, be put forward to occupy the position the Blessed Virgin 
held in the Latin Church." Therefore the Celt " elaborated. Bridget." 
It has been said that some people are born without a sense of humour, 
and yet we venture to say that few people will read this happy thought 
without a smile. Our author has not explained to us how it came about 
that the Celt was deprived of the Blessed Virgin, so that it became 
necessary for him to elaborate St. Bridget as her rival. We suppose our 
author is serious, but it is beyond our power to treat the assertion 
seriously. We hope that the Celtic Church in Wales will yet find a 
Lanigan and a Stokes to unfold the story of the battles that it fought in 
days of old under the banner of the Cross, and guided by a large-hearted 
sympathy, and a knowledge of the civilization and culture that then 
existed, to write down, with golden pen, the stories of the lives of its 
heroes and martyrs. 

The printing of this book is excellent, and it has been brought out in 
a manner worthy of the eminent firm to whom it was entrusted. J. F. 

* Captain Cuellar's Adventures in ConacJit and Ulster, A.D. 1588. By 
Hugh Allingham, M.R.I. A., M.R.S.A.I. With an Introduction and 
Complete Translation of Cuellar's Narrative of the Spanish Armada 
and his Adventures in Ireland, by B,. Crawford, M.A., M.K.I.A. 
With Map and Illustrations. (London : Elliot Stock.) 

THIS publication in the year 1885 at Madrid of a work on the history of 
the "Invincible Armada," by Captain C. P. Duro, which contained 
several original documents of interest, had amongst others a letter 
written by Cuellar to a friend in Spain, which gave a graphic descrip- 
tion of his travels and adventures in the north-west and north of Ireland 
subsequent to his shipwreck on the coast of Sligo. He was one of the 
few individuals who reached the shore alive, and of those still fewer 
who escaped being slain, after landing, by the natives collected to plunder 
the three broken Spanish ships and eleven hundred officers and sailors 
that strewed for five miles the strand at Tredagh with the wreckage 
and debris of that unfortunate attempt at invasion, whilst endeavouring 
to reach their homes in Spanish harbours through our little-known 
western ocean. His letter tells of the inhospitable treatment he ex- 
perienced, and his dangers while making his way northward to obtain 
assistance from some Irish chieftain that might enable him to escape 
through the west of Scotland and the ports of Holland to any Spanish 
place of safety. That the letter possesses more than average importance 
is shown by its having attracted the notice and comments of Earl Ducie 


and of J. A. Fronde. Professor O'Reilly also read a description of it 
before the Royal Irish Academy, which is published in their Proceed- 
ings. The present translation and the comments on Cuellar' s journeys 
are due to Mr. Hugh Allingham of Ballyshannon, and to R. Crawford, 
M.A. Mr. Allingham's intimate acquaintance with the topography of 
those districts that are described by Cuellar has enabled him to trace 
with his usual discrimination the exact route he followed, and so eluci- 
date a period of Irish local history and politics full of interest. The 
narrative recounts how a foreign visitor was thrown ashore in a state of 
complete destitution, plundered of everything he possessed, naked and 
wounded ; he wandered, and was often ill-treated by the native Irish, 
and barely escaped worse treatment from the soldiers of Elizabeth. 

At present when many inducements are being tried to attract tourists 
to visit our remoter districts, it will add additional interest to the route 
from Sligo to Bundoran, and from that northwards to the Causeway, to 
recall the scene of those disastrous shipwrecks of three Armada vessels 
on the rock still called Carrig na Spaniagh and on Tredagh's disastrous 
strand ; and to see still standing amidst the scenic beauties of Lough 
Melvin on its southern shores, near the village of Kinlough, the watergirt 
castle, the home of an Irish chief tain, where Cuellar at last obtained tem- 
porary rest and refuge with permission for himself and a few companions 
to defend themselves against Elizabeth's soldiers, whilst his Irish host 
had to fly for safety to the woods and mountains, which were safer for 
him and his family than stone walls ; then we can follow his route as 
he went northwards, until after many adventures he managed to embark 
near the Causeway and reach the west of Scotland, and so obtain ship- 
ping for the Continent. Still misfortune appears to have followed him ; 
he had hoped to reach Flanders, but his treacherous sea captain meant 
to deliver him a prisoner at Dunkirk. Another shipwreck took place, 
and once more Cuellar escaped from being drowned to find himself 
amongst foes as before, naked and destitute. Few of the unfortunate 
Spaniards in the wrecked vessel who managed to land had their lives 
spared by the Dutch soldiers into whose hands they fell. How Cuellar 
survived, and finally reached Antwerp, he does not state. We cordially 
recommend this work for its sterling interest, and the information it 
affords of Irish habits and life at this period of our history. W. F. 

* Ulster Biographies relating chiefly to the Rebellion of 1798. By W. T. 
Latimer, B.A., Fellow and Local Secretary, R. S.A.I. ; Author of a 
History of the Irish Presbyterians, &c. 

THIS interesting series of lives of Ulstermen who were implicated in the 
unhappy times of 1798, deserves u large circulation. As a contribution 
to local Irish history it is well written, and shows the unfortunate 
results of secret combinations for the attempted removal of admitted 
disabilities and grievances such as they resented. It is published by 
J. Cleeland and by W. Mullan & Son, Belfast, and deserves careful perusal. 

( 261 ) 

PUESUANT to Notice, the THIED GENEEAL MEETING of the 49th Yearly 
Session of the Society was held in Lismore Castle, Co. Waterford 
(by permission of the Honorary President), on Saturday, 12th June r 
1897, at 3 o'clock, p.m. ; 

Rev. J. E. M. FFBENCH, M.E.I. A., Vice-President, Munster, in the Chair. 

The CHAIEMAN, having made some remarks on the very successful 
and happy antiquarian cruise of S.S. " Caloric," in which so many 
of those present had heen engaged, proceeded to say : On the 
part of the lloyal Society of Antiquaries, may I say how pleased 
we are to find ourselves in historic Lismore, a place of so many 
hallowed and romantic memories. Looking back as we Antiquaries 
and historians are bound to do along the corridors of time, we see 
an ancient Celtic saint some twelve hundred years ago founding 
here one of the great public schools for which Ireland was at one 
time famous, and a monastery which was considered a suitable place 
of retreat for religious meditation for kings and princes a notable seat of 
learning and art which was able even at as late a period as the twelfth 
century to produce such a beautiful object of Celtic workmanship as the 
Lismore Crosier and which, thanks to a safe hiding place in the thickness 
of the castle walls, has, along with the Book of Lismore, been preserved 
to our own times. Nor does the romance of Lismore at all cease with 
the Celtic period. The older portion of these castle walls erected on the 
peaceful site of the great foundation of St. Carthagh, if they could speak, 
might tell us of many a stirring scene from the time that Prince John 
set up the Royal Standard here, and the Celtic princes made many an 
effort to regain their own. In the course of years this site passed back 
again into ecclesiastical hands and was once more alienated, when it was 
sold to one of the most interesting and romantic characters of the 
Elizabethan period, the celebrated Sir Walter Ealeigh, who has left to us 
an undying monument in that tobacco and potatoes which few of us 
despise. We can imagine him walking over this ancient ground arrayed in 
all the gorgeous apparel of rich silk and satin, and seed pearl embroidery, 
in which pictures of his own time have handed him down to us, nor was 
his successor a less striking character, the able and accomplished llichard 
Boyle, Earl of Cork, the most successful of the Elizabethan adven- 
turers who sought and found a fortune in this island, and whose more 
distinguished son llobert Boyle was born here. Prom the noble family 
of Boyle this castle passed to its present princely owners and to our noble 
Hon. President, to whose courtesy and kindness we are indebted for the 
use of the beautiful hall in which we are assembled. We shall now 
take up the stated business of the meeting. 


The following Fellows, Members, and Associates took part in the 
Excursion and Proceedings; ,. ^ . .- . . v*. 


Barry, Eev. Edmund, P.P., M.R.I. A., 
Son. Local Secretary for Cork. 

Buick, Eev: Dr., Cullybackey, Vice- 

Cochrane, Mr. E., F.S.A., Hon. Secretary. 

Ewart, Mr. L. M., J.P., Belfast. 

ffrench, Eev. J. F. M., M.U.I.A., Clone- 
gal, Vice- President. 

Greene, Dr. G. E., j. p., Ferns. 

Kirker, Mr. S. K., C.E., Belfast. 

Lynch, Mr. P. J., C.E., Limerick. 

Martyn, Mr. E., D.L., Ardrahan, Vice- 

Milligan, Mr. Seaton F., M.R.I. A., Bel- 
fast, Vice- President. 

Munro, Dr. E., F.S.A., Hon. Fellow, 

Murphy, Mr. Michael M., Kilkenny. 

Power, Eev. P., Waterford. . 

Vigors, Col. P. D., J.P., Bagenalstown, 
Vice- President. - 

Westropp, Mr. Thomas J., C.E., Dublin. 

Wilson, Mr. W. W., C.E., Dublin. 

Wright, Prof. Edward Perceval, M.D., 


Bennett, Mr. Joseph H., Cork. 

Bermingham, Mr. P. T., Kingstown. 

Bowman, Mr. Davys, Belfast. 

Bros, Mr. W. Law, London. 

Buggy, Mr. M., Solicitor, Kilkenny. 

Carolan, Mr. John, J.P., Dublin. 

Clark, Dr. G. W. 0. F., Downpatrick. 

Coleman, Mr. James, Southampton. 

Cowan, Mr. W. S. P., Belfast. 

Cunningham, Miss M., Glencairn, Bel- 

Cunningham, Miss L., Glencairn, Bel- 

Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd, F. s. A., 

Donnelly, Mr. P. J., Dublin. 

Fleming, the Very Eev. Horace Town- 
send, Dean of Cloyne. 

Fogarty, Mr. Eobert, C.E., Limerick. 

Hayes, Mr. T., c.i., R.I.C., Limerick. 

Higinbotham, Mr. Granby, Belfast. 

Higgins, Eev. Michael, c.c., Uueens- 

Houston, Eev. B. C. Davidson, Dublin. 

Keane, The Lady, Cappoquin. 

Keane, Miss, Cappoquin. 

Kenny, Mr. Patrick, Clontarf. 

Kermode, Mr. P. M., Bamsay, Isle of 

Lett, Eev. H. W., M.A., M.R.i.A.,Lough- 

Lindesay, Eev. W. O'N., Newtown- 

Lismore, the Very Eev. the Dean of. 

Lowe, Mr. W. Eoss Lewin, St. Albans. 

Mac Crum, Mr. E. G., j. p., Armagh. 
Mac Knight, Mr. J. Belfast. 
Mac Laren, Mr. John, Strabane. 
Mahony, Mr. T. H., Cork. 
Mains, Mr. John, J.P., Coleraine. 
Mayne, Mr. Thomas, Dublin. 
O'Farrel, Dr. Edward P., Dublin. 
O'Leary, Eev. E.,' P.P., Moyvalley, 

O'Leary, Eev. John, P.P., Ballyferriter, 


O'Eeilly, Mr. P. J., Dublin. 
Phillips, Mr. J. J., C.E., Belfast. 
Eedmond, Dr. O'C., Cappoquin. 
Eichardson, Miss, Portrush. 
Shackleton, Mr. George, Lucan. 
Shackleton, Mrs., Lucan. 
Simpson, Mr. W. M., Belfast. 
Simpson, Mrs., Ballymena. 
Small, Mr. J. H., Solicitor, Newry. 
Smith, Mr. S. A. Quan-, Bullock Castle, 


Smyth, Mrs., Dublin. 
Stirrup, Mr. Mark, Bowden, Cheshire. 
Strangeways, Mr. W. N., Dublin. 
Tempest, Mr. W., J.P., Dundalk. 
Truell, Dr. H. P., D.L., Ashford, 


Turtle, Mr. F. L., Aghalee, Lurgan. 
Ussher, Mr. E. J., J.P., Lismore. 
White, Mr. W. Grove, Solicitor, Dublin. 
White, Mr. John Newsom, M.R.I.A., J.P., 

Williams, Mr. W. D., C.E., Waterford. 




Bennett, Mr. Charles A., Cork. 
Bowman, Miss, Belfast. 
Brown, Prof. G. Baldwin, Edinburgh. 
Brown, Mr. W., J.P., Chester. 
Corcoran, Miss, Button, Surrey. 
Cowan, Mr. \V., Jun., Belfast. 
Ewart, Mrs., Belfast. 
Ewart, Mr. Clement C., Belfast. 
Ewart, Mr. Ernest, Belfast. 
Kirke, Mr. Henry, Belfast. 
Mac Crum, Miss, Armagh. 
MacLanahan, Dr. J. G., Gloucester. 
Mac Lehose, Mr. Robert, Glasgow. 
MacLehose, Mrs., Glasgow. 
Mac Lehose, Miss, Glasgow. 
MacLehose, Dr. Norman, London. 

Manning, Mr. Percy, M. A., F.S.A., Oxford. 

Morrogh, Mr. Henry H., Cork. 

Nevin, Mr. Henry, Belfa'st. 

O'Farrel, Miss, Dublin. 

Penny, Rev. James, Wispington Vicarage, 


Pritchard, Miss, London. 
Reade, Mr., Belfast. 
Riddell, Miss, Armagh. 
Sessions, Mr. Herbert, M.A., Gloucester. 
Simpson, Rev. W. B., Ballymena. 
Stewart, Rev. Joseph, Lisburn. 
Strype, Mr. W. G., C.E., Dublin. 
Taylor, Mr. A. G., M.A., Derby. 
Townend. Miss K., Croydon. 
Webster, Mr. W., Solicitor, St. Helens. 

The Minutes of last Meeting were read by the Hon, Secretary, and 

The following Fellows and Members were elected : 


Gillman, Herbert Webb, B.A. (Dub.), Barrister-at-Law (Lincoln's Inn), J.P. (Member, 
1891), Clonteadmore, Coachford, Co. Cork: proposed by Cecil C. Woods, Fellow. 


Bermingham, Patrick Thomas, Glengariff House, Adelaide-road, Glenageary : proposed 

by Thomas Drew, R.H.A., Vice -President. 

Bestick, Robert, 5, Frankfort-avenue, Rathgar : proposed by John Carolan, J.P. 
Boyle, Rev. Joseph, St. Ernan's Seminary, Letterkenny : proposed by the Rev. J . 

E. McKenna, c.c. 
Concannon, Thomas, 14, Calle de San Augustin, Mexico : proposed by Seaton F. 

Milligan, M.H.I.A., Vice- President. 
Doyle, M. J., National School, Windgap, Co. Kilkenny: proposed by the Rev. 

William Healy, P.P. 

Foley, John E., M.D., Kilrush, Co. Clare : proposed by Bartholomew O'Hennessy. 
Kelly, Martin, Chancery Division, Four Courts, Dublin : proposed by J. P. Swan, 

Langrishe, Mrs., Knocktopher Abbey, Co. Kilkenny : proposed by Major J. H. 

Connellan, D.L. 
Read, Miss, 3, Lower Merrion-street, Dublin : proposed by W. F. Wakeman, Hon. 


Roche, H. J., Slaney-place, Enniscorthy : proposed by N. Furlong, L.R. C.P.I. 
Russell, David, Knockboy, Broughshane, Co. Antrim : proposed by Seuton F. Milligan, 

M.R.I. A., Vice -President. 

Shackleton, Abraham, 23, Garville-road, Rathgar : proposed by J. E. Palmer. 
Teague, Bernard, Enniskillen : proposed by the Rev. J. E. McKenna, c.c. 


On the motion of the Hon. Secretary, seconded by Mr. W. Grove 
White, the following Report of the Council was unanimously adopted : 

"That a Notice of Motion at the Kilkenny Meeting, relating to the Museum 
at Kilkenny, having been handed in by Mr. Langrishe, it is not brought forward 
by the Council, as they deem it is not in accordance with the General Rules of the 
Society : the management of the business of the Society being placed in the 
Council, and the subject-matter of the notice being at present the subject of a 
correspondence with the Science and Art Department. The Council propose to 
bring a Report on the whole subject before the General Meeting in January 

The following Paper was read by the Chairman : 

" On a Stone Lake-Dwelling situated in Lough Skannive, Co. Galway," by Edgar 
L. Layard, C.M.G. 

This Paper was referred to the Councdl for publication with the 
following, which was taken as read : 

" On Gold Penannular Rings found in Ireland : their ratio of weight and probable 
origin," by W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., Vice- President. 

On the motion of the Rev. Dr. Buick, Vice-President, a cordial vote 
of thanks was proposed to Mr. Seaton F. Milligan, M.E.I. A., Vice-Pre- 
sident andJ7<w. Provincial Secretary for Ulster, for his successful exertions 
in carrying out the sea-trip in connexion with that Meeting. 

The Rev. Dr. Buick said, as the Chairman had admirably put it, they 
had had a successful and happy tour, and the success and the happiness 
were due to their friend Mr. Milligan, who organised the trip and carried 
it so successfully to an issue. He had great pleasure in proposing that 
the heartiest thanks of that meeting be given to Mr. Milligan for all he 
had done in connexion with the tour. He might mention that he 
regarded this vote of thanks as simply the preliminary to a more formal 
recognition of his services by the Council in a more fitting way. 

Mr. E. Martin, D. L., Vice-President for Connaught, seconded the 
proposition, which was put by the Chairman, and passed with accla- 

Mr. Milligan, in responding, said : A few years ago it occurred to 
him there were antiquities on the outskirts of Ireland not accessible by 
ordinary routes, and if they could explore and describe them, they would 
be doing a service, not alone to Irish archeology, but to archaeology all 
over the kingdom. Their Society had been the first to undertake such a 
large order as to charter a large steamship and take about a hundred 
people around the coast, and he did hot think there was anything left 
undone to make the cruise a most enjoyable one. He thought they could 
not have finished their tour in ; a more charming or beautiful spot, and he 
believed that their Honorary 1'resident, the Duke of Devonshire, would 


have been with them that day were he not absent in London in connexion 
with the Jubilee celebration. Coming around the south of Ireland, as a 
Northerner, he found the people extremely nice and courteous, with 
a true nobility of manner which was a credit to their country. He felt- 
prouder of his country that day than he ever did before. 

On the motion of Col. Vigors, seconded by the Eev. Mr. Lett, a cor- 
dial vote of thanks was passed to His Grace the Duke of Devonshire for 
permitting them to meet in his castle, and for the valuable support he had 
given the Society. The thanks of the Meeting were also tendered to 
Mr. Penrose (His Grace's agent), and Mr. Ussher, Son. Local Secretary, 
Co. Waterford, for carrying out the arrangraents for the visit to Lismore. 

This concluded the business of the Meeting, and the Members scru- 
tinised with keen interest the historic Book of Lismore, which, with the 
Crosier of Lismore, were found, some years ago, built up in a recess of an 
ancient wall of the castle. Subsequently the party were entertained to 
afternoon tea and other refreshments in the dining-room, after which they 
proceeded to the drawing-room and enjoyed the magnificent panoramic 
view available from its windows, and they strolled through the garden 
under the guidance of Mr. Penrose. They paid a visit to St. Mochuda's 
Cathedral, where they were received by the Very Rev. the Dean of 
Lismore, after which they returned by special train to Waterford, and 
rejoining the S.S. " Caloric," slept on board until next morning, when 
they steamed for Kingstown, where the company dispersed that evening. 



IN accordance with the wish expressed by the Members who took part 
in the cruise around the north-west coast to Galway in 1895, and rati- 
fied at the Annual General Meeting of the Society in January, 1897, it was 
arranged to continue the excursion around Ireland, commencing at the 
Aran Islands, in Galway Bay, and sailing along the south-west and 
south coast of Ireland to Waterford Harbour, taking in the coast-line 
of the whole of the Province of Munster. 

The S.S. " Caloric," which gave such satisfaction on the former 
occasion, was chartered, with the same officers and crew, and started 
from Belfast on Whit-Monday, 7th of June, at 10.30 a.m., direct for 
Galway Bay, where the cruise proper commenced. 


MONDAY, 7th June, 1897. 

The " Caloric" left Donegall Quay, Belfast, at 10.30 a.m. Members leaving Dublin 
by the Limited Mail on the morning of that day arrived in Belfast in time for the 

TUESDAY, 8th June, 1897. 

Arrived at Aran Islands on Tuesday, 8th of June, at 10 a.m., where the "Caloric'* 
was joined by the Members travelling via Galway. Some hours were spent on 
. the North island, and, at 3 p.m., the ship proceeded south, along the coast of 
Clare, with a fine view of the Cliffs at Loop Head ; anchored opposite Scattery 
Island, at the mouth of the Shannon, at 7 p.m., and landed, in ship's boats, to 
examine the Round Tower and Churches on Innis Scattery. 

WEDNESDAY, 9th June, 1897. 

Left the mouth of the Shannon at 5 a.m. for Sinerwick Harbour, arriving there at 

9 a.m. Landed, in the ship's boats, for Kilmalkedar, Caherdorgan, and Gallerus, 
all of extreme antiquarian interest. Vehicles were in readiness to bring the 
party to Doonbeg Fort and "the ruined city of Fahan," by the coast road, and 
on to Ventry Harbour, where the steamer was rejoined. 

THURSDAY, 10th June, 1897. 

Left Ventry Harbour at 6 a.m. for the Skelligs, and arrived tbere at 8 a.m. ; visited 
Skellig Michael (St. Michael's Rock), Bee-hive Huts, and primitive Church, and 
other objects and sites of great antiquity. After leaving Skellig Rock at 1 p.m., 
sailed to Kenmare river, and landed near Derrynane Abbey, the residence of the 
O'Connell family, and drove to Staigue Fort, one of the most remarkable cashels 
in Ireland. Anchored in Derrynane Bay on Thursday night. 

FRIDAY, llth June, 1897. 

Started from Derrynane about 4 a.m., for Queenstown Harbour, arrived there at 10 a.m., 
visited Cloyne Cathedral, and Round Tower. Queenstown Cathedral was also 
visited. Vehicles were in readiness to convey the party from Aghada to Cloyne 
and back, and, on the return journey, the Castlemartyr Cromlech was visited. 
Many of the Members visited Cork in the evening, and the steamer left at 

10 p.m. 

SATURDAY, 12th June, 1897. 

Arrived at Waterford at 8 a.m. Left by 9.40 a.m. train for Cappoquin, where vehicles 
were provided for an excursion in the neighbourhood, at 11.30; the drive was to 
Cluttahina Hill to inspect the fine rath and souterrain and fine panoramic view 
of the county ; next, to the Round Hill, through the Blackwater valley, to 
inspect the ancient moats and defence works, arriving at Lismore at 2 p.m., in 
time for lunch. Meeting of the Society was held, at 3 p.m., in the Castle. The 
Cathedral at Lismore, also the Castle and grounds, overlooking the Blackwater, 
the seat of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, were visited. Left Lismore for 
"Waterford by special train at 6 o'clock p.m. The party slept on board the steamer 
on ,Saturday night, and arrived at ingstown on Sunday evening at 7 o'clock, 
so completing the cruise. 



MONDAY, June 7th, 1897. 

About ninety Members and Associates of the Society started from 
Belfast in the S.S. ''Caloric"; the day though cloudy and dark was 
fine, allowing us to enjoy a beautiful series of views of the cliffs, bays, 
and hills of the Antrim coast from the picturesque Cave Hill, towering 
*ibovo Belfast to the beetling and gloomy precipices at Fair Head. We 
saw Rathlin Island very clearly, and the cliffs as far as the Causeway, 
but kept out too far to sea to be able to distinguish that debateable 
ground. At this point a slight but wetting mist crossed us, so we saw 
little else that day except Malin Head and Tory Island, with the dim 
form of its Round Tower scarcely visible in the gathering dusk. 

TUESDAY. June 8th, 1897. 
"We put into Kilmurvey Bay, Aran, where a section of our party under 


Shaft of Killeany Cross, Aranmore Island, Co. Galway. 

the guidance of the Rev. P. Power landed to explore the mighty Dun 
Aenghus and the ruins in the central part of the island. The rest went 


on to Killeany, where about half-a-dozen more of our Society joined 
us in the " Duras " from Galway. Most of us landed at Kilronan, 
some to attend a bazaar (a revelation of the advance made in this 
remote island; "penitus toto divisa orbe" is here rapidly losing its 
significance), and some to see the remarkable fort of Dubh Cathair, 
the cross and castle of Killeany, and the venerable little oratory of Temple 
Benen near the last. 1 When we had re-asssembled and were safely on 
board, we passed through Gregory Sound, and a shower set in which 
spoiled our view of the beautiful Clare coast till we passed ICilkee. It 
then cleared sufficiently to let us see in their darkest magnificence the 
cliffs of Loop Head and Cuchullin's Leap. Passing up the estuary of 
the Shannon, at one time in a school of porpoises, we anchored off 
Scattery Island, where the majority of our party landed, and examined 
with great interest the Round Tower and five churches there remaining 
(see pp. 276-286). 

WEDNESDAY, June 9th, 1897. 

We had started at earliest dawn and found ourselves passing the giant 
cliffs of Brandon, a roof of cloud (about 100 feet up) only letting us form 
ideas of their magnificence through occasional breaks and funnels. The 
weather, however, steadily improved; the clouds moved up the hills, and we 
had fine summer weather for the rest of the day. We visited the deeply 
interesting ruins at Kilmalkedar, Caherdorgan, and Gallerus ; thence we 
drove across the sandy warrens, through a shallow stream, past the 
ancient enclosures, monoliths, and carved cross of Reask, and " Bally - 
wihen " church, of which we shall soon possess a full account. Up 
wilder and wilder mountain slopes till we gained the top of the 
pass and saw the beautiful bay of Ventry far below. We visited on 
our way the picturesque castle of Rahinnane (it has been described in 
the Journal, 1854-5, pp. 393-4, by Richard Hitchcock). The ruins con- 
sist of the west wall and portion of the sides of a massive square turret ; 
the lower story vaulted, with flights of stairs in the thickness of the 
walls. The corbelling and arches of the upper rooms are noteworthy, 
and the battlements bold and characteristic ; it stands in the ring of a 
large and well-preserved earthen fort, with a fosse and lofty rampart in 
which a souterrain opens towards the south-west. The rest of the day 
was spent most pleasurably among the numerous forts and huts of the 
ancient city of Pahan (see pp. 300-306). The wonderful beauty of the 
situation on the steep slopes of the great Mount Eagle, and the endless 
interest and variety of the remains made most of us wish for a whole 
day to spend in this lonely spot. It is sad to note the irreparable damage 
done, since 1856, to these fine forts, which the wholesale rebuilding by 
the Board of Works can scarcely make good. As we examined the 
"Fort of the Wolves " the " Caloric " steamed round the point, having 

1 See our Journal, 1895, pp. 265, 266. 



given her few remaining passengers a most fascinating panorama of cliff 
scenery as she passed through Blasket Sound. We joined the ship in 
Ventry Harbour where our genial organizer, Mr. Milligan, invited an 
accomplished piper and a number of the inhabitants to spend the evening 
dancing on board. The visitors more than repaid their hosts by their 
merriment and kindliness, and left at a late hour, cheering and singing 
till they passed out of sight into the dusk, amid ripples of phosphorescent 
light, leaving, like the inhabitants of Aranmore, the most pleasant im- 
pressions on all. 

THURSDAY, June Wth, 1897. 

Making an early start in glorious weather, we steamed southward, 
seeing to great advantage the varied outlines of the Blaskets with the 

Crosses and Windows, Skellig Rock. 

great peaked rock of Tearaght, pierced by its huge natural arch. On 
the other side the many-coloured mountains and cliffs of Valentia and the 
mainland. Passing Little Skellig, every stratum of the rock beaded 
with huge gannets and tiny puffins, we beat to and fro before Great 
.Skellig, landing in the ship's boats. The venerable and nobly situated 

JOUR. R. S.A.I., VOL. VII., FT. III., OTH 8K.K. 


ruins are described on pp. 309-15 ; suffice it to tell how, when we prepared 
to leave, mists veiled the top of the peak, and it was with much .uncer- 
tainty, and, perhaps,, with some risk, that we rejoined the ship. We 
then went straight to Derrynane, examined the rude but interesting 
Aui>ustinian Monastery, and were most hospitably entertained by Daniel 
O'Connell, Esq. (grandson of "The Liberator"), and his family. We 
drove, seeing in the distance the stone fort of Cahirdaniel, and the 
church of Kilcrohane, to Staigue fort, <(i Pounda na Stayge" the natives 
call it (see pp. 316-18). Standing- on an abrupt hillock above a little 
stream, several times (Curing our stay the clouds descended and touched 
it, enveloping it in gloom and mist ; below, about a mile away, in tha 
same townland, is a remarkable rock surface marked with over twenty- 
five cup-and-ring carvings. After this day of severe toil and adventure 
by land and water, the evening was again filled in with dancing and 
music, by the equally pleasant and social inhabitants of more southern 

FKIDAY, June llth, 1897. 

Most of that morning was spent watching headland succeed headland 
round the coast of Cork. At last we passed round the fort and white 
tents of Fort Carlisle, and anchored in the beautiful haven at Queens- 
town. Some of our company, at great risk of being left behind, started 
for Blarney and Ardmore. Others spent their day with friends in Cork 
and Queenstown. The majority went to Cloyne aud passed a very 
pleasant time examining its Cathedral, Round Tower, and such relics 
as the " Pipe-Roll" of Cloyne and the seventeenth-century processional 
cross (see pp. 334-42). As we returned, we drove through the beautifully 
wooded demesne at Castle Mary, and saw its great cromlech. That 
evening we left Cork Harbour (for the bar at Waterford rendered us 
dependent on the tide), and amidst another beautiful display of phos- 
phorescence, proceeded round the coast by night. 

SATURDAY, June I2tk, 1897. 

We awoke next morning alongside the quay of the ancient Danish 
city of Waterford, and left early for Lismore, noticing the new manu- 
facture of bricks made from ground down rock, and passing through a 
pleasantly varied country, took cars again at Cappoquin. We drove first 
to Cluttahma, where we were received by Lady Keane's family, and con- 
ducted out of a wooded glen up a hill, on top of which we found a very 
interesting fort. There is an extensive and beautiful view over the 
Blackwater and Dungarvan Bay, and to Mount Melleray Abbey, and the 
Knock rnealdown Hills. 

The rath is nearly circular, a flat central space surrounded by a fosse 
and a flat-topped outer ring of earth, each mound having a low and 
slight fence round the outer edge ; near the centre is a very perfect 


souterrain, consisting of a passage 13 feet long by about 3 feet square, 
and lying S.E. and N."W. A low door of three trilithons at the southern 
end leads into a denied cell, 8 feet in diameter, and about 5i feet high. 
A trench 38 feet long lies in line with the passage, as if the latter had 
once extended so far. The hill-slopes display hut hollows, and a heap of 
ashes and calcined stones, possibly, the " midden " of the vanished village. 
Thence we returned through Cappoquin to the large earthen fort 
which gives its name to Lismore. It stands on the edge of a steep 
descent near the Blackwater, and is thickly planted. It consists of a low 
oval ring; inside this a fosre, out of which rises a great moat, divided 
into two tops; the northern, a lofty conical mound with a flat top ; the 
second , lower, and half-moon shaped, divided by a fosse from the first. It 

Cluttahina Souterrain. 

is of that remarkable type of prehistoric Celtic fort which occurs more 
commonly in N.E. Ireland, as at Derver, Co. Meath, and Dunaghy in 
Antrim. Noteworthy examples exist in Hungary and Germany ; and 
Mr. W. Borlase, in his recent work, considers that they are of the type 
of those German forts described by Tacitus as " castra ac spatia." 1 ^ 

We then lunched in the comfortable hotels of the pretty town of Lis- 
more, and held our meeting in the banqueting hall of its noble castle, 
the residence of our Honorary President, the Duke of Devonshire (for an 
account of our Meeting, see Proceedings on p. 261). After seeing the 
beautiful grounds, the Crosier, and Book of Lismore, &c., we were enter- 
tained at tea in the dining-room of the castle. We then visited the 
Cathedral under the kindly conduct of the Dean of Lismore, examined 
the handsome new Catholic Church, and left, much pleased and contented. 

We now reached the great drawback of our excursions, the break up of 

1 "Dolmens of, Ireland," iii., p. 1127. VircliOM- consideri 
fortresses, and suggests that they are the bases of Celtic temples 

1127. Vircl:ow considers these too email for 



the party ; many left us at "Waterf ord. We stayed till nearly 1 1 o'clock 
the following day (Sunday), June 13th, to enable our Members to attend 
.early services in the Catholic Cathedral, and the curious old Protestant 
church of St. Olave, with its elaborately carved oak pulpit, &c., and its 
ornamental doors. The spiritual wants of the rest of our company were 
supplied by service in the cabin, conducted by the Rev. Davidson-Hous- 
ton, assisted by the Rev. James Penny. After which we passed down 
the river, getting a fine view of Dunbrody Abbey. Here a pleasant 
function was performed, the Rev, Mr. Lett being in the chair, votes of 
thanks were passed to the captain, officers, and crew, from all of whom 

Lismore Fort. 

we had, from first to last, experienced great attention, kindness and 
help. Mr. Milliganthen distributed a more substantial expression of our 
appreciation of the services of the crew. 

So we passed the Tower of Hook, and with cool, somewhat misty 
weather, steamed up the coast of Leinster to Kingstown, where nearly 
all our Irish contingent landed, the British Members going on with the 
ship to Liverpool/ as it returned to Belfast. All retained the wealth 
of delightful recollections 'of a trip singularly free from even the least 
worries and: troubles, and, as "waaTmanifest to the dullest sight, a source 
of increased health and good spirits to all the party. 





T EAVING Aran, we go southward along the coast of Clare, past the 
terraced hills of Burren. The level space before we reach Moher 
forms the parish of Killilagh, behind which lies Lisdoonvarna, near the 
foot of Slieve Elva (1109 feet high), and also the old episcopal see of 
Kilfenora, with its ancient cathedral, noble cross, and great stone forts. 
A similar but less interesting group of cahers, seventeen in number, lies 
along the coast, ending near the round castle of Doonagore, at the northern 
extremity of Moher. We now pass these fine cliffs sheer precipices of 
shale and flagstones ; their highest points are near Aillenasharragh (Foal's 
Cliff), 503 feet; O'Brien's tower, 580 feet; the tower being a picnic 
house, made, with many roads, bridges, and other improvements, in the 
earlier part of the century, by Cornelius O'Brien of Birchfield ; the cliffs 
rise to 587 feet at Stookeen, and thence fall to 407 feet at their most 
noteworthy point, Hag's Head. This last has a beautiful natural arch, 
and, with its detached pinnacles, is, as seen from the south, not unlike a 
woman seated. John Lloyd, a Clare schoolmaster, in 1778, gives this 
quaint description in his " Impartial Tour " 2 : " On the western cape or 
headland lies the famous old fort Ruan, called Moher ... on the 
summit of a very stupendous cliff, surrounded with a stone wall, a part of 
which is up ; inside of it is a green plain ; . . . underneath this is another 
green pasture, gradually declining to the lower cliff, and which is often 
covered with the raging billows of that alarming coast. On the lower 
plain is Hag's Head, a high perpendicular rock almost parallel (sic i.e. level) 
with the upper surface ; it is closely similar to a woman's head, from which 
it is called. . . . This wonderful promontory, almost encompassed with 
devouring seas, and the opposite wild shore, really affords a horrible and 
tremendous aspect, vastly more to be dreaded than accounted for." It is 
called "Kan Kalye " on the well known Elizabethan map, annotated by 
Lord Buiieigh. The old stone fort of " Mothair ui Ruis " was destroyed 
when the telegraph tower was built at the beginning of the century. 

1 By Thomas J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.I. A. 

2 Recently republished. for private circulation. 


We next see Liscannor Bay. Tradition says that an island, with a city 
and church of St. Scioth, now submerged, lay in this bay ; a similar story of 
an imaginary " Kilstapheen " is told of a spot in the mouth of the Shannon. 
There has certainly been remarkable subsidence along this coast. Bogs 
and tree stumps are found, under the sea, at Killard, near Doonbeg ; and 
''Mac Creiche's bed" is now far out on the strand of Liscannor, 
although it may have been constructed (like Timon's) on the old beach. 1 
The case of Mutton Island, infra, is very worthy of attention. Liscannor 
Castle stands on the cliff. There Sir Tirlough O'Brien levied a great muster 
to oppose the landing of the Spanish Armada in 1588, and one of those 
ill-fated ships attempted to get a supply of water, but in vain. 2 At the 
head of the bay are the great sand hills, the reputed haunt of the fairy- 
ting Donn ; the tall castle of Dough (Dumhach, sandhill) ; and the village 
of Lehinch, with one of the best golfing links in the kingdom and an 
excellent hotel. Farther south we pass Milltown-Malbay and Spanish 
Point, and note behind it Slieve Callan (1282 feet), famous for its much 
controverted ogham: "Beneath this stone lies Conan (Conaf, Cosas, or 
Collas), the fierce and swift footed " and a very perfect cromlech. Lloyd 
says of Conan : " This gentleman was a very uncouth officer and voracious 
eater." Next we see Mutton Island, the ancient Iniscaorach ; its older 
name was Inis Pitae, and it was rent into three by a storm and tidal wave 
about 800 A.D. 3 It and the adjoining Mattle Island figure as Iniskereth 
and Inismatail, "two islands in the ocean," in a grant of Donchad Cair- 
brech O'Brien, Prince of Thomond, to the Archbishop of Cashel, in 1215 ; 
it was recently sold by the Stacpoole family for 1500. It has the 
rude stone shaft of a cross, part of the west gable of an oratory of St* 
Senan, and some very picturesque arches and caves. Behind it one of the 
Armada ships was wrecked, at Tromra, and a second in the angle of 
Malbay, at Doonbeg. Each of these places possesses a castle. Tronira, 
behind the coastguard station, is an ancient tower of the O'Briens, named 
in the 1215 grant and in the wars of 1276 and 1642 ; on the latter 
occasion it was taken and plundered in a sea expedition of the 0' Flaherties 
under romantic circumstances, told at length in an appendix to " H-Iar 
Connaught." Doonbeg and Doonmore, a short distance away, figure in 
the " Annals of the Four Masters." 

1 We find in the " Colloquy of the Ancients " (" Silva Gadelica," n., p. 201) that 
Cliodhna was huried in Teite's grave on the shore ; while the Irish Nennius mentions 
a wonderful cairn, below high-water mark, on Eothall Trawohelly, p. 199. 

2 Our Journal, 1889, p. 131. 

3 "Annals of the Four Masters," 799; in other authorities, 801 and 804. 
The new edition of Archdall's " Monasticon," Dublin, 1872, in a note on Mutton 
Island, says: "The ruins of an ancient church and ROUND TOWEH still mark the 
place" (vol. i., p. 76). This is a great mistake, as even a glance at the map might 
have shown. The "Annals of Clonmacnoise," in 801, say: "There was such 
horrible, great thunder, the next after St. Patrick's Day, that it put asunder 1010 
men between Corck Baeskynn and the land about it. The sea divided an island 
there in three parts; the seas and sands thereof did cover the earth near it." See 
also the Irish version of "Nennius," p. 207. 


The telegraph tower of Beltard caps a high cliff with notable caves ; 
we soon pass the beautiful bay and favourite watering place of Kilkee, 
and note Bishop's Island. This precipitous rock has on it a very primitive 
cell and oratory. Tradition says that a bishop once went to live on it, to 
escape the task of relieving his famine-stricken flock ; he dwelt there all 
the winter ; but, when he tried to return to the mainland the following 
.spring, he found that the sea had widened the chasm, and, raging round 
his prison, prevented all chance of rescue ; so he died of hunger, himself, 
in sight of those he had left to a similar fate. In the gloomy bay 
behind the island the good ship ''Intrinsic" perished sixty years since. 
Fearful are the traditions, still vivid round Kilkee, of the ship fighting 
the storm for several hours in that gloomy death-trap ; the cliffs crowded 
with people unable to help ; the newly-married officer, with his wife and 
one other frightened woman, visible through the spray, as the ship sank ; 
and a sea-gull, swooping over the whirlpool, and dropping a lady's glove 
among the people on the cliff. On this incident a pathetic poem, 1 now 
nearly forgotten, was written : 

" Of the cherished of many a heart and home there 's hut this relic tossed, 
Fragile and light, on the wild sea foam a type of the loved and lost. 

Whose glove, like the dove-borne branch of yore, is given for those that 

weep her, 
A pledge that the waters can chill her no more, that sweet is the rest of 

the sleeper." 

Dunlecky Castle, well described by Mr. George Hewson, one of our 
local secretaries, 2 and the low but picturesque rocks and natural bridges of 
Ross, are passed, and we round Loop Head, entering the mouth of the 
Shannon. We see, to the south, the beautiful domes of Brandon and 
other Kerry peaks, the cliffs of Ballybunion and the old towers of Beal. 

Loop Head is the ancient " Cuchullin's Leap," where the great red- 
branch hero, flying from a too importunate lover, sprang across the chasm 
to the dizzy rock-pinnacle which we noticed at the end of the headland ; 
the lady attempted to follow and was dashed to pieces. Clare legend says 
her name was Mai, whence " Malbay," and that her blood stained the sea 
to Moher. We find a nearly identical legend in the "Dind Seanchas." 3 
Buan, daughter of Samaera, loved Cuchullin, whom she saw contending 
with Loeguire and Connal for the " champion's bit," which Samaera 
adjudged to him at Assaroe. The love-lorn lady followed his chariot 
track to Pich-m-buana, beyond Drumsna, on the Shannon, and she leaped 
an awful leap after him against the rock, and thereof she died. 

1 Dublin University Magazine, 1841 (xvii.), page 364 ; also Lady Chattel-ton's 
"Rambles," vol. ii., p. 226; and Mrs. Nott's "Two Months at Kilkee." 

2 Our Journal, 1879-1882 (vol. v., of Series 4, p. 267). 

3 " Kevue Celtique," 1894-1895, p. 57. " lolduhlaup," the alleged Norse name 
of Loop Head, has been also identified with Lough S willy in Trans. R.LA., vol. xix., 


About a mile from the Head is a hill, crowned by the great Tuatha De 
Danann fort of Caher Crocaun, now much defaced ; another prominent 
hill, Rehy (400 feet), rises on the brink of the river. On Kilcredaun Point 
are a battery and two ruined churches ; the lower has a neatly decorated 
east window with Romanesque scrolls and leaves, probably of the eleventh 
century ; its founder was Caritan, disciple of Senan, circa 580. Beyond 
it is the tower of Carrigaholt ] (" the rock of the fleet " or " of the Ulster- 
man," say some) ; it was long the residence of the MacMahons, princes 
of West Corcovaskin, 2 >and of the O'Briens, Lords Clare, and was besieged 
by Ludlow. It now belongs to the Burtons, who, with the Westby and 
JMacdonnell families, purchased the large estates confiscated from Lord 
Clare in 1703. The small late church, east of the castle, is Kilcroney, and 
the little village behind the battery is Doonaha, the native place of our 
well-known scholar, Eugene 0' Curry. We next pass Moyasta Creek or 
Poulnishery (" oyster pool "), and reach Kilrush and Scattery Island. 


Inis Cathaig (the Island of the " Cata," 3 a horrible monster defeated by 
St. Senan, and chained in the Lake of Doulough, near Mount Callan) is 
one of our most interesting island monasteries. On the low island rises a 
fine round tower, and near it a cathedral, an oratory, the church, and 
burial-place of Senan, the church of Ard-nan-Aingeal (Angel's hill), and 
on the shore near the pier, the late mediaeval church of Kilnamarve, an 
Elizabethan castle and a church site. The monastery owes its origin in 
the first half of the sixth century to Senan, son of Ergin, or Gerrchin. 
He was born at Moylough, east of Kilrush, where two rude and ancient 
churches remain. Colgan collects several medieval accounts of this 
saint ; the fullest can scarcely be older than the 14th century, 4 as it alludes 
to the plundering of the termon by Rich, de Clare immediately before 
the battle of Dysert o dea, fought in 1318 j 1 but these are practically our 
only " authorities," for the scattered notes from other records tell us veiy 

1 See account of a " Volcano in Co. Kerry," published in Dublin, 1733 (T. C. D. r 
Press 1, No. 59). This hurning cliff, opposite Carrigaholt, is most circumstantially 
described : " The heat is so great, and the sulphureous stench so strong, that there is 
no waiting to he over curious in making remarks." The pamphlet is, I think, a, 
satire on the Fellows of T. C. I)., on whose estates the cliff \vas alleged to exist. 

2 Corcovaskin comprised the baronies of Moyarta and Clonderalaw, with the parish 
of Clondegad. Jn early times it also comprised Ibricane. It was inhabited at an 
early period by the Martini, a Firbolg tribe who, in later times, had settlements at 
Emly : see " Annals of the Four Masters," under A.M. 3790. 

3 There was a carving of the "Cata" on the east gable of the old chapel of 
Kilrush. The "Calendar of Oengus," and the "Lebar Brec," say that Senan 
" gib betted it" for swallowing his smith. 

4 The Life reputed to be by his successor, Odran, is probably many centuries 
later. We have a poem attributed to Dalian Forrgonil, circa 596, "noble Seanan, 
peaceful father" ; a metrical Life said to be by St. Colman of Cloyne ; a Life of 
St. Senan, translated by John Lloyd, circa 1780 ; and poems on Senan and his. 
sanctuary, occur in MSS. L. 23. 11. R.I. A. 



little. We find, under March 8th, that Senan was of the race of Corbre 
Baschaoin, from whom the district was named Corcovaskin. Legends 
said that the boy's birth had. long been prophesied by Patrick, and also- 
foretold by a druid shortly before it took place. Ergin, and his wife 
Comgell, had houses at Maghlacha and Tracht Termium, and were people 
of good position. We read of the youth being forced to serve in a raid 
against Corcomroe, and of many miracles done by him even while a layman. 
Soon after this (circa, A.D. 500), he met Cassidan, a Kerry abbat, then 
staying in lorris (the S.W. angle of Clare), who received him into the 

Plan of Ruins, Scattery Island. 

monastic life. Senan studied with Natalis, Abbat of Kilmanach, in 
Ossory, and made a pilgrimage to Rome 2 and Trance, visiting St. Martin, 
of Tours 3 and St. David of Wales, who gave him a crosier (but there are 

1 This mention of the Termon, as molested by Itichard de Clare, has some external 
evidence in its favour. The " Calendar of Close Rolls," at 1322, p. 440, shows that 
Matilda de Welle, sister and heir of Rich, de Clare, claimed the advovvsons of the 
churches of Bowrat, Conighy, and Inskifty (Bunratty, Quin, and Scattery). 

2 He is patron of the French churches of Plausensis and Guc-Sanen, and chief 
patron of the diocese of S. Pol de Leon. His French Life purports to be " from the 
Monuments or Acts of Iniscathay Church, in Ireland, dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin" (O'Hanlon, vol. iii.). 

3 St. Martin of Tours (316-400), (the "Annals of Clonmacnoise," p. 63, makes 
liis date a century earlier). 


vast difficulties besetting the narrative). He returned to Ireland and 
founded a number of cells in Co. Cork, the Islands of the Fergus, 
Mutton Island, and Scattery. He seems to have been a monk peacefully 
disposed, pure, of deep thought, austere piety, and certainly not worthy 
of the contempt and dislike with which Dr. O'Donovan 1 writes about him. 
Among his foundations were, Dairinis, Feenish, and Inisloe, in the Fergus, 
Kilchallige (Kilnegalliagh) on Moyasta creek, and Kilmacduan. At 
least, seven wells 2 are dedicated to him in Clare, and his name is still not 
uncommon amongst the peasantry. He died in Scattery, March 8th, 544, 
attended by his Mends, Deron the Bishop, Moronoc the penitentiary of 
Inisloe, and Moloc of Inistipraid. 

The legend of his repulse of the holy nun Cannara, can be read in 
the coarse and cynical Latin verses of the metrical life, or in the sweeter 
version of Moore, " Oh haste and leave this sacred Isle." The records, 
as usual, consist, principally, of obits of various officials. 3 The only 
facts of any interest are St. Kieran, founder of Clonmacnoise, came 
hither from Aran, and was an officer of the Abbey about 536. A certain 
Aidan of Iniscathaig, who died March 31st, has been identified with 
Aidan, who died the same day, in 651, and was founder of Lindisfarne, 4 
and, consequently, predecessor of the bishops of Durham ; much as we 
would wish to connect this great missionary with the Island, we must 
allow it is very doubtful, the more so that there was a later Abbat, 
Aidan, of Iniscathaig, who died 861. However, he of Lisdisfarne was 
Irish, and held to his native rule for observing Easter. Flaherty mac 
Inmainen, its Abbat, was accused of having urged the learned and good 
Cormac mac Cullenan, King of Cashel, into the war with Leinster, in 

1 "A feeble hermit, ... as crazy and vindictive as he was severe and pious, 
though, indeed, a great and good man for the little and bad times he lived in " 
(Ordnance Survey Letters, R.I. A.). It must be remembered that official restrictions 
and miserable weather, food, and lodging, often tried our great antiquary beyond 
human endurance, and made his "letters" his only means of relief stronger than 
the mere antiquarian matter justified. 

' Scattery, Kilshanny, Clonlea, Doonass, Cooraclare, Kilkee, and Kilcredaun. 

3 Abbats Aedan, d. 861. Mailbrigda, d. 887. Flathbheartagh, 903. Cinaedad, 
d. 942. Gebhennach ma.; Cathail, d. 963. Scandlan, d. 956 (968 ?). Cathal, d. 974 
(991?). Mailisu inac Flanubrait, d. 979. Colla, 994. Brian O'Lece, 1033. Brian 
O'Briuc, 1089. O'Burgus, 1081. Later authorities give Dian and Odran in the fifth 
century, and the very doubtful earlier Aidan, 651. Erenachs Olchobar mac Flan, 
792: and Hna Scula, 1050. Dermot O'Leanna, Ooarb, 1119. Aed O'Beaghan, 
Bishop, 1188. "G. Abb. de Sco Senano," temp. Conor na Suidane O'Brien and 
Domild,-Bishop of Killaloe, circa 1250. " Black Book of Limerick," No. xxii., in 
& case concerning; tithes of " Iniscathy cum pertin." 

4 So in Colgan's "Vita SS.," Calendar of Oengus, says that Aedhan, son of 
Lugar, of Inis Medcoit, i.e. Inis Cathaig, or in the N.W. of the little Saxons," 
p. cxxxv., Aug. 31. This rather tells against the identity, the days being different. 
The notes (" Annals of the Four Masters," 627) seem to prove the identity of Inis- 
medcoit and Lindisfame. The " Martyrology of Donegal" says he was Bishop of 
Iniscathaig and at Inis Medhcoit," &c., as above. _ One cannot but suspect a confu- 
sion, as the Annals seem silent on the earlier Aidan of Scattery ; and there was a 
strong temptation to identify what may have only been a commemoration of the ninth 
century Abbat with the missionary of Lindisfarne. 


which he lost his life in 902, l but, after a penance, Flaherty was forgiven, 
and made king-bishop of Cashel, dying in 944. Lying full in the track 
of the Norse of Limerick, it is not surprising that the monastery suffered 
severely; it was ravaged and destroyed 816 and 835. In 972, Magnus, 
son of Harold, with the "Lagmann" of the Scotch Islands, violated the 
sanctuary of Senan by carrying off Imhar (Ivor) of Limerick, who had 
sought refuge there. And three years later the place was "violated" 2 
by Brian Boru, who captured it from Ivor and his sons Amlaff and 
Dubhchenn. The " Annals of Clonmacnoise " put this event in 970. The 
Danes of Dublin plundered it in 1057, those of Limerick in 1176, and a 
certain Englishman, William Hoel, three years later, did not even spare 
the churches. The account, favoured by Archbishop Ussher, 3 states, that 
on the death of Bishop Aed O'Beaghain in 1188, the see was divided 
between Killaloe, Limerick, and Ardfert ; the actual island being assigned 
to Limerick. There are some difficulties in this history, for Aed is the 
only "Bishop" of Scattery in our oldest records, and the limits of the 
diocese of Killaloe, laid down by the Synod of Eath Breasail 4 in 1116, 
extend to Loop Head (Leim Congcullin). The author of a learned article 
on the island 5 argues that the notice of this allotment in the " Black Book 
of Limerick" (circa 1420) is a forgery of one of the Protestant bishops to 
recover the island from its lay grantees ; but we find the place named in 
the deanery of Rathkeale and diocese of Limerick in 1302-6 ; and the 
collegiate church of Inniscathy, in the diocese of Limerick, 1408. 6 

The English, at any rate, took possession of it, and appointed from 
1280 to 1300, a series of "keepers" (custodes). 7 A strange event took 
place in 1359. 8 Pope Innocent VI,, being then at Avignon, appointed a 

1 He left by will 3 ounces of gold to Iniscathaig and his rich vestments to its 
Abbat, 902 (Keating, quoting ' Battle of Ballymoon"). 

2 Tighernach (who, however, is unfriendly to Brian) says " vastata." 

3 " Primordia," p. 873. 

4 See .Heating's " History" (O'Conor's edition), p. 101. Perhaps as Ardfert and 
Killaloe were given the respective banks of the Shannon, the island was given to 
Limerick to avoid the jealousy likely to arise in the two other. Sees, which had more 
plausible claims to its possession. 

In 1189, Donaldrnore O'Brien, in his Charter to Clare Abbey, does not mark Loop 
Head " Saltum Congoluni," as lying outside the See of Killaloe (MSS. T.C.D., F. 1. 
15 ; and our Journal, 1892, p. 78, for text). 

5 Our Journal, 1874-1875, pp. 257, 259, 273. It seems that the island had been 
lost to the church of Limerick for many years at the time of Bishop O'Dea (1400) : 
see Lenihan's " History of Limerick," p. 564, quoting Rev. Jasper White. In 1742, 
Rev. Dr. Lacy, Roman Catholic Bishop of Limerick, recovered it from ihe See of 
Killaloe, and his successor, in 1801, assigned the inhabitants to care of the priest of 
Bally long-ford, Kerry. There seems a record of some surrender of the rights ot the 
See of Limerick, as Bishop Hubert (1222-1250) grants, with consent of his Chapter, 
the church of St. Mary of Iniskefty, "to the Abbut and convent of Iniskefty." : 
" Black Book of Limerick," No. LI. 

6 " Cal. of Irish Papers," 1302. Brady's " Episcopal Succession," vol. iii., p. 53. 

7 " Collectanea de Rebus Hib.," MSS. T.C.D., F. 4. 23, names Donatus O'Mal- 
murry, " custos ante Th. cap"; Tho. le Worcester, 1286; Tho. de Chapelain. 
"Liber Ruber de Kilkenny," MSS. T.C.D., F. 1. 16. This names Richard of 
London, Donat Omulvany, and Tho. de Capell, 1296. 

8 Theiner's " Monumenta." See also " Cal. of Papal Registers," 1363, p. 461. 


certain Thomas to be Bishop of Cathay ; he was consecrated by the 
Bishop of Prameste, and ordered to betake himself to his see, but on his 
arrival he found that no bishop recognized him, and that they accused 
him of many crimes, alleging that the church of Iniscathay was only 
parochial (1361). Pope Urban, in 1363, finding that the matter was, 
unsettled, directed a further inquiry by Thomas, Bishop of Lisrnore ; his 
report is not given, but we may be certain that the opposing bishops 
of Killaloe, Limerick, and Ardfert won the day. 

The reign of Elizabeth completed the destruction of the abbey ; lying 
full in view of passing ships, the Government's orders could not be evaded, as 
in the case of inland monasteries. Jenkyn Conway held it l in 1577; and it 
was eventually granted as a fishing village to Limerick city, having to supply 
an impost of 1000 oysters per annum for each dredger, and 500 herrings 
for each smack. In later days the Mayor of Limerick asserted his rights 
by shooting an arrow into the river west of the island. There 
was still another jurisdiction to be suppressed ; like many of our oldest 
abbeys there was a lay " coarb " (comarb), who acted as steward to the 
monks. In this case the coarbs were the O'Cahans or Keanes, who were 
curators of the " clogh an oir," or golden bell of Sehan, 2 which fell from 
Heaven, at the cross between Kildimo and Farighy, and is still in the 
hands of their descendant, Mr. Marcus Keane (Member) of Beechpark, 
Ennis. The " converbship " had been given to Donald O'Brien, Prince of 
Thomond by inauguration and rebellion, about twenty years before, to 
bribe him to accept the English rule : it was withheld by the Keanes, and 
his son, Sir Tuiiough O'Brien, petitioned for its restoration. At this time 
Calvagh (son of Siacus 0' Cahane), the last-recognized coarb, died 1581. 
An inquisition had been taken in 1577, and found that the " * converb ' held 
a new castle, partly built, and a small stone house and three cottages value 
10s. Sd. In the island were two chapels in ruins (Knockanangel and 
Temple Shenan), the Abbey of Synan (cathedral), with a cemetery, also a 
parish church" (Kilnamarve) : the abbey had thirty-three canons, and 
owned the termon and sixteen quarters. Now further steps were 
facilitated, and it was found that " Charles "Cahane held these lands by 
" an inheritance called a '* courboe.' " The island was placed in the hands 
of the Protestant Bishop of Killaloe, who in 1583 granted it to Teige 
Me Gilchanna, its prior. The Cahanes still maintained some of their old 
importance. Nicholas Cahane was coroner of Clare in 1588, and has left 

1 " Excerpta de Inquis. Monast.," MSS. T.C IX, F. 4. 25. 

2 See Mason's " 1'arochial Survey," ii., p. 440. It was exhibited March 9th, 
1826, to Society of Antiquaries, London (Archaoloyia, xxi., p. 559). The ornamental 
part was pronounced to be of thirteenth century. The early bell is visible when- the 
cover is broken. It avenged a false oath by striking the perjurer "with convul- 
sions and death." See also Dwyer's " Diocese of Killaloe," p. 538. It was lodged 
in the Museum of the Hoy al Irish 'Academy for some time in 18b4. The Arcltceoloyical 
Joumal, v., p. 331, states that the Cloch-an-oir, of Scattery, was exhibited at Norwich. 
It and another bell, Jound at Scjittery, and apparently of bronzed iron, were exhibited 
in Dublin by Francis Keane, of Kilrush, and J, Cooke, 1853. Mr. Cooke's bell 
passed into the possession of the Uritish Museum. 



us an interesting description of the Armada ships in the Shannon. 1 
Maurice, Bishop of Killaloe, says that Cahane "with his ancestors was 
commonly called l Gorrubne of Terrymone Shynan,' " the name as well as 
the office proving a constant stumbling-block to the English. 

Thomas Dyneley sketched the place in 1680-81. He shows the round 
tower, the cathedral, and castle, the churches of Knockanangel and 
Kilnamarve, and another near the last, omitting Temple Senan. 

John Lloyd in 1778 says it was " famous for its being the residence of 
that pious and early Christian Senan." He mentions its crowds of 
pilgrims, and adds, " there is perhaps the loftiest old steeple in the 
kingdom, with five or six large and small churches." Finally, in 1880- 
1881, the Board of Works repaired the ruins at a cost of 198. 

Silver Brooches found at Scattery. 

We must briefly allude to the folk-lore of the island. New boats 
sailed round it "sunwise" on their first cruise, and took its pebbles to 
sea to avert danger. Bodies, buried on the mainland at Shanakill, in 
consequence of storms, were miraculously removed into the holy isle. A 
fisherman alleged, in 1844, that being detained from Mass by a storm, he 
prayed in the cathedral and, looking up, found it crowded by monks and 
laity, with priests in gorgeous vestments round the altar. He closed his 
eyes and prayed, and next glance found all the spectres had vanished ; he 
only saw " the clouds flitting over the roofless church, and the old ravens 
croaking and wheeling over their nest on the tower top." These ravens, 
I may add, were believed to take their young each year to Carrigfoyle, 
and never let them return. 

Antiquities have occasionally been dug up : two beautiful silver 
brooches 2 and a " silver candlestick " (found in the ruins, about 1840), 

1 "Calendar of State Papers" (Ireland), 1588, p. 38. Bryan Cahane was one 
" of the chief gentry and ablest persons " near Kilrush, when his horses were seized 
for James II., in April, 1690. The late Mr. Marcus Keane was one of the most 
daring supporters of the Pagan origin of our " Towers and Temples." 

2 Figured above from Lady Chatterton's ,'< Rambles," vol. ii., pp. 228, 229. 


A hatchet, shaped like a bird's head, and reputed Danish, was exhibited 
to our Society, in 1874, and eventually proved to be Malayan ! 

There was a cairn, " Gluin Shenan" (Senan's knee), 1 west of the 
village, at which passers-by used to bow ; here the saint was said to have 
prayed before attacking the " Cata." The Eev. Dean Kenny, when P. P. 
of Kilrush, got it removed, and stopped the " patterns " as scenes of 
dissipation; his curate, about 1827, persuaded several women to enter 
Senan's church, but his attempt to mitigate the superstition regarding 
the saint's posthumous misogyny failed. A few weeks later the women 
and their families were evicted, and left the island. 2 In 1841, a flat slab 
stood in a stone circle near the landing place ; 3 another slab, on which 
St. Cannara floated from Kerry, and under which one tradition said she 
was buried, lay near Bineanna, the southern point. 

We now examine the ruins. 4 Six churches are known to have 
existed; the sixth lay south of Kilnamarve it stood in 1680, but had 
disappeared in 1808. Dutton and Mason describe the stratum of human 
bones in the sea-worn bank, the last relic of its cemetery. Dutton 
imagined from it that the whole isle was paved with bones a familiar 
system in theories and his statement has been repeated by later writers. 
The notion that ten or eleven churches stood here is found in that fruitful 
source of error, Archdall's " Monasticon " ; and in a late poem, on the 
Shannon, by Michael O'Brannain, 1794, "a saint of glorious life, Senan, 
placed eleven churches, and a beautiful high bell- tower beside them." 


Save for the extreme top of its " beann chopair," or conical cap, it is 
in excellent preservation. For about a third of its height it is of fairly 
large and good masonry, but for the next third it is small and rude. 
Above this is a band of thin flags, for some six or eight courses ; then 
larger, but coarse, work appears, a single band of large blocks girding it at 
the upper windows, and a small projecting cornice of flagstones appearing 
below the roof. The windows are plain, with flat lintels; they face 
as follows in each story above the door : north, south, east (perhaps 
reset), west, and in the top story, four, facing the cardinal points. 

The door faces east, and is on the ground level ; it has inclined jambs, 
and the head is partly corbelled. It is 4 feet 8 inches high, and from 
2 feet at the corbelling to 2 feet 3 inches below. It is supposed by some 
there was an older door higher up, where was a breach now repaired; 
but O'Donovan confesses that it could scarcely have occupied the 
break, and that no other trace remains. The tower is 52 feet 4 inches in 

1 Another "knee-stone " of Senan used to lie at the head of Kilrush Cieek. 

2 Our Journal, 1874-1875, p. 259. 

3 Dublin University Magazine, 1841, p 544 (vol. xviii.). 

4 The only full account, so far as I know, is in the Ordnance Survey Letters,. 
R.I.A. r by Dr. O'Donovan, 14. B. 24, pp', 13-31. 

Scattery Round Tower, Oratory, and Cathedral, from the west. 


-circumference, internal diameter 8 feet, and walls 4 feet thick. Its 
height is alleged to be 120 feet. Tradition says it was built by Senan, 
and never completed. 


An oblong building of no great beauty, about 78 feet east of the 
tower. It measures 68 feet 4 inches x 27 feet 7 inches, and consists of a 
single compartment. It was a fine early church, possibly ninth or early 
tenth century. Of this there remain the side walls and west end, to a 
height of 10 feet to 10 feet 6 inches, and a few feet of the lower part of 
the eastern wall, retained in the later rebuilding. 

The west door is an excellent and massive example, 6 feet 6 inches 
high, with inclined jambs, from 2 feet ,11 inches to 3 feet 2 inches. The 
lintel is 5 feet 8 inches x 12 inches high, and 3 feet 10 inches thick, pro- 
jecting some 4 inches into the church; the door was fixed in square 
mortices, one of which retained its iron staple. There are projecting 
antse, 2 feet x 3 feet 5 inches wide. Above 10 feet 6 inches, the wall and 
gable have been rebuilt with small flagstones, probably in the thirteenth or 
arly fourteenth century, when the south and east windows were inserted. 
There are pointed doors in each side, 12 feet from the west end ; the 
south wall has three Gothic windows, the first and third pointed, the middle 
with trefoil head. The east gable has late buttresses and a window with 
heavy hood mouldings and a mitred head at the top. Its tracery is 
nearly gone ; it consisted of two cinquefoil-headed lights with a quatref oil 
above them. 

A square window and door occur in the north wall ; the latter opens 
into a late sacristy, not bonded to the church-wall. It is 26 feet 
6 inches x 10 feet. There is no trace of recent burial, and the ancient 
church name is lost; it may have been the "Abbey of St. Mary," of 
Bishop Hubert's grant, 1222-1250, and the Inquisition of 1609. 


An interesting little church, 5 feet north of last. It consists of a nave 
and chancel (23 feet 3 inches x 12 feet 6 inches, and 8 feet 9 inches x 10 
feet 4 inches, respectively). The masonry is large and early, save a 
small oblong ope in the west gable. The south door and chancel arch are 
defaced. The lower courses of the latter show it was of good Romanesque 
design, probably of the eleventh century. One of its piers is suggestive 
of a Saxon baluster, and an inserted block has a late-looking guilloche, or 
rather vesical loops, enclosing fleurs-de-lys. The voussoirs were decorated 
with chevrons. The chancel was nearly levelled, as I first saw it ; it has 
been partly rebuilt. 


These remains are enclosed by an ancient wall, the north side being in 
fair preservation and of large blocks. In the field to the west is the well, 
Tober Senan ; near it was a cross-marked slab. 




This stands on the higher ground north of the main group, and commands 
-a fine view up the river to Tarbert. It has been extensively rebuilt on 
bad foundation, its south wall having two heavy stepped buttresses, and 
its east end leaning ominously outward. It consists of a nave and chancel 
(23 feet 10 inches x 16 feet 9 inches, and 10 feet 10 inches x 10 feet 
10 inches). The west gable is blank, the south door and window pointed. 
The choir arch had similar mouldings to those in the oratory, but no 
ornaments or voussoirs remain. The chancel had a ledge round the base, 
.and an east window, the light apparently old and reset, with semicircular 
head ; the splay has a nearly flat arch. An enclosure, supposed to contain 
Kenan's tomb but rude, late, and defaced stands a few feet from the 
western gable. It measures 21 feet 8 inches x 11 feet 2 inches, with 

Tombstone near Temple Sen an. 

remains of a door and two windows. A large block of gritstone, with 
ogham-like scores, 1 is set against its west wall, seatwise. A slab, with an 
incised cross, with interlaced ends, lies near this ; it has the well-pre- 
served inscriptions, "op bo TTlomach " and "op bo TDoeTiach cure 
TTlogpoin " 2 (" Pray for Moenach, tutor of Mogron "). 

(Cecunpul cnuic na n Gin seal). On the opposite 
ridge, south-west of the round tower. The gables and most of the north 
wall are down; a rude door and south window, both much defaced, 
appear in the south wall, most of which is ancient and of very large 
blocks. The church measures 40 feet 6 inches x 1 6 feet 8 inches, and has 
a later building, miming south from its east corner, 36 feet x 15 feet, and 
nearly destroyed. Tradition says that the angel placed Senan on the hill 

1 Dublin University Magazine, January, 1853 (vol. xli.), p. 85, " Clonmacnoise, 
Clare, and Arran," by "by S. F. " (? Ferguson). It dismisses Scattery in a few 
words, but gives an excellent account of the Aran forts and Corcomroe. 

This is shown in Miss Stokes' " Christian Inscriptions of Irela 

iplate xviii. 


scriptions of Ireland," vol. ii., 



where the church stands, before his fight with the monster which guarded 
the island, whence the name ll Height of the Angel." 

(church of the dead). A late building, not earlier 
than the fourteenth century, close to the east strand. It is oblong, 
68 feet x 18 feet 6 inches; its east window is 8 feet 8 inches wide, the 
inner jambs moulded. It had two lights, of which the heads remain. It 
was covered with knotted ivy down, at any rate, to 1878. The west 
gable is blank, with a heavy buttress; the south wall has a door and 
three windows. A lateral aisle, or sacristy, lay to the north, only a 
fragment of its east end remains, and the two plain pointed arches and 
square-headed door into the church. Over the last is a very archaic- 
looking angular window. The cornice is simple and characteristic, being 
of two-stepped courses of flag stones. 

CASTLE. Only the featureless lower vault remains. It was built 
about 1577, and was a flat-topped turret, several stories high, in 1681. 


Few of our native princes have better earned the gratitude of anti- 
quaries than Donaldmore O'Brien, 1 the last King of Munster. He built 
the cathedrals of Limerick (1172), Killaloe (1182), and Cashel, and the 
monasteries of Holycross, Inislaunaght, and Galbally, south of the Shan- 
non; besides, in his ancestral territory, those of Corcomroe, Clare (1189), 
Inchicronan in its lonely lake, Killowen on its wooded hillside, and Illaun 
na gCanonagh 2 on Canons' Island, the monastery of the Augustinian 
canons of Corcovaskin. 

Tradition asserts that five churches on the neighbouring islands, in- 
cluding Senan's Oratory of Inisloe, were demolished, and their materials 
used for the new foundation; but this is very improbable, as (unlike the 
walls of Inchicronan, Clare, and Killaloe), Canons' Island shows no 
fragments of older buildings. 

Lying out of the theatre of Clare history the long central tract from 
Burren to Bunratty its records are of little interest. In 1483, Mahon 
O'Griffy, Bishop of Killaloe, was buried within its walls. It was dis- 
solved by Henry VIII., and granted in July, 1543, to Donatus O'Brien, 
then Baron of Ibracken. In 1577 it possessed "4 acres arable, and 14 of 
mountain and pasture, acre of the site," with other islands, and "two 
parts of the tithes of Killadysert-murhull, and the vicarage of Kilchrist," 
The rest of its history consists of grants to the Earl of Thomond 3 (James, 

1 A biography of this prince will be found in our Journal, 1892, pp. 7479. 

* Eleonaganagh, Eleoganagh, and even Ellen Egrane ! in Elizabeth grants. 

3 For these, see 1544, Patent Rolls, Ireland. "Exc-erp. de Inq. Monas."" MSS. 
T.C.D., p. 226. 1577, Inq. Auditor-General's Office. The other grants are June 
20th, 1605, and December 13th, 1620, to Donatus ; September 1st, 1661, to Henry^ 
ronn'rmed to J, Duke of York, under Act of Settlement, February loth, 16C9 ;. 
September 26th, 1712; Henry, Earl of Thomond, to Richard Henn. 


4 CL* ambreys . "b stcu,p . c, tomb XV cent 

Plan of Canons' Island Abbey. 



Duke of York, afterwards king, enjoying it for some years). Henry, 7th 
Earl of Thomond, granted it, in 1712, to Richard Henn. 

The ruins lie at the foot of a low hill, whence is a veiy striking view 
of the abbey, with the broad estuary of the Fergus, studded with islands 
and the distant hills of Cratloe and Limerick. The remains consist of a 
church and cloister, the latter with buildings to the south and east. A 
double-arched gateway defines the outer precinct to the west. We enter 
the church through a late projecting porch (14 feet 6 inches long) with a 
Gothic door ; the west gable has a similar door and a fifteenth century 
window, with two trefoil-headed lights and a heavy angular hood ; a 
closed door appears to the south of the existing porch. 

Canons' Island Abbey, from the North. 

The church is a single compartment (85 feet by 23 feet 3 inches). 
Going along the north side, we find a plain, pointed arch, with a recess in 
the east pier, opening into a little chapel (22 feet by 14 feet) with a 
double-light window in the gable and a slit in each wall ; the east side 
has plain recesses. The lofty belfry, disproportionately large for the 
little church, rises 4 feet east of the chapel. Its few details exactly 
resemble those of that group of Clare castles built between 1433 and 
1480, to which period the west front, the chapels, and the south sedile 
and window must also be attributed; the battlements have suffered 
much from the weather; it is otherwise fairly perfect. It seems to 


embody part of the older wall of the greater side chapel, and has a 
vaulted basement, and four other stories ; a flight of stone steps lead to 
the second of these, the rest were reached by ladders. The tower domi- 
nates the whole estuary from JSewhall to Poynes. The greater chapel 
runs for 24 feet east of the tower, and is of equal width (11 feet 
3 inches) opening into the church by two pointed arches with chamfered 
piers ; its east window had two shafts interlacing and heavy hood mould- 
ings ; the tracery has been destroyed. The east window is large and 
plain, consisting of three lights under one large, pointed arch, the piers 
running up straight, with that ungraceful effect which the rich ornament 
more or less conceals in the similar east window of Killaloe l (1182). The 
coign stones were removed to Kildysert chapel, where they still lie un- 
used. The sills are massive, and a stone .table stands to the north, the 
altar having disappeared. 

In the middle of the church lies a tombstone with an epitaph, in 
raised black letters along its edge. Canon Dwyer reads- part of it as " Hie 
Jacet Magister Cornelius." I had not time to decipher it. In the south 
wall, near the east gable, was a window similar to that in the east chapel ; 
going westward, we note a sedile, an arched recess with ogee hood 
mouldings and crocketed finials. The clerestory windows probably date 
from the foundation ; below are a break and two doors leading into the 
cloister ; the central has a holy water stoup, with opes into the door and 
into the church. The cloister "arcade" was rude and simple plain 
piers, rising from a low wall with flagged sills, and supporting a lean-to 
roof. The garth is much off the square, as can be seen by the plan. A 
pointed arch crossed the walk diagonally at each corner, 2 resting on neat 
fifteenth century corbels at the outer, and piers at the inner side. Only 
the north-west arch remained, on the point of collapse, in September, 
1886. The domicile is of little interest it is two stories high; the south 
room was probably the kitchen and refectory. The east had several 
compartments ; the southern end was a double cellar, above which was a 
room with a neat double light. A garderobe and a long, narrow room 
perhaps, the chapter house project from its eastern face. We see by 
the doors that there were four rooms between the church and the cellars 
a vestry, a porch or passage, the " chapter house," and another room, 
much broken and overgrown. 

Opposite the island lies Kildysert (" Killadysert-murhull "), with its 
picturesque, ivied church, having an embattled belfry and priests' house 
at its west end, and the massive vault of the Scotts of Cahiracon. " Disert 
Murthull " appears in the 1302-6 taxation. Its fort and shore ( " Diseart 
Murthaile ") were the scene of sharp skirmish in the Civil War, circa 
1284, between the rival clans of the O'Briens. 

1 See our Journal, 1893, pp. 197-198. 

- Traces of similar arches appear in the cloister of Clare Galway Friary (see our 
Journal, 1895, p. 289). 


The Shannon, from Kilrush to Canons' Island, though lacking in 
striking picturesqueness, possesses several features of interest. The 
thriving little town of Kilrush has a venerable church, with a massive 
door of the oldest type. Eastward lie the great stone fort of Carrowdotia, 
possibly the Eanach mBearrane of the "Book of Eights"; the ancient 
church and graveyard of Killimer, where rests the " Colleen Bawn " ; 
and the shattered castle of Ballycolman, at the end of the Kilkerin 
peninsula. On the south bank we may notice Ballylongford Castle, 
behind which lie the interesting friary of Lislaughtin ; further on is 
the castle of Glin, for over 600 years the residence of the Fitz Geralds. 
The keep and another tower remain, with several vaults, a turret, and the 
banqueting hall. There is an interesting account and view of its siege 
in 1600 in "Pacata Hibemia." 


do not intend to touch upon the Kerry Coast between the Shannon 
and Smerwick, although it is of the greatest interest. We need only 
allude to the Friary of Lislaughtin, to the beautiful round tower of Rattoo, 
and the monasteries of Abbeydorney and Ardfert. Besides places like 
Eatass, Kilelton, and Caherconree, all well worthy of careful examination. 
We are now running abreast of the great peninsula of Corkaguiny, heaped 
with the vast mountain chains of Slieve Mish and Brandon, fretted by the 
full power of the merciless ocean into the beautiful bays of Brandon, 
Smerwick, and Yentry, famous in pre-Christian legend and song for the 
surprise of Caherconree, by the great mythic warrior Curoi, and for that 
fierce battle of the white strand of Yentry, the scene of the dirge of 
Gael, one of our most weirdly suggestive songs, where the things of nature 
join with the wail of the bereaved wife of him who was drowned where 
"the haven roars over the rushing race of llinn da Bharc." 2 No one 
has yet arisen to write a full account of this beautiful district, and its 
records lie scattered broadcast, and half unknown like its ruins. 3 

, * By Thomas J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.I. A. 

2 "Colloquy of the Ancients," (Silva Gadelica, vol. ii., p. 121). Rinn da Bharc, 
now the reef of Reenvare. See also "Ordnance Survey Letters," county Kerry, p. 
720; and " Cath Finntraga" (Dr. Kuno Meyer), pp. 54, 55. Ibid., p. 5, for origin 
of name. 

:5 As a starting point for future antiquaries let me give this tentative bibliography : 
In our Journal, vol. ii. (1852), Rattoe Round Tower (R. Hitchcock) ; iii. (1854) Castles 
of Corkaguiny, same; (1864) Oratories of Kilmalkediir and Gallarus (G. DuNoyer): 
Series in., vol. i. (1868), Kilmalkedar (A. Hill) ; Series iv. (1879), Processional Cross of 

Ardfert, a very full account 
O'Gorman) ; Sundial at 
Lynch) ; Series v., vol. i. 

(1890), Dingle (W. Wakeman) ; ii. (1892), Gallerus, &c. (J. Romilly Allen) ; iv. (1894), 
Ptolemy's " Dur " (Miss Hickson) ; v. (1895), Ardfert' Friary (same); and the long 
series of topographical Papers, by the same writer, from 1885." 

JK. LA. Transactions, xxix., 1887-1892, Kilcolman, in Marhin Parish (Dr. Graves, ' 

eres in., vo. . 1), maear . ; eres iv. 

Ballylongford [Lislaughtin] (G. Hewson) ; vol. vi. (18S3), 
(A. Hill); viii. (1887), St. Grigoire of Corkaguiny (F. 
Kilmalkedar, &c. (G. Atkinson) ; ix. (1889), Kilelton (P. J. 



We cannot leave unnoticed the very ancient little island-monastery of 
Illauntannig, or Oilean-t-Seanaig, on the Magharees. Half demolished by 
man, and partly undermined by the sea, it lies on a low cliff on the wind- 
ward side of the island, the bones of its crowded cemetery projecting from 
the face of the bank, and some of its walls tottering on the very edge of 
the precipice. It is surrounded by a cashel wall of rude limestone blocks 
1 8 feet thick. Some of the tenants of the island, in the present century, 
demolished much of its facing to use for their houses. The entrance faces 
S.W. Inside are the remains of two oratories, three huts or clochauns, 
and three leachts, or burial-places, crowded together in the southern half 
of the enclosure. The chief oratory measures 14 feet x 9 feet, its 
wall is 7 feet thick, with two offsets, one near the ground line, one 
level with the top of the door ; herringbone masonry occurs in the south 
wall. The door has curved sides, and the east window leans towards the 
.south, its sill sloping outward. A narrow curved passage leads to the 
door. Only the west end of the second oratory remains, the rest has been 
destroyed by the sea. A cross of rounded white stones has been formed 
in the masonry above the door. The cloghauns call for little remark, A 
rude cross 6 feet high stands near one of the leachts : a poor man who 
had committed homicide remained at its foot for two days without food, 
lying by night in the leacht, till a priest persuaded him to leave it. 
About 100 yards from the cashel, and near the low cliff is a rock with a 
bullaun or basin 9 inches in diameter, and an incised cross with small circles 
at the ends of the arms. Senach is said to have been a brother of Senan 
of Iniscathaig. 


The lofty peak of Brandon takes its name from the saint, whose 
legendary voyages and mysterious island so much assisted to form the 
popular belief in lands beyond that ocean, which to Agricola and Tacitus 
was a " sea beyond which is no land," but to the medieval Irish it concealed 

Bishop of Limerick) ; Proceedings (1830), Kilmalkedar (Archdeacon Rowan) ; (1893), 
Dunbeg (Sir T. N. Deane). 

Ulster Journal of Arehceology, viii. (1860), Cahirconree (J. Windele). It is strange 

that in face of this elaborate Paper so much doubt is in print as to whether the fort ever 

existed. Dr. W. Erazer (Vice -President, E, S. A. I.), owns a beautiful sketch of the 

-caber. See also "Early Irish Conquests in Wales," by Professor Rhys, in our 

Journal, 1890-1891. 

"Lives of the Irish Saints," vol. v. (Canon O'Hanlon); Kilmalkedar, p. 278; 
'Fenit Castle, p. 278 ; Blaskets, p. 413. 

Archaological Journal ; xv. (1858), kalian (G. Du Noyer) ; xxv., c. 18, Sundial at 
Kilmalkedar (G. DuNoyer). 

Dunraven's " Notes," .Kilmalkedar, Gallems, Magharees, Ratass, Dunbeg, and 
Cahemavictirech. " Ordnance Survey Letters," county Kerry, R.I. A. (one vol.), have 
excellent material for Rattoo, Ardfert, Gallerus, and Dingle districts. 

"Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland" (R. Brash), Kilmalkedar Church and 
Oratory, Gallerus Oratory, Ratass, Ardfert. 


thrice fifty islands, some twice and thrice greater than Erin. 1 On its top 
more than 3000 feet above the sea, a rude little oratory marks, says tra- 
dition, the place where Brandon spent long years of prayer and meditation. 2 
Kilmalkedar, at its foot, has been described so fully, and by such 
competent antiquaries, that we offer rather a guide than a technical de- 
scription. Maolcethair, son of Eonan, of the race of Eiatach Einn, King 

Capital of Arc;ide Column," Kilmalkedar. 

Base cf Arcade Column, Kilmalkedar. 

of Erin, built a church at " Gill Melchedair, near the^shore'of the sea^to 
the west of Brandon Hill," before 636. 3 Itis[true thatJArchdeacon 
llowan pointed out that Melbrennan O'Ronan, Bishop of Ardfert, who- 

1 "Voyage of Bran," p. 14. 

2 See "Voyage of Brandon," by the llev. T. Olden, in our Journal, 1890, 1891, 
pp. 676-684. 

3 For a legend of a procession of saints, reaching from Eilmalkedar to St. Brandon's- 
cell, see our Journal, 1892, p. 255. 

Chancel Arcli, Kihnalkedar Church. (From a Photograph by Surgeon Fogarty, R.N.) 



, Kiiiu.lkedar Church. 


died in 1161, was also called Melchedor O'Ronain. 1 But, as the saint of 
Smerwick was commemorated before the end of the ninth century in the 
Martyrology of Tallacht, we may dismiss the later theory. The church 
prohahly belongs to a period little earlier than that of the later bishop, its 
details being mainly suggestive of the twelfth century. It consists of a 
nave and chancel, respectively measuring 27 ft. 2 in. x 17ft. 3 in., and 
1 6 ft. 4 in. x 1 1 ft. 4 in. It is of unusually regular masonry, the quoins 
of excellent sandstone. It is entered through a door of two orders, much 
crumbled and weatherworn by the fierce north-western gales. The arch 
is carved with chevrons, and has a hood decorated with pellets, the latter 
has a face in high relief on its keystone, and rests on two others. The 
piers incline, and have slight circular shafts at the edges, the inner- 
most being plain, the space under the inmost arch is closed by a large 
stone forming a tympanum and flat lintel to the door. It has a grotesque 
head in high relief on its inner face. The chancel arch is only 5 ft. 2 in. 
wide, and is of two orders, the inner with dog tooth ornament on plain 
piers, the outer with a small curve of beading, and resting on circular 
piers with fluted capitals. A holed-stone, and the Y-shaped finial of the 
west gable lie on the ground, and the basin and font in the recess of the 
north window. The side walls have the unusual feature (at least in Ire- 
land) of an arcading of semi-circular pilasters, breaking the wall into six 
bays on each side, with horizontal plinths and cornices, and decorated 
capitals and bases. A round-headed window occurs in each wall near the 
eastern end. Above the cornice the roof is corbelled out as if a vault was 
intended ; if so, it either fell or was discontinued at an early stage of the 
work, as it has left no mark on the wall above the choir arch. A stone 
(probably a cross) rises over the ivy of the central gable. The ends of the 
nave walls project as antre both to the east and west, and there is an ex- 
ternal cornice resting on fantastic heads. 

On entering the chancel a veiy interesting feature becomes apparent, 
half of two side windows of an older and narrower choir, projecting 
behind the great arch, The present choir was stone roofed, and cannot be 
very much later than the nave. Some writers have given reasons for 
believing that the original east end was a small chancel recess, as ; at 
: Connac's Chapel, Cashel. 2 The east window has projecting stones with 
rude faces on them ; the light, like the other windows, being a round- 
headed slit. The south window is destroyed. 

In the graveyard we notice (1) A plain stone cross of great age, with 
two raised squares, and 7 feet 3 inches high ; (2) an oghani inscription, 
" MACIBROCANN MAiLxiNBiRi MAQ . . ." ; (3) a veiy curious and ancient sun 
dial ; and (4) a pillar on which are engraved a cross with " mill rind " ends ; 
semicircles, the dedicatoiy word "DNI" (Domini), and a very archaic 

1 Keane considers Melchedor to be " the Golden Moloch " ! 

2 With whose dimension* (says Mr. A. Hill) it agrees to an inch. 



alphabet. North-east of the church is a small cloghaun or stone cell 1 used 
as a pig-sty. A short distance to the north is an ecclesiastical residence called 
"Fotrach Brendain," 2 or Brandon's House. It is a massive structure, 
probably of the fifteenth century, of two stories built of small rude stones, 
with little mortar, but the frame stones of some of the windows are large 
and well dressed. It closely resembles the " Shanaclogh " at Kilmacduach, 
county Gal way. A late partition wall divides it into two portions. The 
door faces the south, and is 3 feet above the ground. Farther northward 
towards the hill we see the oratory of Kilmalkedar. Its roof has fallen. 
It resembles Gallerus, and ha been very fully described by Lord Dun- 
raven and G, Y. Du tfoyer. 3 It measured 1 7 feet 6 inches x 9 feet 3 inches 
inside. The east window has a double splay. 

The Alphabet iStone, Kilmulkedar. 


Leaving Kilmalkedar we pass between the cow-stone and the thief- 
stone, one on each side of the road. A low decayed residence called the 
" chancellor's house" scarcely calls for description ; beyond the road east of 
it is a cloghaun. We next reach the dry stone forts and cells of Caher- 
dorgan ; the first caher is 88 feet internal diameter, its wall being 9 feet 
thick. Inside stand several round cloghauns; the western is 15 feet 
diameter, and about 9 feet high, the door facing the east. The northern 
hut is of the same size, door facing east. The eastern hut is smaller 
(12 feet in diameter, 9 feet 9 inches high), the door facing S.-W. A 
still smaller southern one (11 ft. 9 in. K. and S., and 5 ft. 2 in. E. and 
"W.) ; the ridge of its roof is formed of seven flags, and is 6 ft. 3 in high ; 
its door is to the N.-E., and only 2 ft. 10 in. high, and 1 ft. 4 in. wide, 
it is called cpoi&ee-na-cacpac, " The Stone Cell of the Caher." A 
tiny cell, scarcely big enough for a pig, and possibly a kennel, lies near 
the gateway. 4 The other fort is known as the "Boen" (cow place) ; it 

1 See our Journal, 1891, p. 715. 

See <>ur Journal, 1801, and " Ordnance Survey Letters of Kerry," p. 89. Lady 
Chatterton (1839), gives a rough sketch of the Fothrach in her " Rambles in the South 
of Ireland," vol. i., p. 159, and tells a legend of the cramps that befell a peasant for 
pulling down part of the door in its interior. 

3 Jn our Journal, 1864-1865, p. 29. See also Brash " Ecclesiastical Architecture," 
plate v. 

4 " Ordnance Survey Letters," Kerry, p. 96 ; Eeport of Board of Public Works, 
1877-1878, p. 80. 


is a circular, dry stone fort, about 130 feet across. The wall is 8 or 9 
feet high ; three ruinous huts lie inside. One, 1 1 feet in diameter, the 
door still complete ; the others are nearly broken down, one being 1 5 feet 
in diameter. A souterrain in the garth is said to reach to the village of 
Gallerus. Outside are some very primitive " crotteens," or small cells, 
erected, at the end of the last century, by a farmer named D organ, who 
gave his name to the caher. 1 There is also a " Liss," its earthen 
mounds faced internally with dry stone terraces. There are remains of 
cells and souterrains inside. It lies a few fields north of Gallerus 
Oratory. The district is strewn broadcast with a bewildering profusion 
of antiquities. 2 We find several cahers and groups of cells in the town- 
lands round Caherdorgan, and a large gallaun or pillar north of the road. 


The Castle of Gallerus, 3 a late mediaeval structure in fair preservation, 
is noteworthy for the legend of the dying chief who asked to be carried to 
its window to see once more the long waves breaking along "the curve of 
Smerwick* Bay. His attendants propped him up, more than once they 
wished to bear him back to his bed, but he refused, at last he made no 
reply, and they found he had died gazing on the bay. It is a lovely view, 
closed in by the great bluff heights towards Brandon and Sybil Head. 
Yonder on its headland lies " Dun an oir," the fort " Del oro," where the 
slaughter of its foreign garrison after their surrender in 1580, left such a 
stain on the fame of Sir Walter Raleigh. 

Many will remember Kingsley's grim description in " Westward Ho ": 
"A sloping roof of thick grey cloud, which stretches over their heads, . . . 
hiding all the Kerry mountains . . . And, underneath that awful roof of 
whirling mist, the storm is howling inland, . . . there is more mist than 
ever sea spray made flying before that gale ; more thunder than ever sea- 
surge wakened echoing among the cliffs of Smerwick Bay . . . for that fort, 
now christened by the invaders Fort Del Oro, where flaunts the hated 
golden flag of Spain, holds San Josepho, and eight hundred of the foe." 

Crofton Croker has also celebrated the bay in " The Lady of Gollerus," 
a story of the (as usual) sad result of the marriage of a peasant with a 
mermaid. He has also given a legend of the Bay of Ballyheige, in 
"Florry Cantillon's funeral" at its submerged church and graveyard. 

THE ORATORY OF GALLERUS since Smith in his " History of Kerry," in 
1766, published his amusingly inaccurate illustration has been a constant 
object of antiquarian interest. Very briefly we may mention the most 

1 Windele's " Sketches and Notes," MSS.-R.I.A. 

2 Hitchcock notes 21 churches, 12 large stone crosses, 15 oratories, 9 penitentiary 
stations, and 76 holy wells. 

3 See " Castles of Corkaguiny," hy R. Hitchcock, in our Journal, 1854, and Lady 
Chatterton's " Rambles," vol. i., p. 149. 

4 See our Journal, 1891, p. 689-691. 


perfect o.f our oratories, a shapely little building with an outline sugges- 
tive of an inverted boat. It is 23 feet x 16 feet externally, 15 feet x 8 feet 
internally, and 1 6 feet high ; the doorway has the usual lintel and inclined 
jambs of our oldest buildings. It is 5 feet 7 inches high, and from 2 feet 
4 inches to 1 foot 9 inches wide. The east gable 1 terminates in a small 
stone cross, and has a very archaic window, or rather small loophole, 
1 foot 9 inches x 9^ to 10 inches, above which on the inside are three 
projecting stones, probably for lamps to light the altar. The masonry, 
though of dry stone, is practically waterproof, the stones being laid so as 

Oratory of Gallerus, from North -East. 

to slope outwards. Near it is a stone pillar with a cross in a circle, and 
the words lie colum mec . . . mel " the stone of Columb, son of ... mel." 
The stone fort of CAHERNAGAT lies behind the oratory. 

The country between Gallerus and Yentry is crowded with ruins ; to 
mention one group alone, we find at CAHER CuLLAUN 3 a circular caher 70 ft. 
diameter, with high walls of dry stone, 1 2 feet high and 9 feet thick. It 

1 Lady Ghatterton in her " Rambles in the South of Ireland " (vol. i., p. 142), tells a 
wonderful legend of a boy who stole a "bell stone " from the top of the oratory and, 
on reaching home, swelled to such a size that he could not get out of the door of the 
cabin. As he kept on swelling, his mother took hack the stone of contention, and, as 
s^e replaced it, the hoy wjis at once restored to his normal dimensions. 

' 2 " Ordnance Survey Letters" (Kerry), p.- 114 ; Lady Chatterton's "Rambles," 
vol. i., p. 184. 

Doorway of Oratory of Gallerus. (Interior View.) 


stands at the angle of a rectangular enclosure 78 paces E. and W., and 
45 1ST. and S. ; the walls of the latter are 3 feet 6 inches thick and 10 feet 
high. Lady Chatterton observed traces of steps, and stones with holes 
which she believed to be door posts. 1 There are some remains of a later 
castle at the central enclosure. Two forts with groups of cloghauns, and 
eight other cloghauns stand in Glin, while in the adjoining townlands we 
find eight cloghauns on Dingle Commons, twenty-five cloghauns, and the 
great fart called a Rath-caner by Du Noyer, in BALLYHEABOTJGHT. This 
fort has a circular rampart of .earth, with stone faces and terraces inside, 2 
100 feet internal diameter, its rampart 12 feet to 14 feet thick, with a fosse 
25 feet across, and in places 20 feet deep. Outside the fosse is a second 
rampart 12 feet thick, faced with flagstones. The entrance faces west, 
and had once a massive flag gateway. There are several cloghauns in the 
garth, one 18 feet inside, and well preserved, with a sleeping chamber 
divided off the main cell, and an annexe to the south. A semicircle of 
flags (like ]S"o. 5 on p. 305) girds it to the north, and an oblong cell lies to 
the west. It stands two miles from Dingle. 

VENTEY is well known as the scene of the " Cath finn traga," the battle 
-of the white strand, where Daire, the " King of the World," endeavouring 
to subdue Ireland, was opposed by Fin mac Cumhail and his warriors for a 
year and a day, and finally repulsed. 

What fact lies in the kernel of this wonderful legend is hard to say. 
A row of burial cairns stand or stood near Cahertrant, west of the bay, 
and the vague legends of some great battle with the Danes hung round 
the shore. A great quantity of human remains were once exposed at the 
Strand. Altogether, though the ghost of a recollection alone haunts the 
| spot, we may regard it as the site of some deadly battle with foreign 

In the first half of the last century ; Cahertrant was believed to be a 
Danish fort, and the people said that the peninsula was the last ground 
in Ireland in possession of the Northmen, who built the chain of forts 
from Dunbeg to Gallerus to hold back the conquering Irish. 


"The ancient city of Fahan," a very extensive group of stone huts 
and forts, extends for nearly three miles, from Coumenoole to Ventry, along 
Dingle Bay. Round the slopes of Mount Eagle (1695 feet high) we find 
in Coumenoole South, ten cloghauns and a boundary pillar ; in Glan Fahan, 
' six forts containing cloghauns, respectively 1, 1, 3, 2, 6 and 5 in number, 
the triple cloghaun of Caheradadurra, and twenty-three other cloghauns 
{44 in all). Fahan has forts with 3, 4, 2, 1 huts, a group of seven huts, 
and twelve detached cloghauns, a church, and four gallauns. Kilvicka- 

1 Jn " The Land of the Bora," London, 1897, Dr. Frnzer lias pointed out to me 
mention of holed stones in the ancient Dalmatian fort near Sebennito. These were 
used for ropes by which the occupants ascended the rampart. 

2 Archceol. Journal, xv., p. 19. See infra, plan on p. 303. 



downey, a fort with three cells inside and one" outside, some 900 feet up 
Mount Eagle, Cloughaunaphuca in a .fort, four cloghauns, a pillar in a 
" calluragh " or deserted cemetery, a gallaun, a large fort south of the 
.road, and a stone cross and fort in Park na crusha. We read in the 
" Battle of Yentry " l how Daire Donn sent the King of Spain to ravage 
, the country. There were three forts to the west of the "territory" of 
Yentry, "Dun Cais, Dun Aeda, and Dun Cerban," which were burned, 
with their inhabitants, " both dogs and men, both bowls and drinking- 
horns" ; 150 men garrisoned each fort. It vividly describes "the noise 
of the shields splitting, the clashing of the swords . . . the cries of the 
women and children, of the dogs and horses in the flames." This is very 
important, as illustrating the large population of an old caher. We also 
find small huts, probably dog-kennels in some of the Clare and Kerry 
forts, as will be seen lower down in our description. 

The main groups were described by George Du Noyer so. well and fully 


General Plan of Fahan Forts. 2 

in 1858, that we cannot do better than abstract his paper. 3 It was his good 
fortune in the summer of 1856, while engaged on the Geological Survey of 
Ireland, to come across this group of antiquities " 70 or 80 in number" 
(in the parishes of Yentry, Ballinvogher, and Drumquin), and occupying the 
gently sloping plateau along the base of Mount Eagle. An ancient bridle 
path winds along the slope of the hill. The remains occur principally 
in the townland of Pahan. Proceeding westward from the coastguard 
station of Yentry to a short distance south-east of Fahan, we arrive at a 
group of small cloghauns or beehive-shaped huts, close to which, but 
nearer to the sea, are two groups of gallauns (standing stones) which 
mark the eastern limit of the " city." 

DTJNBEG caher, or stone fort, lies due south of Eahan on the coast. 

1 Dr. Kuno Meyer's edition, pp. 5, 6. 

2 This plan only shows the ancient bridle path ; a new road, nearer the coast line, 
has been recently constructed. ' 

3 Archceological Journal, xv., p. i. My notes are initialled. 

JOUR. R.S.A.I., VOL. VII., 1'T. III., OTH 8EK. Y 


This remarkable stronghold has been formed by separating an angular 
headland from the main shore by a massive dry stone wall (G) from 1 5 feet to 
25 feet in thickness, and 200 feet long. It has near the middle a passage, 
roofed by flags, 3 feet 6 inches high, the sides inclining from 2 feet to 3 feet 
wide (A, B). The outer lintel is 7 feet long, and the passage widens inward, 
and is corbelled at the wider part. On the right hand, as we enter, is a 
guard-room (d) 10 feet x 6 feet, communicating with the passage by a low, 
square opening, opposite to which is a stone bench. A second and similar 
guard-room (e\ to the left of the entrance, opens into the area of the fort 
by a low door. The rampart has been strengthened by an extra face of 
masomy 4 feet deep and 30 feet long. In the thickness of the wall are 
two narrow passages, formerly covered, and its inner face recedes like steps. 
A large hut, now nearly defaced, stands inside, and there are traces of a 
wall along the west cliff (H) and the end of the headland, which is 90 feet 
above the sea. A series of three earthen mounds, with intervening fosses, 
have been formed across the headland outside the rampart. A path leads 
through them, and traces of stone gateways (x, M), flagged overhead, remain 
at each mound. At the second fosse was an underground chamber covered 
with flags (L). Two ancient boundary walls 1 run up Mount Eagle from 
opposite ends of the fort, enclosing a field called " Parcadoona." 

CAHEE (No. 3 of Du Noyer), a massive circular fort 75 feet in diameter, 
the wall 8 feet thick ; the doorway facing east, and 8 feet wide ; the 
lintels removed. Inside are two large cloghauns (the west 16 feet, and 
the east 17 feet in diameter, with a south-west doorway), connected by a 
passage. A small hut (/) lies south of the east chamber, and is con- 
nected with it. 

CAHERNAMACTIKECH "The fort of the wolves" (No. 7 Du Noyer). 
One of our most important forts, is from 95 feet to 100 feet diameter ; 2 its 
massive wall from 1 1 feet to 1 8 feet thick, nearly straight to the east. 
The gateway faced the east, and was of most singular construction, 5 feet 
wide outside, narrowing midway to less than 4 feet ; here several stones 
projected vertically from the walls of the passage, against which a movable 
door could be placed. The entrance leads into a courtyard 19 feet x 20 feet 
(d). Opposite is a narrow passage, flanked by huts 6 feet 6 inches square 
internally, with lofty domes (/). On the left, and close to the southern 
guard-house is a third hut, the interior 12 feet square (g). We now reach 
the central area ; the principal house (A) lies to the south-west against the 
rampart ; it is carefully built ; its door has large stone posts inside support- 
ing a lintel. The unusual feature of a small square recess appears in the 
wall to the right as you enter. 3 North of it lies a ruder cloghaun (), its 

1 The natives say that these enclosures on lonely hills were made by the Danes to 
apportion the heather, from which they made a heverage. T. J. W. 

2 Its plan, straight at one side and round at the other, like a " D," occurs in Caher- 
doonfergus, Fanygalvan, and other Clare forts. T. J. W. 

3 Such "ambries" occur, e.g., on Skellig, and at Ballinknockan Caher, near 
Ballinahow, on Mount Brandon. T. J. W. 



interior of peculiar plan, square to the west, rounded to the east, and with 
a remarkable door, one side projecting from, while the other is level with, 
the surface of the wall. The other huts were mere heaps of stones in 1 856. 
There are three narrow passages in the thickness of the wall in the north, 
west and southern segments, like those of Dunbeg, but flagged over ; the 
first is 40 feet long, the second 30 feet. The entrances are perfect, but the 
ends have collapsed. The southern has no apparent door, and has fallen 
in at both ends. 1 A small circular cell (n) opens in the exterior face of the 
southern segment. It commands a fine view of Dingle Bay, Valentia, 
and the Iveragh Mountains. This is another unusual feature in this 
remarkable fort. 2 

CAHER (No. 8) about 100 feet externally ; the wall from 10 feet to 
14 feet thick at S.W. 3 The gateway is still perfect, 4 feet 6 inches to 
3 feet 9 inches wide, flagged overhead, and leading directly into a guard 
chamber 8 feet 6 inches internally (d). Thence a narrow door leads into 
; the interior area; 50 feet from it against the S.W. rampart is a very 
perfect cloghaun with a narrow but high door (m). In the area is a 
group of huts with a little oval cell (g\ probably a dog kennel. A 
curious double hut with a common passage to the two chambers (o,p) 
lies north of this group. 

The limits of this description allow very short notice of the CLOGHAUN s. 
They can be located on the general map, and the plans of nine of the more 

; striking examples are given here, No. 1 (11 feet internally), like so many 
of these buildings (Gallerus, e.g.), is built of rough flags of greenish grey 

; and brown grit stones. It is divided into two rooms. No. 2 (15 feet 

>. internally), with small annexe to the side. No. 4. A singular double 
cloghaun, oval in plan ; wall 1 1 feet thick ; outer chamber spade-shaped, 16 
feet x 13 feet; the inner is circular in plan, 10 feet internally. Like so 

i many of these structures it is only a few feet in height. No. 5 has similar 
rooms ; the "round room" 16 feet; the central passage 12 feet long; the 
second room 16 feet x 14 feet. No. 6. A small hut, with a still smaller 
sleeping chamber, vaulted over. No 9 closely resembles No. 2. No. 10. -V- 
A double cloghaun ; the west room circular, with a small sleeping roon^ 
like in No. 6. The eastern hut has two rooms " B-like " in plan ; a; 
spiral flight of steps ran up the dome of the western hut, and it had a sort 
of porch of flagstones ; a sou terrain, not shown on the plan, runs from i 
"n" to "d." 

CAHER-FADA-AN-DORUIS. " The long fort of the doors " (No. 11) is not 

a fort, but a triple cloghaun of very singular type ; the eastern and central 

X_ / 

1 It may be a continuation of the western, and closed when the largest cloghuun was 
built. T. J. W. 

y It is now, except two huts, miserably defaced, the gate and passages in the wall 
being no longer distinguishable. T. J. W. 

3 Caherdonnell, of Windele's " Notes and Sketches." R.I.A. Library. T. J. W. 

Plans of Cloghauns at Fahan. (From Du Noyer's Puper:) 


cells are circular (13 feet and 18 feet internally, connecting passages each 
8 feet long.) The west cell is straight to the east and rounded to the west 
(10 feet x 14 feet). The outer door faces S.E., leading obliquely into the 
central hut, while a flight of steps ran spirally round the central dome as 
in No. 10. 1 The last feature is repeated in the double cloghaun No. 12, 
which also possesses the one existing window in the Fahan group. No. 
13 is circular, set in the angle of an ancient boundary wall, and having a 
concentric enclosure 1 1 feet out from the hut. All the other cloghauns 
west of this past Slea Head to Coumenoole are simple circular buildings 
which Du Noyer did not consider as calling for special notice. 

DUNMORE Fort ends the series of antiquities. It consists simply of a 
nearly obliterated fosse and massive line of earthwork 1300 feet long 
across the neck of a headland. So far Du Noyer's description. 

Sir Thomas N. Deane, in a Paper read before the Royal Irish Academy, 2 
February, 1893, gives a list of the names in use for these forts and huts. 
Among others, "the city of the course field," "the cell of the old 
inhabitant," "the cell of the big family," "the city of the glen of the 
slope," "the city on the big point," "the city of the western coast," 
"the fortifications of the rock," "the lair of the hare," and "the 
structure overlooking the other forts." He describes a subterranean 
passage 59 feet long in the path across the fosses of Dunbeg, and several 
of the cloghauns and cells, which in three instances contained skulls and 
bones, which crumbled into fine dust as soon as the outer air reached them. 
It is to be regretted that he gives us no plans of the locality to enable us 
to follow out his explorations. His plan of Dunbeg fort differs remark- 
ably from that of Du Noyer, both being very incorrect as to scale and 
details. We hope soon to publish more accurate plans. 


The Islands, " the nearest parish to America," have yet to be properly 
explored and described by archaeologists ; they are twelve in number. 
Inismore, or Great Blasquet, a mountainous and picturesque island, has 
the ruins of a very ancient church and graveyard. 

On Inisvickillane, the most southern of the islands, there are the ruins 
of a church and nearly perfect cloghaun, with the foundations of several 
others. Smith (" History of Kerry," p. 183), in describing Inismackeilane, 
says that in its ancient chapel were an old stone chalice and a baptismal 
font, near which is "a small stone cell or hermitage, being an arch of 
stone neatly put together, without any mortar or cement, which admits of 
no rain through its roof," and compares it to a ruinous one at Fane 
(Fahan), and to the oratory of Gallerus. There is a view of a cell (by 
Du Noyer) in Rev. Mr. O'Hanlon's " Life of St. Brendan." 3 On the 10th 

1 DuNoyer's plan is too symmetrical, and omits a small oblong cell attached to the 
S.E. face, and connected by a slab passage to the main door. 

2 See Proc. E.I. A., vol. iii., third series (1892-1896), p. 100; and our Journal, 
1894, p. 92. 

3 "Lives of Irish Saints," vol. v., p. 413. 


Skellig Michael Ruined Church of St. Michael. 

Skellig Michael Front of Cells, looking North. 


of September, 1588, the Armada ship " Our Lady of Rosary," of 100O 
tons, was wrecked in the Blasket Sound ; among the many who perished 
was the Prince of Askule, illegitimate son of King Philip of Spain. 


The voyage from Dingle to Skellig, in fair weather, is one of great 
beauty. It is true that on the visit of our Society to the Rock in 1891, 
the storm and great Atlantic rollers, 1 acting on a heavy gunboat, left few 
of oui- party able to boast that they had defied the sea gods, but even then 
as the mists parted and the great jagged peaks became visible over the 
rough waves to the south, there were few that did not rapidly recover 
and begin to enjoy the impressive view, which was soon lit up by glorious 
sunshine, the clouds being literally blown up off the mountains, and the 
pinnacles and peaks of the Skelligs, thrown out in .strong light and 
shadow, the dazzling spray and great green billows rushing round their 
base. "We first pass the most fantastic rock of Little Skellig, a breeding- 
ground of the gannet; it has a natural arch, like a flying buttress, so- 
vast that a village could stand beneath its shelter were it "paved" with 
solid earth, and not with the churning and thundering- waves. From it 
is a very impressive view of the Great Skellig, like some huge cathedral, 
its spires rising over six and seven hundred feet, respectively, above the 
sea. Passing into the smoother water, under its lee, we see the round 
roofs of its cells, 540 feet above us, clinging to the ridge like swallows* 
nests, the most western of Christ's fortresses in the ancient world. It 
was dedicated to St. Michael, as if the storm-swept peak filled the monks 
with greater dread than usual of his vanquished opponent, "the Prince 
of the power of the air " ; so also did their brethren dedicate the sea- 
girt rocks of St. Michael, off the coasts of Normandy and Cornwall, to 
the warlike Archangel. Its history is brief and vague ; an ancient 
tradition made it the burial-place of the drowned Ir, son of Milesius; 
another told how the fleets of Daire, on their way to Yentry, " the slanting,, 
full-sailing ships, went along . . . until they took harbour ... at the 
green rock that is called Sgellig Michil to-day " ; and^ history related how 
in 823, Eitgall, one of its monks, earned off by the Norsemen, was- 
" miraculously " saved only to perish of hunger and thirst. Here also, 
and not at Scilly, the heroic Norse king, Olaf Tiyggveson, was baptized. 

The names of a few ecclesiastics Suibne, Eitgall, 823, Blathmhac,. 
950, and Aed, 1044, occur in our records; and tradition said that when 
St. Malachy O'Morgair was driven out of the monastery of Bangor he took 
refuge at Skellig, under the protection of King Cormac of Munster. If 
the Ibrach, of the life of St. Bernard, be Iveragh, this is not improbable, 
but there is not a particle of historic evidence for the statement. Readers- 

1 Even the prosaic "State Papers" speak of this coast "where the ocean sea 
raiseth such billows as can hardly be endured by the greatest ships," January, 1584. 


will remember the beautiful picture of such a life in Denis Florence- 
Mac Carthy's " Saint Brendan " : 

" I grew to manhood by the western wave, 

Among the mighty mountains on,, the shore ; 
My bed, the rock within some natural cave, 
My food, whate'er the sea or seasons bore. 

And there I saw the mighty sea expand, 

Like Time's unmeasured and unfathomed waves ; 
One with its tide-marks on the ridgy strand, 
The other with its line of weedy\graves. 

And, as beyond the outstretched wave of Time, 

The eye of Faith a brighter land may meet ; 
So did I dream of some more sunny clime, 

Beyond the waste of waters at my feet." 

In .softer times the rock was used as a place of penitence and pilgrim- 
age rather than a permanent monastery, and its name and reputation 
were transferred to Ballinskelligs on the mainland. A little cove, ending 
in a vast and gloomy cavern, and guarded by a tower-like rock, forms the 
landing-place, only to be used in favourable states of the wind, for the 
waves often rise and fall for 20 feet up the rock. The old approach was 
by more than 600 steps l up the steep cliff, but this was broken when 
a road cut in the cliff, and leading to the lighthouse, was made by the 
Lighthouse Board. "We go along this easy path for about half way round 
the island. Then we turn up a flight of steps, of rude weatherbeaten 
blocks, laid in the sea pinks, which leads us to a green valley, lying 
between the peaks, and called " Christ's saddle," 422 feet over the sea; 
from it another ancient stairway leads by the giddy edge of the shore- 
cliff, and up through a cleft, to the eastern peak. From this point is 
a most noble view of the " spit," or western summit, which like the 
whole island, bristles with strange spikes of rock. One pinnacle, on the 
southern face of the bluff, seems to have been roughly shaped into a great 
cross. Miss Stokes, who describes this place most vividly, alludes to it a& 
having " all the effect of a monument ; now, like the statue of an archer, 
and again, . . . rising black and rugged, somewhat in the f orm of a rude and 
time worn cross." Far below we see the whirling sea-birds, and the foam 
thundering and climbing up the crags, and falling back in cascades and 
threads of silver. 

At last the path brings us to a glorious view of Little Skellig and the 
distant coast-line, and to diy stone walls, to green enclosures, and a 
vaulted passage through which we reach the deserted little "city of 
God." It seems so very lonely, so very far from even that quiet world r 
whose blue grey and purple headlands bound the eastern view, that 

1 Lord Dunraven gives 620 and 670. 


it takes little stretch of the imagination to see what a city of refuge 
such a place must have been to ardent self-conscious men fleeing from the 
temptations of the great cities and decaying civilization of the old world, 
and even from the missionary labours of men of the type of Columbanus, 
to fight with such sin as they brought with them, unstrengthened by the 
vil outside them. 

Along a ledge, their tops level with a terrace wall on another ridge, 
stand five cloghauns of dry stone, in wonderful preservation, the roofs, as 
usual, corbelled but not arched. These cloghauns are oval or round in 
external plan, except the north-eastern one, which is square. All their 
rooms, however, are rectangular, or with only very slightly rounded 
corners ; some have small square openings, probably to act as chimneys. 
The first, or southern cell, is two stories high; it has a paved floor, a 
window over its entrance ; a double lintel, as at Staigue fort ; and a 
cross, inlaid with white stones, on the outer face. The second is of larger 
and better masonry ; some of the stones are dressed to the curve. The 
third has a floor, two steps above the ground level, and a covered drain 
runs through it. The fourth has two small recesses, about 9 inches 
square in its inner wall ; it has a semicircular step, and a larger door 
than the others. The fifth is square below, as already stated ; it has 
a row of stone pegs, as at Gallerus, probably for book-satchels, and three 
small cupboards ; its door has two lintels. The sixth has been embedded 
in a modern wall. A rude bronze crucifix, with crown and kilted 
tunic, about 4 inches high, was found among the huts by the light- 
house workmen, who in 1838 used the larger huts for powder magazines, 
and built some objectionable modern walls. On the second terrace 
we find, first the oratory of St. Michael, the only mortar-built struc- 
ture in the monastery, which has certainly more afiinities to the 
village of huts, which formed an eastern "laura," than to the mediaeval 
claustral abbeys. The church is in great decay, much of its south wall 
having fallen down the slope. The east window remains perfect (the 
interior with a flat lintel, the light with a semicircular head) ; the north 
door also remains. Giraldus Cambrensis tells us that, at the end of the 
twelfth century, a hollow stone, near this church, used to be filled every 
day by a miracle, with wine for the Sacrament. 

North-east of St. Michael's, which it almost touches, and at a slightly 
lower level, is an older oratory of dry stone. It has a large western door, 
level with the top of which is an offset running round the building. 
The roof, of the inverted-boat shape, is very rudely built when compared 
with Gallerus, or the Cloghaun na carraiga in Aran. A cross of white 
stones is inlaid above the door. There is a small east window. 

Beneath the east gable is a tiny cemetery, its rude little crosses and 
cross-scribed slabs being bedded in a beautiful cushion of sea pink; 
while at the north-eastern end is a cell against the higher ground, 
its roof partly fallen. The second ten-ace has, besides these buildings, a 

Skellig Michael Small Oratory. 

bkullig Michael Great Oratory and Cross. 


rudely-shaped high, cross and two wells ; the third, and lowest, terrace 
has no houses, but several enclosures, and is called " the monks' garden." 
The cashel wall is of excellent masonry, quite comparable with Staigue 
fort, it is of dry stone, has the usual batter, and clings to the edge of the 
steep ; the upper part was partly relaid by the workmen, employed by the 
Board of Public Works in 1891, at the time of our Society's visit. The 
long stones projecting from its face have been supposed to have been 
used by the ancient builders, either to support a scaffold, or even to stand 
upon, while building the outer face of the wall; but, as it was quite as 
easy, and much safer, to build the outer walls from inside, and the cliff 
cahers of Clare show no such spikes, we may suspend judgment, noting 
that the first cloghaun has similar stones projecting from its roof. The space 
enclosed by this wall is about 300 feet long and 100 feet wide. On the ridge 
of rock above the monastery, and on the very edge of a sheer descent of 
.some 600 feet, some pious hand, in ancient times, has engraved a cross. 
Climbing over the cashel wall at the N.-E. hut, we find a stone bench, 
whence we get at once the most comprehensive view of the monasteiy and 
the widest view of the Kerry coasts, from the Blaskets and Corcaguiny to 
Slieve Miskish in Cork, with Bolus Head, Valentia, and Puffin Island, 
and, in the middle of the sea, the foam-girt Little Skellig. Below us, on 
a bold spur of rock, projecting over a precipitous slope, is a little oratory, 
like the one in the cashel, but somewhat smaller, and with a singular east 
window, the breadth far exceeding the height. 

Few, but the most adventurous and the surest-footed, ascend the great 
peak. Dr. C. Smith in his " History of Kerry" (1756) tells how the 
pilgrims squeezed through a hole in the rock, like a chimney shaft, called 
"the needle's eye." The pilgrim then reached a sort of ridge, narrow 
and dizzily sloping down to the sea at both sides ; at its farther end was 
.a sloping rock about 12 feet high, called the "stone of pain" ; it could 
only be surmounted by means of shallow holes cut in it for the hands and 
feet, to the difficulty being added the very, apparent danger of slipping, 
when, if one missed the " isthmus," one must fall down either precipice 
into the sea far below. The rest of the way, though narrow, is less 
difficult; you first reach a "station" called the "eagle's nest," a few 
steps lead up to it, and the view of the sea is most tremendous and awe- 
inspiring. The last station is called the "spindle"; it is a rock pro- 
jecting from the summit; the path is only 2 feet wide; the pilgrims 
edge along it to an incised cross near the end ; and, repeating a pater 
noster, their penance is concluded. The " burial-place," which the 
Ordnance Survey marked near the summit of the Spit, is really an ancient 
oratory. Parts of its S. and "W. walls, one door-jamb, and a cross 
remain. 1 

1 ' In the Papal Taxation of 1302-6, we find " ecclesia de Rupe Beati Michaelis, 
val. 20s." 



Among the curious traditions connected with the rock was one that 
permitted marriages to be celebrated on it during Lent. This originated 
satirical rhyming leaflets called " Skellig Lists, " "the poetasters en- 
deavouring, in the most absurd manner, to join the most incongruous 
pairs together." The custom has gradually died away since 1840, 
the "List" being at one time sold in large numbers each Shrove 
Tuesday. 1 

Lady Chatterton tells two legends of the rock. Some monks from 
the mainland sought on it refuge from the Danes. Their provisions 
exhausted, they crowded round their Abbat in despair, but he cheered 

Staigue Fort Entrance. 

them, and reproved their want of faith. Exhausted by fatigue and 
hunger all fell asleep, and lo ! in the morning, the rock was waving 
with corn, and heaped with food and implements of husbandry. " One 
of the old legends "is " that every madman in Ireland, if left to himself, 
would immediately direct his course thither. Of the probability of this 
the reader is the best judge ! " 2 

1 See Miss Hickson's " Notes" in our Journal, 1889, p. 144. 

2 " Rambles," vol. i., p. 304-308. She surely confuses the last legend with that 
of Glen-na-gealt. 



One of the most perfect and interesting cahers 1 of our island stands 
.About a mile and a-half north of the Kenmare river in a recess nearly 
^surrounded by lofty hills, opening on the south so as to give a beautiful 
distant view across the bay to the distant peaks of Slieve Miskish. 

It stands, like so many similar structures, on a low knoll a few 
hundred feet above the sea. Being so completely dwarfed by the 
enormous amphitheatre of hills, it often causes a short-lived disappoint- 
.ment when first seen ; but, on nearer approach, its perfection, hoary 
antiquity, 2 and remarkable features, replace this first feeling with one of 
the deepest interest. 

In what was practically the dawn of Irish descriptive archeology, 
about 1787, General Yallancey, who was then conducting a military 
survey, sent Mr. W. Eyers, one of his assistants, to survey this part of 
the country. Byers marked the building as a stone fort in his note-book 
With the owner of Staigue, Mr. P. C. Bland, of Derryquin, lies the credit 
of first calling public attention to its actual peculiarities. 

Staigue Fort. 

It had been for many years a " lion " in the Bland family, and they 
had rescued it, about 1781, fronvthe base uses of a pound. The peasantry 
called it " Stig " or " Steague," which was understood to mean " steps,' 
and " Staig an air," " the windy house," or, as some of the learned ren- 
dered it, " Temple of the Father." 

Mr. Pelham made a careful plan and perspective view which he in- 
tended for a history of Kerry. Seeing no chance of carrying out this 
design, he sent his drawings to Yallancey ; the latter, however, states that 

1 For the chief notices of Staig fort, see General Vallancey's "Account of the 
'Ancient Stone Theatre." Trans. E.LA.,\o\. xiv. (1821), p. 17, by F. C. Bland. 
Lady Chatterton's " Rambles in South of Ireland," vol. i., p. 296. Lord Dunraven's 

" Notes on Irish Architecture," vol. i., p. 24. . . 

2 C. P. Kains Jackson's "Our Ancient Monuments" (Preface by Sir John Lubbpck), 
p. 89. "This comparatively elaborate military erection we are inclined to attribute 
to a date little earlier than the tenth century." The term "military " rather begs 
the question. The views as to the date of our cahers are considered in our Journal, 
1896, pp. 147-149. 


Staigue was visited by Messrs. Leslie Poster and J. T. Eochfort, Commis- 
sioners of Bogs, and was planned by the latter in September, 1811, with 
some assistance from Alex. Mmmo, C.E. 

Vallancey published the result of their labours and his own vast, 
though fanciful, erudition in a little book, " Account of the Ancient 
Stone Theatre" (1812). He supposed it to be a place for tournaments, 1 
the " Eeis or Irish Eajah " sitting under awnings on top of the wall, and 
the two "mediators or bottle-holders" retiring for reflection into the two 
small cells. Mr. Nimmo was equally certain that it was an astronomical 
observatory, while Mr. Bland recognized it as a fort, and suggested that 
it was made as an emporium in connexion with certain traces of mining 
on the adjacent hillsides. Bland's very excellent Paper was read before 
the Eoyal Irish Academy on November 19th, 1821, and is a refreshing 
contrast to the loose and imperfect descriptions of other archaeologists of 
that day, even if we cannot accept all his theories. 

Staigue Port is a nearly circular caher built of schistose slate, the blocks 
laid as headers, and their joints closely packed with spawls of similar 
stone, to which the slight settling of the wall has given great solidity . 
The masonry is not as large or regular as the forts of Galway and Clare, 
built from the nearly rectangular blocks of the mountain limestone. The 
face of the wall shows a slight S-curve, not a single convex one as at Duns 
JEnghus and Oghil in Aran and Glenquin in Clare. 2 This, probably, is 
caused by the small and irregular filling of the main wall slipping down 
and bulging out the lower part ; the fact noted by Lord Dunraven of the 
sloping inwards of stones of both faces, and the curious distortion in one 
of the upright joints, equally suggest that this strange feature is acci- 
dental. The outside face batters at least 2 feet 6 inches, and the inner 
3 feet 10 inches, reducing the wall from 13 feet 6 inches at the base to 
about 7 feet at the summit. The height of the rampart varies from 10 feet 
to 1 8 feet ; and there is an eave or cornice of flags 3 feet long, where it 
remains more perfect (to the north-west), and a fosse 26 feet wide and 
about 6 feet deep round its foot. 

The gateway is very perfect though coarsely built. It is 6 feet 2 inches- 
high, and tapers from 5 feet 2 inches at the base to 4 feet 3 inches at the 
top, the outer lintel being relieved by a second one placed above it. The 
main one is 5 feet 1 inches long, 9 inches thick, and 2 inches deep ; the 
inner, 6 feet 3 inches long. The passage is roofed by three lintels ; it is 
of unusual type, narrowing at 6 feet inwards from 5 feet 2 inches to 
3 feet 10 inches, and then abruptly widening to 4 feet 9 inches, with 
parallel sides. 

Thus far, the fort, save for its excellent preservation, is of the ordinary 
type, but inside it is most exceptional. It consists of a nearly circular 

1 This is a favourite theory. It seems to have been started in White's "Tour in 
Scotland," 1769, but occurs in local legend from Moghane, county Clare, to Germany, 
and apparently Bohemia (Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., 1868-1870, pp. 58, &c.j. 

2 See our Journal, 1890-1891, p. 579 ; 1895, pp. 255, 256 ; and 1896, p. 365. 

JOUK. U.S. A. I., VOL. VII., PT. III., 5lH SEH Z 


court (89 feet north and south and 88 feet east and west). The walls are 
divided into ten bays by flights of steps crossing each other like an X. 
Many of these steps have gone ; some are 1 foot 4 inches long and 1 foot 
3 inches square ; the flights are irregular, in some cases commencing from 
the ground level, in others from 3 feet above it. There are two oval cells 
in the thickness of the wall the one near the gateway has a door 2 feet 

3 inches by 3 feet and is 10 feet by 4 feet and over 6 feet high; the 
second has a door 2 feet 9 inches wide by 3 feet and measures 8 feet by 

4 feet, the roofs being corbelled. 

About 100 yards south-south-west from the caher were some remains 
of an oval building about 15 feet in diameter, and 50 yards farther in the 
same direction was a similar one, the walls only a few feet high. These 
recall the little cloghaun sites near the caher in the Deer Park, county 
Sligo, and Cahercommane and Cahercottine on the edge of the Burren of 


THE extensive seaboard from Kenmare's beautiful bay to Cork's famed 
harbour consists of a series of bluff, bleak, and lofty headlands, diversified 
by outjutting promontories (each with its much-needed lighthouse, often 
flanked by an old castle), and intersected by numerous bays and harbours, 
such as Dunmanus and Bantry Bays, Crookhaven, Baltimore Harbour, 
Castlehaven, Grlandore, Rosscarbery, Clonakilty, and Courtmacsherry 
Bays, and Kinsale Harbour. 

This lengthy line of abrupt rocky coast forms the first land sighted by 
vessels from across the Atlantic, and few are the points along its area 
that have not been, at one time or other, the scene of a shipwreck, often 
accompanied by the total loss of those on board, so destructive are the 
western gales that rage over its exposed surface every succeeding winter. 
Once entered, these bays and harbours are, for the most part, safe and 
commodious, but, with the exception of Bantry Bay, and occasionally 
Crookhaven, no merchant-ship ever anchors in them now ; and were it 
not for the fishing-boats, including French, Scotch, and Manxmen, which 
crowd Baltimore, Glandore, Union Hall, Crookhaven, and Kinsale, 
more especially during the mackerel season, all these harbours would be 
absolutely deserted, except, perhaps, by a stray collier. Yet, up to 
'the last century, each seemingly had its share of more or less legiti- 
mate commerce with France and Spain, exporting thither wool and 
"Wild Geese," and receiving back contraband cargoes of tobacco, 
brandy, and wine. 

1 By James Coleman, Member. 


Till the last year or so most of these southern harbours were inacces- 
sible to the tourist by rail or public coach, and much still remains to be 
done in this direction ; yet no more delightful tour by land or water 
could be undertaken than coasting from Kenmare to Cork, or vice versa, 
visiting each of the above-named harbours and inlets (of which the most 
beautiful and romantic are Glandore, Castletownsend, and Lough Hyne), 
with their half -decaying old towns, rude castles, ruined abbeys, picturesque 
islands, and open beaches, with the additional attraction of lake and 
mountain in the not distant background. 

To the antiquary this Cork-Kerry seaboard offers a no less attractive 
and fertile field of research, if only as regards its numerous prehistoric 
stone remains. The history, legends, and antiquities of this portion of 
the county Cork a county which Sir Walter Scott has somewhere said 
possesses more material for romance than all Scotland have, as yet, 
been but superficially dealt with; but with the recurrent visits of a 
competent antiquarian body, much might easily be done towards eliciting 
a fuller and more satisfactory knowledge, than is at present available, of 
its archaeological relics and historic past. 

BANTE.Y BAY, the finest bay in Ireland, with scenery to match, is now 
accessible by rail, and visited annually by our men-of-war for manoeuvring 
purposes. It is exactly a century since the French fleet arrived here 
with troops for the invasion of Ireland ; but England's natural allies, the 
winds and waves, being against them, they failed to effect a landing, and 
soon set sail for la belle France, with the exception of one vessel that got 
wrecked, and another, the " Tartare," which was taken, as a prize of war, 
into Cork Harbour. For his services at this critical period, Mr. White, 
a local landlord, was created Lord (afterwards Earl of) Bantry, a title 
that has recently become extinct. At the head of this bay is the well- 
known beautiful inlet of Glengariff. 

Near Bantry town are the remains of a Franciscan Abbey. A steamer 
plies in summer from Bantry to CASTLETOW^-BEREHAVEisr, at the mouth of 
the bay, a town whose safety and name are due to the adjacent island of 

A couple of miles west of Castletown-Berehaven by land, but nearer 
it by water, are the remains of the old CASTLE OF Dinoor, close to which 
is a splendid modern mansion bearing the same name. Old Dunboy 
Castle was that whose famous siege, in 1602, narrated in detail in the 
Pacata Hibernia, forms one of the most memorable incidents of its kind 
in Irish history. 

Dunboy Castle, with several other castles which stood in this neigh- 
bourhood, belonged, with the land all round them, to the once powerful 
O'Sullivans Beare, one of whom, Philip, is still remembered as the author 
of a Latin history of Ireland. The gallant retreat, after the fall of 
Dunboy, of the senior members of his family, with many of their 
followers, from their ancestral lands here to the north of Ireland, whence 

Z 2 


they ultimately emigrated to Spain, is one of the most thrilling episodes 
in our national history. The later story of Morty 0' Sullivan and the 
Puxleys of Dunboy, a very different one to the historian Froude's version 
of it, has been told minutely in the Society's Journal by the late 
Mr. Fetherstonhaugh. Near Dunboy are the Allihies copper-mines, to 
which the Lavallen-Puxleys owed their wealth. 

/ To the towns of SCHTJLL and SKIBBEREEN, further east, are attached 
melancholy memories, due to the numbers of famine-victims who died 
there in 1847. BALTIMORE, now known as a fishing-harbour, and for its 
piscatorial school, founded by the late Father Davis, and fostered by the 
generosity of the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, was originally, like Bandon 
and Youghal, an exclusively English colony ; and when sacked by the 
Alge lines, in 1631, all the prisoners whom they captured, with one or two 
exceptions, bore English names. In Baltimore is an old castle of the' 
O'Driscolls, to whom this district belonged a freebooting sept, that the 
citizens of "Waterford more than once attempted to put down. Opposite 
Baltimore is INISHERKIN ISLAND, with its well-preserved Franciscan 
Abbey. Further south is Cape Clear Island, and more seaward still 
Fastnet Rock, the signal-station for inward-bound Atlantic steamers. 
CASTLETOWNSEND derives its name from the Townsend family, whose 
history figures prominently in that of the county Cork for the past two 
centuries or so. ROSSCARBERY, which has now little signs of antiquity 
about it, forms the site of one of the oldest episcopal sees in Ireland, and 
still retains its old cathedral, St. Fauchnan's, though modernised almost 
beyond recognition. The formation of a bar at the entrance to CLONA- 
KILTY HARBOUR has deprived it of what little commercial importance it 
once possessed; yet the little town seems a fairly thriving one. Five 
miles south of Clonakilty is RATHBARRY CASTLE. COURTMACSHERRY BAY 
further up, being now reached by rail, promises to become a favourite 
watering-place. At its head stands the still fine ruins of TIMOLEAGUE 
ABBEY, a Franciscan house, whose history is well known, near which 
stands an old castle (White's). Stretching out some miles between 
Courtmacsherry and Kinsale Harbour is the OLD HEAD OF KINSALE, a 
bold promontory terminating with a lighthouse and signal-station. Far 
in, on its Courtmacsherry side, the large steamer "City of Chicago" 
was totally wrecked five or six years ago. Three old castles, of various 
styles and dates, stand not far from the " Old Head," and were evidently 
erected to guard it from invasion by land. 

Thanks to the valuable " Council-Books of Kinsale and Youghal," 
so ably edited, and spiritedly published, by the late Dr. Caulfield, of 
Cork, all that is important or noteworthy in the history of these two 
ancient seaports is duly chronicled and preserved. KINSALE, though 
much of it is in a tumble-down condition, bears evidence of its former 
importance, and is still a most interesting place to visit, with its narrow, 
half -foreign looking streets, and fine old church of St. Multose (of which 


Guy & Co., Cork, have published an excellent history by its former 
vicar, the Rev. Mr. Darling), and the remains of Charles Port, in the 
middle of its winding harbour. The most famous event in Kinsaler 
history was its occupation by the Spaniards, and its subsequent siege, 
followed by their defeat, together with their Irish allies, by the English 
forces, under the Lord Deputy, in 1601. To commemorate their victory 
over the Spaniards at Kinsale, the English soldiers, out of their arrears 
of pay, commendably subscribed the sum of 1800 to buy books to 
furnish the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Kinsale's former im- 
portance as a naval and commercial port may be gathered from the 
fact that, at one time, it imported more tobacco than any other place 
in Ireland. The next harbour to Kinsale is Cork. 


THE rugged and uninviting aspect of the coast approaching Cork Harbour 
tends to add to the feelings of pleasure one experiences when, after round- 
ing Roche's Point Lighthouse and passing through its narrow entrance, 
guarded on both sides by the steep, fortified headlands of Carlisle and 
Camden, this noble expanse of water, divided into an outer and inner 
harbour by the islands of Spike, Rocky, and Haulbowline, is to be seen 
spreading its broad bosom in a sweep of seven miles, encircled by green 
hills, picturesquely dotted over with white mansions and villages ; whilst 
conspicuous in the back ground formed by the Great Island, rises' Queens- 
town in tiers of terraces, right from the water's edge. 

Prom its size, safety, scenery, and situation, Cork Harbour is admit- 
tedly regarded as one of the finest in the world ; but this pre-eminence can 
hardly be said to extend to its historical associations. These, though 
numerous and varied, are mainly of a maritime character, and do not em- 
brace any of those momentous events bearing on Ireland's national history, 
euch as are imperishably linked with localities like Limerick, London- 
deny, Kinsale, and Bantry Bay. On the other hand, there is scarcely a 
type of Irish antiquities, Pagan or Christian, that is not to be found in its 
immediate vicinity, including cromlechs, raths, tumuli, standing- stones, 
kitchen middens, magical cow-tracks, ogham-stones, a round tower and 
pre-reformation cathedral (at Cloyne), holy wells, early churches, ruined 
abbeys, and, most numerous of all, old castles. 

Cork Harbour takes its name from Cork City, ten miles further up, 
which was founded in the sixth century by St. Finbar, where the spread- 

1 By James Coleman, Member. 


ing Lee had formed the immense marsh that gave its Irish cognomen 
Corcach to the new city. Anglicised into Corke, it was only in the last 
century that the final e was dropped, and the name of both city and har- 
bour written as it now is. 

But long before the flaxen-haired saint had erected his church and 
abbey, round which the future city was to spring up far back, in fact, in 
the mythical period of Ireland's histoiy Cork Harbour is found to figure ; 
for Keating tells us that in the year of the world 2859, on its largest island, 
thence named Ardnemedh (upon which Queenstown now stands), died of 
the plague with some thousands of his followers, Nernedh, the leader of 
the second colony from afar that sought so adventurously to people what 
till then was uninhabited Ireland. Whether this ill-fated band had just 
arrived, or were about to quit the harbour, is not quite evident. Nothing 
is known locally of Nemedh ; but traces of pagan graves and dim traditions 
of a remote battle fought there still exist in the eastern part of the Great 
Island ; and it was doubtless over the remains of some such great chieftain 
of old was first piled up the large mound or tumulus now hidden away 
amongst the trees on the top of Currabinny Hill, that well-wooded head- 
land which juts into the harbour between Camden Fort and Spike 

From ]S"emedh to St. Finbar a complete blank exists as regards the 
history of Cork Harbour ; but one might well suppose that it had its full 
share in those daring predatory expeditions of the pagan Irish to Britain 
and the Continent, whence they brought back slaves and other spoils, to 
one of which is due St. Patrick's first connexion with Ireland. Of this 
saint, a local legend tells us that he crossed over that part of the Harbour 
known as "the East Perry," and bestowed upon it a protective 

The fame of the Abbey- School of Cork, and of other kindred institu- 
tions in Ireland, brought over in the sixth century to this Harbour a party 
of fifty noble Romans in pursuit of that holiness and learning then so promi- 
nently associated with Ireland ; whilst later on, by means of the traffic 
that existed between Cork and Prance in the time of the Merovingian 
kings, possibly passed over to the Continent some of those Irish saints and 
missionaries whose footsteps in Italy and Prance have been so admirably 
traced out of late by our distinguished member, Miss Stokes. 

The early part of the ninth century saw the first arrival here of the 
devastating Danes, who continued to repeat their dreaded visits, sacking, 
burning, and destroying everything they came across, until at length, 
about the end of the tenth century, they settled down in Cork, and helped 
to give it, in common with their countrymen at Limerick, "Waterford, and 
Dublin, that commercial character these cities have since continued to 
possess. The names of the three villages on Cork Harbour, Crosshaven, 
Whitegate, and Ringaskiddy, are obviously of Danish derivation ; and to 
the Danes is attributed the origin of the ancient custom of " Throwing 


the Dart," whereby the Mayor of Cork still asserts triennially what is 
now little else than a shadowy authority over the Port and Harbour. 
The Danes of Cork had evidently no great welcome for their Norman 
kinsmen who arrived in this neighbourhood in the twelfth century, for 
they despatched from the harbour a flotilla to attack Raymond Le Gros 
on his way thither from Waterford. This, however, met with such a 
disastrous defeat at his hands, that we hear nothing more of their anti- 
ISTorman exploits. 

Granted by Henry II. to Eobert Fitzstephen, and by him bequeathed 
to his nephew, Eobert de Bam, to the latter's descendants have ever since 
belonged most of the land adjoining the harbour, notably the Great Island 
(otherwise called Barrymore Island), near which, at Fota Island, its 
present chief proprietor, Mr. A. H. Smith-Barry, M. P., has his resi- 

In the thirteenth century, wheat, we find, was exported hence to 
Bristol, and corn to France for the support of the English army, then in 
Gascony ; and a ship named the " Gundewyn " having arrived in the har- 
bour, being somehow suspected of hostile intent, was arrested, but released 
upon her owner proving to be the then Earl of Pembroke. In the four- 
teenth century the citizens of Cork received the King's command to send 
warships fully manned and armed for service in the Scottish invasion. 
Writs were likewise addressed ordering the ships in the Port to be got ready 
with all haste to attack and destroy those belonging to the French king. 
The appointments of collectors, gangers, and other Customs officials about 
this time at Cork, point not only to a foreign trade, but also to the regular 
importation of wine. In the last decade of the fifteenth century, the 
famous Flemish impostor, PerkinWarbeck, arrived here with his master, a 
Breton merchant, and was persuaded, it is said, by the then Mayor of Cork, 
to give out that he was the Duke of York. When, subsequently, this 
pseudo-prince was hanged, Mayor Waters lost his head, and Cork City its 
Charter, for having abetted Warbeck. In the sixteenth century arrived 
here from Bordeaux, as Papal Legate, the Jesuit Father, Woulfe ; and a 
famous French pirate, named Peper, was brought in prisoner, with twenty 
of his crew. The Mayor of Cork complained about this time that the har- 
bour and coast were haunted and harassed by English adventurers. A 
great ship of Venice, laden with Malmsey wine and Spanish wool for 
London, having put in wind-bound (as countless vessels since have done), 
and a ship from Lisbon having also arrived with a cargo of wines, figs, and 
sugar, the local authorities seem to have thought that they had the right 
to seize their cargoes ; but happily for these ships' owners this project was 
not permitted. In this same century, the Commissioners appointed to 
govern Munster during the imprisonment of the Earl of Desmond arrived, 
and were conducted to Barryscourt Castle (which still stands about five 
miles from Queenstown), where they were entertained by Lord Barry- 
more ; and a fleet of six ships of war, commanded by Sir John Perrot, 

o O 
t) 5 

<= 4 

^ s 


arrived to defend the harbour from a threatened Spanish invasion. About 
this period also, one John Dee, wrote a tractate condemning the practice 
of allowing foreigners to fish at Cork, Kinsale, &c. He speaks of Black- 
rock, i. e. the river Lee, being then fished by 300 or 400 (?) sail of 
Spaniards and Frenchmen. (The French, however, come off the Cork 
coast till this day to catch mackerel.) We read of Cork ships being con- 
fiscated during this century at Lisbon ; whilst towards its close the famous 
Sir Francis Drake, pursued by a Spanish fleet, ran in and took his vessels, 
which mast have been very small ones, up the Carrigaline River to that 
pretty fiord-like part of it called since then " Drake's Pool." Unable to 
discover Drake's ships, the discomfited Spaniards soon sailed away. 

At the commencement of the seventeenth century, the question of 
fortifying the Harbour began to be considered, and the works on the left 
side of the entrance, begun in King Edward's time, perfected ; besides 
which a fort was ordered to be erected on Haulbowline Island. Soldiers, 
ships, and munitions of war now arrived in great numbers, to aid in the 
expulsion of the Spaniards from Kinsale. Sir Walter llaleigh, in its second 
decade, sailed from the harbour on his last and fatal voyage to the West 
Indies, whence he returned " broken in brain and heart, to die a traitor's 
death at Whitehall." In its fourth decade (A.D. 1636), the Algerian 
Corsairs who had infested the Irish coast for five years previously, put in 
to Cork Harbour ; but did no other harm than capturing a few poor fisher- 
men. Immediately after this, however, occurred their memorable " Sack " 
of Baltimore. In 1648 the Great Duke of Ormonde (then Marquis) landed 
here from France, whither he had gone to solicit supplies for King Charles 
the First. In the year following, Cromwell writes that his " sea-Generals 
Deane and Blake were both riding (at anchor) in Cork Harbour." It was 
about this time that the famous Quaker founder of Pennsylvania, William 
Penn, who possessed considerable property in the neighbourhood, is stated 
to have sailed hence for the New World. In March, 1689, a large 
French fleet arrived in the harbour in aid of James II. ; but soon after 
proceeded to Bantry Bay, whence it returned fruitless to France. On 
the 23rd of September, 1690, the Williamite fleet with (the afterwards 
famous Duke) Marlborough, came into Cork Harbour, captured the small 
fort at the entrance (near the present Carlisle fort), took possession of 
Haulbowline ; and the troops on board having disembarked, proceeded 
next day to Cork, Wurtemburg's army reaching the city by road from 
Cove. The capture of Cork and Kinsale following shortly afterwards, 
Marlborough returned to Cork Harbour, from whence he sailed with his 
fleet to Portsmouth. In 1691, thousands of Irish soldiers on the con- 
clusion of the famous siege and treaty of Limerick sailed from the Harbour 
to France, there, later on, to win renown as the Irish Brigade. Seven years 
later no less than seventy-five of the Catholic clergy (regulars) were 
shipped off from Cork, their passages and provisions having been paid for 
by Act of Parliament. 


With the eighteenth century the history of Cork Harbour might be 
said rightly to commence, for then only was it that its great superiority 
as one of the most spacious of havens for shipping, combined with its 
westernmost position right on the Atlantic, began to be fully recognised 
and utilised Kinsale, curious to say, whose snug little harbour is now 
unfrequented save by fishing- craft, having previously been the favourite 
Irish naval port. The long and costly wars in which England was con- 
tinuously engaged throughout this century with one or other of the con- 
tinental powers, France more especially, and also the struggle with her 
own revolted American colonies, now the United States, made it a matter 
of absolute necessity for her merchant fleets to sail in convoys, or in other 
words, protected by men-of-war, to avoid being captured by the enemy's 
ships, or the numerous daring and watchful privateers, French and Yankee, 
which at that time infested the Channel. One of these actually blockaded 
the harbour for three days in April, 1782, and took a vessel off Trabolgan 

In those eventful days, when steam-power, it will be remembered, was 
as yet unknown, the capacious harbour of Cork formed a most convenient 
rendezvous for these convoyed merchantmen, more particularly when out- 
ward bound, where they had the additional important advantage of being 
able to ship provisions such as butter, beef, and pork, then, as now, the 
staple exports of Cork. As many as 400 merchant ships have assembled 
in this way at one time in Cork Harbour during the last century, from 
the beginning of which till the downfall of Napoleon we meet with re- 
cord after record of the arrival and departure of convoys, squadrons of men- 
of-war, and regiments of soldiers, the sailing of British privateers, and the 
bringing in of captured foreign ones, with other still more valuable and 
coveted prizes of war. The Cork Corporation were remarkably generous 
at that time in conferring the freedom of their city in gold and silver 
boxes on the various admirals and captains of the men-of-war visiting the 
harbour, many of whom, by the way, were Irishmen. Other events, 
incidental to this stirring period, were the sailors' strikes, the smuggling 
feats, and pressgang raids we read of ; and the more tragic ones of mutinies, 
drowning accidents, and pest-stricken crews, several touching mementoes 
of which are to be seen in the old churchyard of Clonmel, a mile to the 
north of Queenstown. Chronicled also, in this century, we have the arrival 
of the " Red Head " Galley in 1765 with sixty French families on board ; 
the sailing of " The Two Friends " of Cork for Philadelphia, in 1783, with 
the first cargo legally allowed to be shipped from Ireland since the 
beginning of the American War ; and the arrival in the harbour in the 
same year of the " Enterprise " from Rhode Island, the first ship that flew 
there "The Stars and Stripes"; whilst in 1787 came the first Royal 
visitor to the harbour, in the person of H. R. H. Prince "William Henry, 
afterwards William IV., at that time an officer on board the " Pegasus" 
man-of-war. It was at this period, too, that the harbour was constituted 
a naval station, and a Port Admiral first hoisted his flag at Cove, now 


Queenstown, which, in this way steadily grew from the insignificant 
village such as it was midway in the last century, peopled only by sea- 
men and revenue officers, into something like the substantial town it now 
forms, with a population bordering on 10,000 souls. 

With the peace of 1815, and the temporary withdrawal of the admiral, 
came a deserted harbour and a lull in Cove's prosperity ; but with the 
advent of Free Trade began a new and healthier, if less brilliant, era